Category:Dukes of Berry
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Pages in category "Dukes of Berry"
The following 11 pages are in this category, out of 11 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dukes of Berry.|
The following 11 pages are in this category, out of 11 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Duke of Berry – The title of Duke of Berry or Duchess of Berry in the French nobility was frequently created for junior members of the French royal family. The Berry region now consists of the départements of Cher, Indre, the capital of Berry is Bourges. House of Bourbon Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
2. Charles VII of France – Charles VII, called the Victorious or the Well-Served, was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1422 to his death. In the midst of the Hundred Years War, Charles VII inherited the throne of France under desperate circumstances, in addition, his father Charles VI had disinherited him in 1420 and recognized Henry V of England and his heirs as the legitimate successors to the French crown instead. At the same time, a war raged in France between the Armagnacs and the Burgundian party. However, his political and military position improved dramatically with the emergence of Joan of Arc as a leader in France. Joan of Arc and other charismatic figures led French troops to lift the siege of Orléans, as well as other cities on the Loire river. With the local English troops dispersed, the people of Reims switched allegiance and opened their gates and this long-awaited event boosted French morale as hostilities with England resumed. Following the battle of Castillon in 1453, the French had expelled the English from all their continental possessions except for the Pale of Calais, the last years of Charles VII were marked by conflicts with his turbulent son, the future Louis XI of France. Born at the Hôtel Saint-Pol, the residence in Paris. He was the child and fifth son of Charles VI of France. His four elder brothers, Charles, Charles, Louis and John had each held the title of Dauphin of France in turn, all died childless, leaving Charles with a rich inheritance of titles. By 1419, Charles had established his own court in Bourges and they also decided that a further meeting should take place the following 10 September. On that date, they met on the bridge at Montereau, the Duke assumed that the meeting would be entirely peaceful and diplomatic, thus he brought only a small escort with him. The Dauphins men reacted to the Dukes arrival by attacking and killing him, Charles level of involvement has remained uncertain to this day. Although he claimed to have been unaware of his mens intentions, the assassination marked the end of any attempt of a reconciliation between the two factions Armagnacs and Burgundians, thus playing into the hands of Henry V of England. Charles was later required by a treaty with Philip the Good, the son of John the Fearless, to pay penance for the murder, at the death of his father, Charles VI, the succession was cast into doubt. For those who did not recognize the treaty and believed the Dauphin Charles to be of legitimate birth, for those who did not recognize his legitimacy, the rightful heir was recognized as Charles, Duke of Orléans, cousin of the Dauphin, who was in English captivity. Only the supporters of Henry VI and the Dauphin Charles were able to enlist sufficient military force to press effectively for their candidates, the English, already in control of northern France, were able to enforce the claim of their king in the regions of France that they occupied. Northern France, including Paris, was ruled by an English regent, Henry Vs brother, John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford
3. John, Duke of Berry – John of Berry or John the Magnificent was Duke of Berry and Auvergne and Count of Poitiers and Montpensier. He was the son of King John II of France and Bonne of Luxemburg, his brothers were King Charles V of France, Duke Louis I of Anjou. He is primarily remembered as a collector of the important illuminated manuscripts and other works of art commissioned by him and he was born at the castle of Vincennes on 30 November 1340. When Poitiers was ceded to England in 1360, John II granted John the newly raised duchies of Berry, by the terms of the Treaty of Brétigny, signed that May, John became a hostage of the English Crown and remained in England until 1369. Upon his return to France, his brother, now King Charles V, appointed him lieutenant general for Berry, Auvergne, Bourbonnais, Forez, Sologne, Touraine, Anjou, Maine, and Normandy. Upon the death of his older brother Charles V in 1380, his son and heir, Charles VI was a minor, so Berry and his brothers, following the death of Louis of Anjou in 1384, Berry and his brother Burgundy were the dominant figures in the kingdom. John was also stripped of his offices in Languedoc at that time, Berry and Burgundy bided their time, and were soon able to retake power, in 1392, when the King had his first attack of insanity, an affliction which would remain with him throughout his life. The two royal dukes continued to rule until 1402, when the king, in one of his moments of lucidity, took power from them and gave it to his brother Louis, Duke of Orléans. Simon of Cramaud, a canonist and prelate, served the Duke in his efforts to find a way to end the Great Western schism that was not unfavorable to French interests, in his later years, John became a more conciliatory figure in France. It was largely due to his urging that Charles VI and his sons were not present at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415 and he died a few months after the battle, which proved as disastrous as he had feared, on June 151416 in Paris. In 1389 he married his wife, Joan II, Countess of Auvergne. John of Berry was also a patron who commissioned among other works the most famous Book of Hours. His spending on his art collection severely taxed his estates, works created for him include the manuscripts known as the Très Riches Heures, the Belles Heures of Jean de France, Duc de Berry and the Turin-Milan Hours. Goldsmiths work includes the Holy Thorn Reliquary and Royal Gold Cup, among the artists working for him were the Limbourg Brothers, Jacquemart de Hesdin and André Beauneveu. The web site of the Louvre says of him, Emmerson, key Figures in Medieval Europe, An Encyclopedia. In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, new York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–
4. Louis XVI of France – Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France and Navarre before the French Revolution, during which he was also known as Louis Capet. In 1765, at the death of his father, Louis, Dauphin of France, son and heir apparent of Louis XV of France, Louis XVI was guillotined on 21 January 1793. The first part of his reign was marked by attempts to reform France in accordance with Enlightenment ideas and these included efforts to abolish serfdom, remove the taille, and increase tolerance toward non-Catholics. The French nobility reacted to the reforms with hostility. Louis implemented deregulation of the market, advocated by his liberal minister Turgot. In periods of bad harvests, it would lead to food scarcity which would prompt the masses to revolt, from 1776, Louis XVI actively supported the North American colonists, who were seeking their independence from Great Britain, which was realized in the 1783 Treaty of Paris. The ensuing debt and financial crisis contributed to the unpopularity of the Ancien Régime and this led to the convening of the Estates-General of 1789. In 1789, the storming of the Bastille during riots in Paris marked the beginning of the French Revolution. Louiss indecisiveness and conservatism led some elements of the people of France to view him as a symbol of the tyranny of the Ancien Régime. The credibility of the king was deeply undermined, and the abolition of the monarchy, Louis XVI was the only King of France ever to be executed, and his death brought an end to more than a thousand years of continuous French monarchy. Louis-Auguste de France, who was given the title Duc de Berry at birth, was born in the Palace of Versailles. Out of seven children, he was the son of Louis, the Dauphin of France. His mother was Marie-Josèphe of Saxony, the daughter of Frederick Augustus II of Saxony, Prince-Elector of Saxony and King of Poland. A strong and healthy boy, but very shy, Louis-Auguste excelled in his studies and had a taste for Latin, history, geography, and astronomy. He enjoyed physical activities such as hunting with his grandfather, and rough-playing with his brothers, Louis-Stanislas, comte de Provence. From an early age, Louis-Auguste had been encouraged in another of his hobbies, locksmithing, upon the death of his father, who died of tuberculosis on 20 December 1765, the eleven-year-old Louis-Auguste became the new Dauphin. His mother never recovered from the loss of her husband, and died on 13 March 1767, throughout his education, Louis-Auguste received a mixture of studies particular to religion, morality, and humanities. His instructors may have also had a hand in shaping Louis-Auguste into the indecisive king that he became
5. Charles X of France – Charles X was King of France from 16 September 1824 until 2 August 1830. For most of his life he was known as the Count of Artois, an uncle of the uncrowned King Louis XVII, and younger brother to reigning Kings Louis XVI and Louis XVIII, he supported the latter in exile and eventually succeeded him. His rule of almost six years ended in the July Revolution of 1830, which resulted in his abdication, exiled once again, Charles died in 1836 in Gorizia, then part of the Austrian Empire. He was the last of the French rulers from the branch of the House of Bourbon. Charles Philippe of France was born in 1757, the youngest son of the Dauphin Louis and his wife, Charles was created Count of Artois at birth by his grandfather, the reigning King Louis XV. As the youngest male in the family, Charles seemed unlikely ever to become king and his eldest brother, Louis, Duke of Burgundy, died unexpectedly in 1761, which moved Charles up one place in the line of succession. He was raised in childhood by Madame de Marsan, the Governess of the Children of France. At the death of his father in 1765, Charless oldest surviving brother, Louis Auguste and their mother Marie Josèphe, who never recovered from the loss of her husband, died in March 1767 from tuberculosis. This left Charles an orphan at the age of nine, along with his siblings Louis Auguste, Louis Stanislas, Count of Provence, Clotilde, Louis XV fell ill on 27 April 1774 and died on 10 May of smallpox at the age of 64. His grandson Louis-Auguste succeeded him as King Louis XVI of France, in November 1773, Charles married Marie Thérèse of Savoy. The marriage, unlike that of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, was consummated almost immediately, in 1775, Marie Thérèse gave birth to a boy, Louis Antoine, who was created Duke of Angoulême by Louis XVI. Three years later, in 1778, Charles second son, Charles Ferdinand, was born, in the same year Queen Marie Antoinette gave birth to her first child, Marie Thérèse, quelling all rumours that she could not bear children. Charles was thought of as the most attractive member of his family and his wife was considered quite ugly by most contemporaries, and he looked for company in numerous extramarital affairs. According to the Count of Hézecques, few beauties were cruel to him, later, he embarked upon a lifelong love affair with the beautiful Louise de Polastron, the sister-in-law of Marie Antoinettes closest companion, the Duchess of Polignac. Charles also struck up a friendship with Marie Antoinette herself. The closeness of the relationship was such that he was accused by Parisian rumour mongers of having seduced her. As part of Marie Antoinettes social set, Charles often appeared opposite her in the theatre of her favourite royal retreat. They were both said to be very talented amateur actors, Marie Antoinette played milkmaids, shepherdesses, and country ladies, whereas Charles played lovers, valets, and farmers
6. Francis, Duke of Anjou – Francis, Duke of Anjou and Alençon was the youngest son of Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici. An attractive child, he was scarred by smallpox at age eight and he changed his name to Francis in honour of his late brother Francis II of France when he was confirmed. In 1574, following the death of his brother Charles IX of France, in 1576, he was made Duke of Anjou, Touraine, and Berry. In 1576, he negotiated the Edict of Beaulieu during the French Wars of Religion, in 1579, he was invited by William the Silent to become hereditary sovereign to the United Provinces. On 29 September 1580, the Dutch States General signed the Treaty of Plessis-les-Tours with the Duke, during the night of 15 September 1575, Alençon ran from the French court after being alienated by his brother King Henry III. Both Henry III and Catherine de Medici feared he would join the Protestant rebels and these fears proved well founded, Francis joined the prince of Condé and his forces in the south. By ‘secret treaties’ that formed part of this settlement, many on the Protestant side were rewarded with land. Francis was awarded the Duchy of Anjou and thus became the Duke of Anjou, at the same time, in 1579, arrangements began to be made for marrying him to Elizabeth I of England. Alençon, now Duke of Anjou, was in fact the one of Elizabeths foreign suitors to court her in person. He was 24 and Elizabeth was 46, despite the age gap, the two soon became very close, Elizabeth dubbing him her frog. Queen Elizabeth often used unflattering slang names for her favourites such as pygmy for Robert Cecil who was short of stature, thus, her use of the slang name frog was consistent with her habits. Whether or not Elizabeth truly planned marrying Anjou is a debated topic. It is obvious that she was fond of him, knowing that he was probably going to be her last suitor. There are many anecdotes about their flirting, the match was controversial in the English public, English Protestants warned the Queen that the hearts will be galled when they shall see you take to husband a Frenchman, and a Papist. The very common people well know this, that he is the son of the Jezebel of our age, referring to the Dukes mother, Catherine de Medici. Of her Privy Council, only William Cecil, Lord Burghley, most notable councillors, foremost among them Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, and Sir Francis Walsingham, were strongly opposed, even warning the Queen of the hazards of childbirth at her age. In these years Walsingham became friends with the diplomat of Henry of Navarre in England and he returned to England without an agreement. Personally, Walsingham opposed the marriage, perhaps to the point of encouraging public opposition, Alençon was a Catholic, and as his elder brother, Henry III, was childless, he was heir to the French throne
7. Joan of France, Duchess of Berry – Joan of France, was briefly Queen of France as wife of King Louis XII, in between the death of her brother, King Charles VIII, and the annulment of her marriage. After that, she retired to her domain, where she founded the monastic Order of the Sisters of the Annunciation of Mary. From this Order later sprang the religious congregation of the Apostolic Sisters of the Annunciation and she was canonized on 28 May 1950 and is known in the Roman Catholic Church as Saint Joan of Valois, O. Ann. M. Joan was born on 23 April 1464 in the castle of Pierre II de Brézé and she was the second daughter of King Louis XI of France and of his second wife Charlotte of Savoy, her surviving siblings were King Charles VIII of France and Anne of France. Shortly after her birth, the signed an agreement to marry her to his second cousin Louis, the Duke of Orléans, later King Louis XII of France. Jeanne was born sickly and deformed, in Women Saints – Lives of Faith and Courage, Kathleen Jones says that Jeanne had a hump on her back and walked with a limp, suggesting that she had curvature of the spine. Often away on duties, King Louis entrusted his daughters, Joan and Anne, to the Baron François de Linières and his wife. The couple, who were childless, lavished affection on Joan, taking charge of her education, they had her taught both poetry and mathematics, painting, embroidery and how to play the lute. The couple were also faithful Catholics and instilled in the members of their household a solid grounding in the faith, at a young age, her father asked her to name the confessor she wanted. She gave him the name she knew, that of Friar Jean de La Fontaine. The king approved her choice and appointed the friar to this post, despite the distance between them, he would travel regularly to hear the princesss confession. Joan began to develop a strong pleasure in prayer, and would pass long periods in the castle chapel, the baron supported her in this and had a path paved between the castle and the chapel built for easier walking in poor weather. Under the friars guidance she was admitted into the Third Order of St. Francis, in 1471 King Louis XI ordered the practice of praying the Hail Mary throughout the kingdom for peace. Joan had an attachment to this particular prayer. She would later write that it was in same year that she had received a prophecy from the Virgin Mary that some day she would found a religious community in honor of Our Lady. In 1473 King Louis had signed contracts for his daughters. On 8 September 1476, at the age of 12, Joan was married to the young Louis, Louis of Orléans was compelled to be married to his handicapped and supposedly sterile cousin Joan. By doing so, Louis XI hoped to extinguish the Orléans cadet branch of the House of Valois, Louis was displeased at the forced marriage, and his treatment of his new wife reflected this
8. Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry – Charles Ferdinand dArtois, Duke of Berry was the third child and youngest son of the future King of France, Charles X, and his wife, Princess Maria Theresa of Savoy. He was assassinated at the Paris Opera in 1820 by Louis Pierre Louvel, Charles Ferdinand dArtois, Duke of Berry, was born at Versailles. As a son of a fils de France not being apparent, he was himself only a petit-fils de France. However, during the Restoration, as his father was heir presumptive to the crown and his maternal grandparents were Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia and Maria Antonietta of Spain. She was the youngest daughter of Philip V of Spain and Elisabeth Farnese, since he was already dead when his father became king, he and his surviving daughter always had Artois as surname. At the French Revolution he left France with his father, then Count of Artois, as a member of the Condes emigre army, he fought in the Rhine Campaign of 1796, and achieved particular distinction at the Battle of Emmendingen and the Battle of Schliengen. He afterwards joined the Russian army, and in 1801 took up his residence in England, during that time he had a relationship with an Englishwoman, Amy Brown Freeman, whom the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica described as his wife, but that is highly unlikely. In 1814, the set out for France. His frank, open manners gained him favour with his countrymen. He was, however, unable to retain the loyalty of his troops, on 17 June 1816, following negotiations by the French ambassador, the Duke of Blacas, he married Princess Maria-Carolina of Naples, oldest daughter of then hereditary Prince Francis of Naples. Three children were born before the death, with one surviving infancy. His daughter, Louise dArtois, born in 1819, married Charles III of Parma, on 13 February 1820, the Duke of Berry was stabbed and mortally wounded when leaving the opera house in Paris with his wife, and died the next day. The assassin was a maker named Louis Pierre Louvel, a Bonapartist opposed to the monarchy. With his wife, the Duke of Berry had four children, HRH Louise Marie Thérèse dArtois, married Charles III, Duke of Parma. HRH Henri dArtois, Duke of Bordeaux and Count of Chambord, in addition to them, the Duke had several illegitimate offspring, With Mary Bullhorn, a Scottish actress, Marie de la Boulaye, married Henri-Louis Bérard. With Amy Brown Freeman, Charlotte Marie Augustine de Bourbon, comtesse dIssoudun, married in 1823 to Ferdinand de Faucigny-Lucinge, Louise Marie Charlotte de Bourbon, comtesse de Vierzon, married in 1827 to Charles de Charette, Baron de la Contrie. With Eugénie Virginie Oreille, Charles Louis Auguste Oreille de Carrière, married in 1846 to Elisabeth Jugan, with whom he had a son Charles, a lyric artist, married but without surviving issue. Ferdinand Oreille de Carrière, married in 1860 to Louise Eugénie Ancelle, with whom he had a daughter, Léonie, with Marie Sophie de La Roche, Ferdinand de La Roche, married in 1849 to Claudine Gabrielle Claire de Bachet de Méziriac