Category:Dutch people of Portuguese-Jewish descent
Pages in category "Dutch people of Portuguese-Jewish descent"
The following 14 pages are in this category, out of 14 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 14 pages are in this category, out of 14 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Sephardic Jews in the Netherlands – As a result of the Alhambra Decree and the Inquisition, many Sephardim left the Iberian peninsula at the end of the 15th century and throughout the 16th century, in search of religious freedom. Some migrated to the newly independent Dutch provinces which welcomed the Sephardic Jews, many of the Jews who left for the Dutch provinces were crypto-Jews, persons who had converted to Catholicism but continued to practice Judaism in secret. After they had settled in the safety of the Netherlands, many of them returned fully to practice of the Jewish religion. Many Jewish refugees came from Portugal, where Spanish Jews had fled after the Spanish Inquisition had been introduced in Spain in 1478, in 1497, the Portuguese forcibly converted all Jews in Portugal, including many who had returned to Judaism after fleeing Spain and its Inquisition. In search of religious and economic freedoms, many crypto-Jews left Portugal for places with more lenient religious legislation. Many left for Brazil and France, a couple of decades later, groups of crypto-Jews started reaching the Dutch Republic. Amsterdam became one of the most favored destinations in the Netherlands for Sephardic Jews, because many of the refugees were traders, Amsterdam benefited greatly from their arrival. Under the influence of Sephardic Jews, Amsterdam grew rapidly, many Jews supported the House of Orange, and were in return protected by the stadholder. In part, such general religious toleration arose before Jews came to Amsterdam and these factors made Amsterdam officials and even residents less susceptible to labeling the entire Jewish community by their negatively perceived history in Christian tradition. The Mahamad was self-sustaining, with members appointing their own successors, the most famous of those to receive a full ban herem was philosopher Baruch Spinoza, whose intellectual contributions were very important in his time and continue to influence thinkers to this day. The migration of Jews from Portugal and Spain to many places other than Amsterdam allowed them to build an international trading network that was unique to diaspora members. Because of the business and family relations many Amsterdam Jews had in light of their former community’s dispersal, they established trading connections with the Levant and Morocco. For instance, the Jewish-Moroccan merchant Samuel Pallache was sent to the Dutch Republic by Sultan Zidan Abu Maali of Morocco in 1608 to be his ambassador at The Hague. The ambitious schemes of the Dutch for the conquest of Brazil were carried into effect through Francisco Ribeiro, a Portuguese captain, in the struggle between Holland and Portugal for the possession of Brazil, the Dutch were supported by the Jews. The Jews of Amsterdam also established relations with various countries in Europe. Besides merchants, a number of physicians were among the Spanish and Portuguese Jews in Amsterdam, including Samuel Abravanel, David Nieto, Elijah Montalto. Joseph Bueno was consulted in the illness of Maurice of Nassau, neither were Jews taken into the trade guilds, a resolution passed by the city of Amsterdam in 1632 excluded them. Exceptions, however, were made in the case of trades which stood in peculiar relations to their religion, printing, bookselling, the selling of meat, poultry, groceries, and drugs
2. Frieda Belinfante – Frieda Belinfante was a Dutch cellist, conductor, a prominent lesbian and a member of the Dutch Resistance during World War II. After the war, Belinfante immigrated to the United States and continued her career in music and she was the founding artistic director and conductor of the Orange County Philharmonic. Other well-known descendants include the writers Emmy Belinfante, Isaac Cohen Belinfante, Jewish theologian Moses Cohen Belinfante, many of the Belinfante descendants perished during the Holocaust. Belinfante was born into a musical family, Belinfante began the study of the cello at age 10. She graduated from the Amsterdam Conservatory and made her debut in the Kleine Zaal recital hall of the Concertgebouw at age 17. Her father died a few months after, following her debut, Belinfante studied intermittently with cellist Gérard Hekking in Paris, with whom she developed a close friendship. Belinfante held this position until 1941, and it made her the first woman in Europe to be director and conductor of an ongoing professional orchestral ensemble. Concurrently, Belinfante made weekly appearances as guest conductor on the Dutch National Radio, in the summer of 1939, Belinfante attended the master class of Dr. Hermann Scherchen in Neuchâtel Switzerland to perfect her conducting skills. The Nazi occupation interrupted Belinfante’s musical career, which she did not resume until after the war, Belinfante became a good friend of the artist Willem Arondeus, one of the leaders of Raad van Verzet and an openly gay man. She actively contributed to the Dutch resistance, mainly by forging documents for Jews. The CKC group came under scrutiny by the Gestapo after the bombing, forcing Belifante, while in hiding, Belinfante learned of the arrests and executions of the other CKC members, including Arondeus. Belinfante disguised herself as a man and lived with friends for 3 months before being traced by the Nazis, the resistance helped her avoid capture and cross the border to Belgium and France, where the French Underground helped her make her way to Switzerland. When she and her travel partner arrived at the border in the winter of 1944 and her former teacher Hermann Scherchen saved her from being sent back over the border by verifying that she was a Dutch citizen and his former pupil. On arriving in Montreux, she was given refugee status and worked for a time as a farm laborer. Belinfante was repatriated to the Netherlands as soon as the war ended, Belinfante emigrated to the United States in 1947, eventually settling in Laguna Beach, California and joining the music faculty of UCLA in 1949. The formation of the Vine Street Players proved fortuitous for Belinfante, Belinfante continued to employ the musicians from The Vine Street Players in the new Philharmonic Society orchestra. Concerts by the Orange County Philharmonic Orchestra were free to the public, funded entirely by donations from sponsors, Belinfante insisted on this arrangement with sponsors, and that all concerts remain free of charge for all future attendees. The founding board of directors adopted Belinfante’s suggestions as their business plan with the mission of maintaining a resident professional orchestra in the county
3. Isaac Aboab da Fonseca – Isaac Aboab da Fonseca was a rabbi, scholar, kabbalist and writer. Isaac Aboab da Fonseca was born in the Portuguese town of Castro Daire as Simão da Fonseca and his parents were Marranos, Jews who had been forcibly converted to Christianity. Although the family had converted to Christianity, this did not put an end to local antisemitic suspicions. When Isaac was seven, the moved to Amsterdam. From that moment on, the family reconverted back to Judaism, together with Manasseh ben Israel, he was given lessons by the scholar Isaac Uziel. At the age of eighteen, Isaac was appointed rabbi for Beth Israel, in 1642, Aboab da Fonseca was appointed rabbi at Kahal Zur Israel Synagogue in Recife, in the then Dutch colony of Pernambuco, Brazil, a city which was occupied by the Dutch in 1624. They then helped colonize this new Dutch colony at the side of the Atlantic Ocean. By becoming the rabbi of the Portuguese Jewish community in Recife, Kahal Zur Israel congregation here had a synagogue, a mikveh and a yeshiva as well. Still during Fonsecas tenure as rabbi in Pernambuco, the Portuguese re-occupied the capital of Recife in 1654, Fonseca then managed to return to Amsterdam after the loss of the new colony to the Portuguese. Some members of his community immigrated to North America and were among the founders of New Amsterdam, back in Amsterdam, Aboab da Fonseca was appointed Chief Rabbi for the Sephardic community. In 1656, he was one of several scholars who excommunicated the famous philosopher Baruch Spinoza, during the reign of Aboab da Fonseca, the community flourished, the Portuguese synagogue was inaugurated on August 2,1675. In his old age he was an adherent of Sabbatai Zevi. Isaac Aboab da Fonseca died in Amsterdam on April 4,1693, in 2007, the Jerusalem Institute in Israel published a book about Rabbi Fonsecas works, including the authors expositions about the community of Recife at that time. The book is called Chachamei Recife VAmsterdam, or The Sages of Recife, history of the Jews in the Netherlands Sephardic Jews in the Netherlands Manasseh ben Israel Marrano Spanish and Portuguese Jews Jewish Historical Museum Jewish Virtual Library
4. Moses Cohen Henriques – Moses Cohen Henriques was a Dutch pirate of Portuguese Sephardic Jewish origin, operating in the Caribbean. The Dutch did not take prisoners, they gave the Spanish crews ample supplies for a march to Havana, the treasure was the companys greatest victory in the Caribbean. Henriques then went on to lead a Jewish contingent in Brazil during the Dutch rule, after the Portuguese recapture of Northern Brazil in 1654, Moses fled South America and ended up as an advisor to Henry Morgan, the leading pirate of the time. Even though his role as pirate was disclosed during the Spanish Inquisition, Jewish Journal Moses Cohen Henriques Biography at J-Grit, The Internet Index of Tough Jews
5. Rehuel Lobatto – Rehuel Lobatto was a Dutch mathematician. Lobatto was born in Amsterdam to a Portuguese Jewish family, as a schoolboy Lobatto already displayed remarkable talent for mathematics. He studied mathematics under Adolphe Quetelet coediting Correspondance Mathématique et Physique, working for the Dutch government he became secretary of a statistical commission in 1831. In 1836 he became member of the Royal Institute, predecessor of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts, in 1842 he became a teacher at the Polytechnical School of Delft. The Gauss-Lobatto quadrature method is named after him, rehuel Lobatto at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
6. Isaac Orobio de Castro – Balthazar Orobio de Castro, was a Jewish philosopher, physician and religious apologist. While still a child, he was taken to Seville by his parents and he studied philosophy at Alcalá de Henares and became teacher of metaphysics at the University of Salamanca. Later he devoted himself to the study of medicine, and became a practitioner in Seville. As he persistently denied the charge, he was finally released, esther, his wife, died on July 5,1712. Orobio de Castro was a prolific writer. His work entitled Certamen Philosophicum Propugnatæ Veritatis Divinæ ac Naturalis Adversus J. Bredenburgi Principia was published at Amsterdam,1684. de la Torre, all the other writings of De Castro, like the foregoing translation, are still extant in manuscript. They are, Prevenciones Divinas Contra la Vana Ydolatria de las Gentes, feito por hum Curiozo da Nação Hebrea em Amsterdam, em o mez de Tisry anno 5433, Tratado em que se Explica la Prophesia de las 70 Semanas de Daniel. Long after De Castros death a Jew by the name of Henriquez published a work of his in French under the title Israel Vengé. It has been translated into English by Grace Aguilar, the various branches of this family are all of Spanish and Portuguese origin. A separate article gives details of more members of the family. De Castro family Marranos Crypto-Jews History of the Jews in the Netherlands Kaplan, the Story of Isaac Orobio de Castro Littman Library of Jewish Civilization,2004 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Singer, Isidore, et al. eds. New York, Funk & Wagnalls Company
7. Abraham Pais – Abraham Pais was a Dutch-born American physicist and science historian. Pais earned his Ph. D. from University of Utrecht just prior to a Nazi ban on Jewish participation in Dutch universities during World War II. When the Nazis began the relocation of Dutch Jews, he went into hiding. He then served as an assistant to Niels Bohr in Denmark and was later a colleague of Albert Einstein at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, Pais wrote books documenting the lives of these two great physicists and the contributions they and others made to modern physics. He was a professor at Rockefeller University until his retirement. Pais was born in Amsterdam, the first child of middle-class Dutch Jewish parents and his father, Isaiah Jacques Pais, was the descendant of Sephardic Jews who migrated from Portugal to the Low Countries around the beginning of the 17th century. His mother, Kaatje Cato van Kleeff, was the daughter of an Ashkenazi diamond cutter and his parents met while studying to become elementary-school teachers. They both taught school until his mother quit when they married on December 2,1916 and his only sibling, Annie, was born on November 1,1920. During Paiss childhood his father was a schoolmaster, headmaster. Pais was a student and a voracious reader during his early education and said he had a happy childhood. At age twelve he passed examinations to enter a higher burgher school and he passed his final examinations as number one in his class. He graduated with a knowledge of English, French. In the fall of 1935 Pais began his studies at the University of Amsterdam without a clear idea regarding his desired career, with an interest in the exact sciences, he gradually gravitated to chemistry and physics as major subjects, and mathematics and astronomy as minor subjects. In the winter of 1936/1937 his career goals were defined by two guest lectures by George Uhlenbeck, professor of physics at University of Utrecht. Pais was fascinated by Uhlenbecks discussion of Enrico Fermis incorporation of the neutrino into the theory of beta radiation, on February 16,1938, Pais was awarded two Bachelor of Science degrees in physics and mathematics, with minors in chemistry and astronomy. He began attending courses in Amsterdam, including those in physics. He soon became disappointed by the only professor there in theoretical physics, Johannes Diderik van der Waals, Jr. whom he found dull, Pais soon wrote to Uhlenbeck at Utrecht and was granted an interview. During the remainder of the term he discontinued attending classes in Amsterdam
8. Arie Pais – Aäron Pais is a former Dutch politician and economist. Pais was Minister of Education and Sciences in the First Van Agt cabinet from 1977 to 1981 and he was also Vice-Chair of the European Investment Bank. He is married to former VVD Minister Eegje Schoo
9. Samuel Sarphati – Samuel Sarphati was a Dutch physician and Amsterdam city planner. Sarphatis ancestors were Portuguese Sephardi Jews who arrived in the Netherlands in the 17th century, while only middle-class, his parents were able to let him attend a Latin school. At the age of 20, Sarphati started studying medicine in Leiden, during his work thereafter as a doctor in Amsterdam, Sarphati encountered the bad hygiene among the poor in Amsterdam. His compassion for his patients led him to all sorts of projects to improve the quality of life in the city. They included a factory producing wholesome, affordable bread. Sarphati played an important role in the initiation of waste transport in 1847 and he became involved in politics, particularly as a project developer in city planning. Beside public health he also initiated improvements in education and industrialization and he also wanted to enhance Amsterdams dignity and standing by constructing impressive buildings like the Amstel Hotel and the Paleis voor Volksvlijt. After his death, Sarphatipark in Amsterdam was designed and named him in 1885
10. Baruch Spinoza – Baruch Spinoza was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin. Spinozas magnum opus, Ethics, was published posthumously in 1677, the work opposed René Descartes philosophy on mind–body dualism, and earned Spinoza recognition as one of Western philosophys most important thinkers. In the Ethics, Spinoza wrote the last indisputable Latin masterpiece, hegel said, You are either a Spinozist or not a philosopher at all. His philosophical accomplishments and moral character prompted 20th-century philosopher Gilles Deleuze to name him the prince of philosophers, Spinozas given name, which means Blessed, varies among different languages. In Hebrew, it is written ברוך שפינוזה, in Portuguese, hes called Benedito Bento de Espinosa and in Latin, Benedictus de Spinoza. Spinoza was raised in a Portuguese Jewish community in Amsterdam and he developed highly controversial ideas regarding the authenticity of the Hebrew Bible and the nature of the Divine. Jewish religious authorities issued a herem against him, causing him to be shunned by Jewish society at age 23. His books were later put on the Catholic Churchs Index of Forbidden Books. Spinoza lived a simple life as a lens grinder, turning down rewards and honours throughout his life. He died at the age of 44 allegedly of a lung illness and he is buried in the churchyard of the Christian Nieuwe Kerk in The Hague. The Spinoza family probably had its origins in Espinosa de los Monteros, near Burgos, or in Espinosa de Cerrato, near Palencia, the family was expelled from Spain in 1492 and fled to Portugal. Portugal compelled them to convert to Catholicism in 1498, attracted by the Decree of Toleration issued in 1579 by the Union of Utrecht, Portuguese conversos first sailed to Amsterdam in 1593 and promptly reconverted to Judaism. In 1598 permission was granted to build a synagogue, and in 1615 an ordinance for the admission, as a community of exiles, the Portuguese Jews of Amsterdam were highly proud of their identity. Spinozas father was born roughly a century after this conversion in the small Portuguese city of Vidigueira. When Spinozas father was still a child, Spinozas grandfather, Isaac de Spinoza and they were expelled in 1615 and moved to Rotterdam, where Isaac died in 1627. Spinozas father, Miguel, and his uncle, Manuel, then moved to Amsterdam where they resumed the practice of Judaism, Miguel was a successful merchant and became a warden of the synagogue and of the Amsterdam Jewish school. He buried three wives and three of his six children died before reaching adulthood, Amsterdam and Rotterdam operated as important cosmopolitan centres where merchant ships from many parts of the world brought people of various customs and beliefs. This flourishing commercial activity encouraged a relatively tolerant of the play of new ideas
11. Alexander Teixeira de Mattos – The Teixeira de Mattos Sampaio e Mendes family was of Portuguese Jewish origin, having been driven out of Portugal to the Netherlands by Holy Office persecution. Alexander Teixeira de Mattos was born as a Dutch Protestant to an English mother, in 1874, when he was nine years old, he and his family moved from Amsterdam to England. There, he studied under Monsignor Thomas John Capel and converted to Roman Catholicism and he then studied at the Kensington Catholic Public School and at the Jesuit school Beaumont College. After his studies, Teixeira came into contact with J. T. Grein, a London impresario of Dutch origin and he became the official translator of the works of Maurice Maeterlinck, beginning with Maeterlincks The Double Garden. Teixera was fluent in English, French, German, Flemish, Dutch and he considered his greatest achievement to be his complete translation of Jean-Henri Fabres natural history. He oversaw the Societys publication of unexpurgated translations of six banned novels by Émile Zola in 1894–5, contributing his own translation of the volume in the series. During World War I, Teixera was head of the Intelligence Section, as well as a member of the Advisory Board, midway through the war, Teixeira became a British subject, giving up his title of Jonkheer. In June 1920, he was made a Chevalier of the Order of Leopold II. On 20 October 1900, he married Lily Wilde, née Sophie Lily Lees, alexander and Lily Teixeira de Mattos had one son, who died a few hours after birth. He was also friends with Maurice Maeterlinck and Louis Couperus. He was politically liberal and a devout Catholic, due to ill health, Teixeira traveled on a rest cure in 1920 at Crowborough and the Isle of Wight, returning to his home in Chelsea, London in spring 1921. He worked as usual through the autumn and traveled to Cornwall for the winter, on December 5,1921, in St Ives, Cornwall he collapsed and died from angina pectoris. The New York Times, in its obituary notice, called him one of the best translators of foreign languages of the present generation, the high quality and readability of Teixeras work was such that many of his translations are still in print today. For example, though his translation of La curée is over an old, its accuracy. The dates given in the list below are the dates for Teixeiras translations. Unless otherwise referenced, all information in the list is derived from catalog entries in WorldCat, ronald Breugelmans, Louis Couperus in den vreemde. Includes ten letters by Teixeira to the Dutch writer Louis Couperus