Wikidata is a collaboratively edited knowledge base operated by the Wikimedia Foundation. It is intended to provide a source of data which can be used by Wikimedia projects such as Wikipedia. This is similar to the way Wikimedia Commons provides storage for files and access to those files for all Wikimedia projects. Wikidata is powered by the software Wikibase, Wikidata is a document-oriented database, focused on items. Each item represents a topic and is identified by a number, prefixed with the letter Q—for example. This enables the basic information required to identify the topic the item covers to be translated without favouring any language, information is added to items by creating statements. Statements take the form of pairs, with each statement consisting of a property. The creation of the project was funded by donations from the Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, at this time, only the first phase was available. Historically, a Wikipedia article would include a list of links, being links to articles on the same topic in other editions of Wikipedia.
Initially, Wikidata was a repository of interlanguage links. No Wikipedia language editions were able to access Wikidata, so they needed to continue to maintain their own lists of interlanguage links, on 14 January 2013, the Hungarian Wikipedia became the first to enable the provision of interlanguage links via Wikidata. This functionality was extended to the Hebrew and Italian Wikipedias on 30 January, to the English Wikipedia on 13 February, on 23 September 2013, phase 1 went live on Wikimedia Commons. The first aspects of the second phase were deployed on 4 February 2013, the values were initially limited to two data types, with more data types to follow later. The first new type, was deployed on 6 March, the ability of the various language editions of Wikipedia to access data added to Wikidata as part of phase two was rolled out progressively between 27 March and 25 April 2013. On 16 September 2015, Wikidata began allowing so-called arbitrary access, for example, in the past the article about Berlin you could not access data about Germany, but with arbitrary access it could.
On 27 April 2016 arbitrary access was activated on Wikimedia Commons, phase 3 will involve database querying and the creation of lists based on data stored on Wikidata. As of October 2016 two tools for querying Wikidata were available, AutoList and PetScan, additionally to a public SPARQL endpoint, there is concern that the project is being influenced by lobbying companies, PR professionals and search engine optimizers. As of December 2015, according to Wikimedia statistics, half of the information in Wikidata is unsourced, another 30% is labeled as having come from Wikipedia, but with no indication as to which article
4-Fluoromethamphetamine is a stimulant drug related to methamphetamine and 4-fluoroamphetamine. It has been reported to be sold on the market as a controlled substance analogue. It was first detected from legal highs sold in Japan in 2006 and it reduces the metabolism of methamphetamine, which has the effect of increasing its potency and systemic toxicity while reducing its cellular toxicity. As of October 2015 4-FMA is a substance in China. 4-FMA is considered a Schedule 9 substance in Australia under the Poisons Standard
Abafungin is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent with a novel mechanism of action for the treatment of dermatomycoses. Abasol is a cream formulation of abafungin by York Pharma. Unlike imidazole- and triazole-class antifungals, abafungin directly impairs the fungal cell membrane, in addition, abafungin inhibits the enzyme sterol 24-C-methyltransferase, modifying the composition of the fungal membrane. Abafungin has antibiotic activity against gram-positive bacteria as well as sporicidal activity
2C-B or 2, 5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine is a psychedelic drug of the 2C family. It was first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin in 1974, in Shulgins book PiHKAL, the dosage range is listed as 12–24 mg. 2C-B is sold as a white powder sometimes pressed in tablets or gel caps and is referred to by a number of other names. The drug is taken orally, but can be insufflated or vaporized. 2C-B was synthesized from 2, 5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde by Alexander Shulgin in 1974 and it first saw use among the psychiatric community as an aid during therapy. It was considered one of the best drugs for this purpose because of its duration, relative absence of side effects. Shortly after becoming popular in the community, it became popular recreationally. 2C-B was first sold commercially as an aphrodisiac under the trade name Erox, for several years, it was available as tablets in Dutch smart shops under the name Nexus. Internationally, 2C-B is a Schedule II drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, in the Netherlands, 2C-B became a list I substance of the Opium Law despite no health incidents occurring.
Following the ban, other phenethylamines were sold in place of 2C-B until the Netherlands became the first country in the world to ban 2C-I, 2C-T-2 and this became permanent law on July 2,1995. 2C-B first became popularized in the United States as a legal substitute for the street drug Ecstasy when MDMA became illegal in 1985. Many 2C-B users are young adults who attend raves, though 2C-B is still used in the rave subculture, commonly mistaken for and/or sold as Ecstasy, its intentional use has become more common. In recent years, 2C-B has emerged as the drug of choice for club drug users in Colombia, street prices range between $10 and $30 per tablet in the United States when bought in small quantities. Larger retail purchases cost between $200 and $500 per gram, wholesale purchases of 2C-B can lower the price to a range of $100 to $300 per gram. The September 1998 Journal of Analytical Toxicology reported that very little data exists about the properties, metabolism. The relationship between its use and death are unknown, the common oral recreational dose is around 15–25 mg, at which visual and auditory effects are experienced.
Severe adverse reactions are rare, but use of 2C-B has been linked to significant injury in one case where the dosage is unknown. It was reported in PiHKAL, by Alexander Shulgin, that a psychologist had accidentally taken a 100 mg dose orally without apparent harm, street purity of 2C-B, when tested, has been found to be relatively high. Researchers in Spain found that 2C-B samples in the country doubled between 2006 and 2009, switched from primarily powder form to tablets, and exhibited low falsification rates, the authors suggested that this compound was a by-product of 2C-B synthesis
4-Chloromethcathinone is a stimulant drug of the cathinone class that has been sold online as a designer drug. Clephedrone is an Anlage I controlled drug in Germany, swedens public health agency suggested classifying 4-Chloromethcathinone as illegal narcotic on June 1,2015. As of October 2015 4-CMC is a substance in China. 4-CMC is considered a Schedule 1 substance in Virginia, 4-Bromomethcathinone 4-Chloroamphetamine 4-Ethylmethcathinone 4-Methylmethcathinone Substituted cathinone
5-MeO-MiPT is a psychedelic and hallucinogenic drug, used by some as an entheogen. It has structural and pharmacodynamic properties similar to the drugs 5-MeO-DiPT, DiPT and it is commonly used as a substitute for 5-MeO-DiPT because of the very similar structure and effects. 5-MeO-MiPT is in a class of compounds known as tryptamines. The full name of the chemical is 5-methoxy-N-methyl-N-isopropyltryptamine, 5-MeO-MiPT causes the ehrlich reagent to turn purple fade to faint blue. It causes the marquis reagent to go yellow through to black and this is an analogue of the more popular drug 5-MeO-DiPT and has the nickname moxy. Some users report the effects of 5-MeO-DiPT without some of the unwanted side effects. At higher doses it becomes much more psychedelic sometimes being compared to 5-MeO-DMT, but at doses of 4-10 milligrams users find 5-MeO-MiPT to be a very euphoric and tactile chemical. Its energetic effects can be strong at high doses, increasing normal heart rate considerably. Sounds can be amplified in perception to a point where synesthetic effects occur, orally, 5-MeO-MiPT is active at 4-6 mg.
The drug can be smoked, but unlike most other tryptamines and it typically produces a very strong odor. Titrating the dose would be important with this compound. Some users report little to no activity until doses of 10 mg or higher are taken. This chemical proves very useful for opening up and expressing oneself much like MDMA and these mechanisms may help explain why there are many anecdotal reports of anti-depressant and anxiolytic effects from modest doses of this compound. For example, SNRIs such as venlafaxine are commonly prescribed to treat depression, there are many reports of vasoconstriction with it as well. There is no documentation of death attributed to the use of 5-MeO-MiPT alone. As of October 2015 5-MeO-MiPT is a substance in China. 5-MeO-MiPT is a Class A drug in the United Kingdom as are most ethers of ring-hydroxy tryptamines, 5-Methoxy-N-methyl-N-isopropyltryptamine is a Schedule I controlled substance in the state of Florida making it illegal to buy, sell, or possess in Florida.
MIPT 5-MeO-DMT 5-MeO-DiPT 5-MeO-MiPT Entry in TIHKAL 5-MeO-MIPT Entry in TiHKAL • info