Mahmoud el-Meliguy was an Egyptian screenwriter and an actor of film and television. He started his career playing minor roles, but achieved stardom in the late 1930s, a popular and award-winning actor, he has acted in hundreds of films and was famous for his evil, villain roles. El-Meliguys breakthrough role came when Mohamed Abdel Wahab chose him to star in the film Lastu Mallak and he was paid 900 Egyptian pounds and quickly achieved stardom. People praised him for the role he played in that film. Mahmoud el-Meliguy met the Egyptian actress Alwiya Gamil in 1938 and married her in 1939 and he acted in several films with her. The couple had a happy and strong relationship and they did not have children together but raised two sons, Gamal El-Din and Morsi, and a daughter, from Alwiyas previous marriage. In 1963, after 24 years of his marriage to Alwiya Gamil, he married another woman, an actress named Fawziyah al-Ansari. Alwiya had allegedly compelled him to divorce her and his marriage with Alwiya Gamil ended in 1983, with his death.
Egyptian films of the 1960s Lists of Egyptians Cannes Yalla Cinema Yalla Cinema en Kenanah Mahmoud el-Meliguy at the Internet Movie Database
George Isaac (politician)
George Isaac is an Egyptian politician and activist. During the part of Hosni Mubaraks presidency, he co-founded the grassroots Kefaya opposition movement, following the 2011 Egyptian Revolution that toppled Mubarak, Issac became a member of the Constitution Party and a critic of President Mohamed Morsi, elected in 2012. He is a member of the Coptic Catholic Church and raised in Port Said, Isaac graduated from Cairo University with a BA in history and began his career as a teacher and as a consultant. Politically active at an age, he was a member of Egypts Constitution Party. It was a platform for protest against Hosni Mubarak’s presidency, political corruption and stagnation, during the 2012 Egyptian protests, Isaac urged President Mohamed Morsi to withdraw his constitutional declaration. On 8 December, after Morsi sought to address some of the demands, Isaac said that Morsi’s new declaration does not answer people’s demands
Kamal Abbas is General Coordinator of the Center for Trade Unions and Workers Services, an activist group for independent unions in Egypt. Involved in activism for over 20 years, Abbas has been active in mobilizing worker support during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011 and its aftermath. He began his work by organizing a strike at a plant in Helwan, Egypt in 1989, for which he was arrested, tortured. That incident led to his starting the CTUWS and advocating for workers rights throughout Egypt, Abbas relationship with Mubaraks regime was tense and marked by conflicts with the government and multiple arrests. The Los Angeles Times called Abbas a major annoyance to President Hosni Mubaraks regime, in 2007, Abbas was charged with defamation and sentenced to one year of prison. There was international condemnation of the ruling, with major labor, in February 2012 he was once again sentenced to a prison term, this time six months for insulting a public official. Abbas work gained momentum and attention during the 2011 Egyptian revolution, where he helped mobilize workers in the movement for civil rights.
Abbas began working in a mill in 1975 at the age of 20. While under the Mubarak regime, Abbas began organizing workers, despite unions being dominated by the state-approved Egyptian Trade Union Federation. In 1989 he participated in a strike at the Iron and Steel Company plant in Helwan where 19,000 workers sought wage increases, Abbas was arrested four times in the subsequent months, including 45 days of detention in which he was tortured. Following, he was terminated for participating in an “illegal” strike not sanctioned by the trade union. Several months in 1990, Abbas co-founded CTUWS in Helwan to support workers and he was guided by the advice of Yusuf Darwish, a long-time communist and labor lawyer, with whom Abbas had previously led the People’s Socialist Party. Abbas had studied world labor movements, looking up to the power of unions in Europe, Abbas changed his ideological focus from his early ties to Marxist politics, instead focusing CTUWS on practical reform. Abbas relationship with Mubaraks regime was tense and marked by conflicts with the government, in 1998 Abbas commented on the July strikes at the Egypt-Helwan Textiles Factory and the Nasr Pharmaceutical plant.
Abbas saw the incidents as a test of the future of privatisation and he said, People can now see that there is a choice, that they can say no. In 1999 he spoke out on the need for education and training for workers and he said, In Korea, development was based on a comprehensive educational policy. We still do not see this happening here, even in the new factories, production lines are imported with a foreign expert to run them. They are assembly plants and the Egyptian worker does not have to be very skilled, the Egyptian worker does not gain the kind of knowledge that can make him an interactive part of the production process
Yaqub Sanu, was an Egyptian Jewish journalist, nationalist activist and playwright. He was a polyglot, writing in French, Turkish, Hebrew, Sanu was an Egyptian Jew born to an Egyptian Jewish family. His father worked for Prince Yaken the grandson of Muhammad Ali Pasha, Khedive of Egypt, when Yaqub was thirteen he wrote an Arabic poem and recited it in front of the prince who was fascinated by the young boys talents. The prince sent him to be educated in Livorno, Italy in 1853, when he returned to Egypt in 1855 he worked as a tutor for the prince children before he became a teacher in the Arts and Crafts School in Cairo. Sanua became active as a journalist in Egypt, writing in a number of languages including Arabic, Early in 1877, Sanua founded the satirical magazine Abou Naddara, which had an immediate appeal to both those who could read and those who had it read to them. It was quickly suppressed as being liberal and revolutionary, and its author banished, in March and April 1877 fifteen issues appeared, and of these no copies are known.
Sanua went into exile on June 22,1878 sailing on the ship Freycinet from Alexandria to Marseilles, like many such journals it frequently changed its name, although the title which remained most constant was Rehlat Abou Naddara Zara. The magazine concentrated on political and financial difficulties in Egypt, and Sanua probably had privy information from friends. Certainly his magazine was well-known, the Saturday Review in London printed in July 1879 a highly favourable notice, the Construct of Egypts National-Self in James Sanuas Early Satire & Caricature. ISBN 978-3-87997-411-5 Langone, Angela Daiana, Molière et le théâtre arabe, réception moliéresque et identités nationales arabes. ISBN 978-3-11-044234-2 Ziad Fahmy, Francophone Egyptian Nationalists, Anti-British Discourse, and European Public Opinion, 1885-1910, The Case of Mustafa Kamil and Yaqub Sannu
Youssef Seddik (revolutionary)
Youssef Seddik was an Egyptian military figure and politician. He is noted for his role in launching the first military procedures in the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, Seddik graduated from Military Academy in 1933. He was active in the 1948 Palestine War and he joined the ranks of the underground Free Officers Movement in 1951, becoming its most senior member after Muhammad Naguib, and was a lieutenant-colonel of the infantry by 1952. Seddik had been a member of a Communist organisation, the Democratic Movement for National Liberation, on July 23,1952 was the first to take army action at the beginning of the coup which removed King Farouk and the monarchy from power. He had swiftly moved his forces to occupy the Egyptian Army Headquarters at Kobri al-Qubba an hour before the appointed time, some attribute this to a glitch in communication. However, Seddik quickly began expressing opposition to many of the RCCs decisions, according to Ahmad Hamrous, a Free Officer himself, Seddik said, any chance I ever had of cooperating with them became impossible.
I could not possibly allow myself to go down in history as someone who had remained a member of a Council that abolished civil liberties, sentenced workers to death and he submitted his resignation from the Revolution Command Council in 1953 and visited Switzerland, disappearing from public life. Seddik was arrested in 1954 after Gamal Abdel Nasser removed Naguib from the presidency and he went on to join the popular resistance against the British forces in the Suez Canal zone in 1956. In a 1962 speech, Nasser acknowledged the Free Officers debt to Seddik, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat gave Seddik a state pension when he came to power in 1970 and sent him for medical treatment in Moscow. When Seddik died in 1975, he was given a military funeral. Abul-Fath, A. Laffaire Nasser, Plon,1962, University of Michigan
Umm Kulthum was an internationally famous Egyptian singer and film actress active from the 1920s to the 1970s. She was given the honorific title Kawkab al-Sharq كوكب الشرق in Arabic, known for her extraordinary vocal ability and style, Umm Kulthum was one of the greatest and most influential Arab singers of the 20th century. Umm Kulthum was born in the village of Tamay e-Zahayra, belonging to the city of El Senbellawein, Dakahlia Governorate and her birth date is unconfirmed, as birth registration was not enforced throughout the Arab world in that era. Some sources claim that she was born Dec. 31st 1897 and she learned how to sing by listening to her father teach her older brother, Khalid. At a young age she showed exceptional singing talent and her father, an imam at the local mosque, taught her to recite the Quran, and she is said to have memorized the entire book. When she was 12 years old, her father noticed her strength in singing so he asked her to join the family ensemble and she dressed as a boy in order for her father to not face disapprobation due to having a girl on stage.
At the age of 16, she was noticed by Mohamed Aboul Ela, a famous singer. A few years later, she met the composer and oudist Zakariyya Ahmad. Although she made visits to Cairo in the early 1920s. She was invited on several occasions to the house of Amin Beh Al Mahdy, who taught her to play the oud and she developed a classic ose relationship with Rawheya Al-Mahdi, Amins daughter, and became her closest friend. Kulthum even attended Rawheyas daughters wedding, although she preferred to avoid appearing in public. She maintained a tightly managed public image, which added to her allure. At this point in her career, Umm Kulthum was introduced to the famous poet Ahmad Rami, Rami introduced her to French literature, which he greatly admired from his studies at the Sorbonne and eventually became her head mentor in Arabic literature and literary analysis. Umm Kulthums establishment as one of the most famous and popular Arab singers was driven by several factors, during her early career years, she faced staunch competition from two prominent singers, Mounira El Mahdeya and Fathiyya Ahmad, who had similar voices.
However, Mounira had poor control over her voice, and Fathiyya lacked the emotive vocal impact that Umm Kulthums voice had, the presence of all these enabling vocal characteristics attracted many composers and lyricists to work with Umm Kulthum. In the mid-1920s, Mohammad el Qasabgi, who was an oud player, in 1934, Umm Kulthum sang for the inaugural broadcast of Radio Cairo, the state station. Her influence kept growing and expanding beyond the scene, the reigning royal family would request private concerts. In 1944, King Farouk I of Egypt decorated her with the highest level of orders, early after the revolution, the Egyptian musicians guild of which she became a member rejected her because she had sung for the then-deposed King Farouk of Egypt
Mustafa Kamil Pasha
Mustafa Kamil Pasha was an Egyptian lawyer and nationalist activist. The son of an Egyptian army officer, Kamil was trained as a lawyer at the French law school in Cairo, as a passionate nationalist, he supported Egypts khedive, Abbas Hilmi II, who strongly opposed the United Kingdoms occupation of Egypt and Sudan. He called on Khedive Abbas to grant constitutional government to his subjects, in 1900, Kamil founded the newspaper Al-Liwa as a platform for his views and utilized his skill as both a journalist and lawyer. He founded a school open to Egyptian Muslims, Christians. He was supported strongly by Mohammad Farid, a prominent member of Egypt, with Farids assistance, Kamil founded the National Party in December 1907, two months before his death. His funeral was the occasion for a demonstration of popular grief. Farid, who spent his last penny supporting the national liberation movement. The mausoleum of Mustafa Kamil close to Cairos Citadel in neo-Mamluk style is open to the public as a museum, Kamil is remembered as a fervent Egyptian nationalist, and an articulate advocate of Egyptian independence.
The current Egyptian national anthem is thought to have inspired by one of Mustafa Kamils speeches. - If I werent an Egyptian, I would have wished to be an Egyptian, fazlur Rahman Malik argues that even though he was necessarily secular, his nationalism was inspired by an Islamic past. This appears to be the conclusion as Egypt had remained under the Islamic Caliphate system for centuries before. Arthur Goldschmidt Jr. Biographical Dictionary of Modern Egypt, ein Beitrag zur Ideengeschichte der ägyptischen Nationalbewegung. In, periodical Die Welt des Islams, Leiden,1956 pp.242 –341 William L. Bunton A History of the Modern Middle East
His sobriquet was The Dean of Arabic Literature. He was nominated for a Nobel prize in literature fourteen times, Taha Hussein was born in Izbet el Kilo, a village in the Minya Governorate in central Upper Egypt. He went to a kuttab, and thereafter was admitted to El Azhar University, from an early age, he was reluctant to take the traditional education to his heart. Hussein was the seventh of thirteen children, born into a lower-middle-class family and he became blind at the age of three, the result of faulty treatment by an unskilled practitioner, a condition which caused him a great deal of anguish throughout his entire life. Hussein met and married Suzanne Bresseau while attending the University of Montpellier in France and she was referred to as sweet voice. This name came from her ability to read to him as he was trying to improve his grasp of the French language, Suzanne became his wife, best friend and the mother of his two children and was his mentor throughout his life. Taha Husseins children, his daughter Amina and her younger brother Moenis, were important figures in Egypt.
Amina, who died at the age of 70, was among the first Egyptian women to graduate from Cairo University and she and her brother, translated his Adib into French. This was especially important to their father, who was an Egyptian who had moved to France and learned the language. Even more important, the character of Adib is that of a man who. When the secular Cairo University was founded in 1908, he was keen to be admitted, in 1914, he became the second graduate to receive a PhD, with a thesis on the sceptic poet and philosopher Abu-Alala Al-Maari. He went on to become a professor of Arabic literature there, in 1919, he was appointed a professor of history at Cairo University. Additionally, he was the founding Rector of the University of Alexandria, although he wrote many novels and essays, in the West he is best known for his autobiography, Al-Ayyam which was published in English as An Egyptian Childhood and The Stream of Days. However, it was his book of literary criticism On Pre-Islamic Poetry of 1926 that bought him some fame in the Arab world.
In this book, he expressed doubt about the authenticity of much early Arabic poetry, claiming it to have been falsified during ancient times due to tribal pride and he hinted indirectly that the Quran should not be taken as an objective source of history. Consequently, the book aroused the anger and hostility of the religious scholars at Al Azhar and many other traditionalists. His book was banned but was re-published the next year with slight modifications under the title On Pre-Islamic Literature, after Hussein obtained his MA from the University of Montpellier, he continued his studies and received another PhD at the Sorbonne. With this accomplishment, Hussein became the first Egyptian and member of the mission to receive an MA, for his doctoral dissertation, written in 1917, Hussein wrote on Ibn Khaldun, a Tunisian historian, claimed by some to be the founder of sociology
Naguib Mahfouz was an Egyptian writer who won the 1988 Nobel Prize for Literature. He is regarded as one of the first contemporary writers of Arabic literature, along with Tawfiq el-Hakim and he published 34 novels, over 350 short stories, dozens of movie scripts, and five plays over a 70-year career. Many of his works have made into Egyptian and foreign films. Mahfouz was born into a lower middle-class Muslim family in the medieval Fatimid quarter of Cairo in 1911 and he was the seventh and the youngest child, with four brothers and two sisters, all of them much older than him. His father, Abdel-Aziz Ibrahim, whom Mahfouz described as having been old-fashioned, was a civil servant, the Mahfouz family were devout Muslims and Mahfouz had a strict Islamic upbringing. In an interview, he elaborated on the religious climate at home during his childhood. He stated that You would never have thought that an artist would emerge from that family, the Egyptian Revolution of 1919 had a strong effect on Mahfouz, although he was at the time only seven years old.
From the window he often saw British soldiers firing at the demonstrators and that the one thing which most shook the security of my childhood was the 1919 revolution, he said. In his early years, Mahfouz read extensively and was influenced by Hafiz Najib, Taha Hussein and Salama Moussa, after completing his secondary education, Mahfouz was admitted in 1930 to the Egyptian University, where he studied philosophy, graduating in 1934. By 1936, having spent a year working on an M. A. in philosophy, he decided to discontinue his studies, Mahfouz worked as a journalist for al-Risala, and contributed short stories to el-Hilal and Al-Ahram. He served first as a clerk at Cairo University, then, in 1938, in 1945, he requested a transfer to the al-Ghuri Mausoleum library, where he interviewed residents of his childhood neighborhood as part of the Good Loans Project. In the 1950s, he worked as Director of Censorship in the Bureau of Arts, as Director of the Foundation for the Support of the Cinema, Mahfouz published 34 novels, over 350 short stories, dozens of movie scripts and five plays over a 70-year career.
Possibly his most famous work, The Cairo Trilogy, depicts the lives of three generations of different families in Cairo from World War I until after the 1952 military coup that overthrew King Farouk and he was a board member of the publisher Dar el-Maaref. Many of his novels were serialized in Al-Ahram, and his writings appeared in his weekly column. Before the Nobel Prize only a few of his novels had appeared in the West, most of Mahfouzs early works were set in Cairo. Abath Al-Aqdar and Kifah Tibah, were historical novels, inspired by Sir Walter Scott, Mahfouz planned to cover the entire history of Egypt in a series of books. However, following the third volume, he shifted his interest to the present, Mahfouzs prose is characterised by the blunt expression of his ideas. His written works covered a range of topics, including socialism, homosexuality
Khaled Ali is a prominent Egyptian lawyer and activist. He is known for his advocacy for reform of government and private sector corruption and for promoting social justice, Ali is the former head of the Egyptian Center for Economic and Social Rights and co-founder of the Front for Defending Egypts Protesters and the Hisham Mubarak Law Center. He has been called a legendary anti-corruption crusader and Egypt’s best-known counselor and defender of independent unions and he won the “Egyptian Corruption Fighter” award in 2011. Ali was an activist before and after the 2011 Egyptian Revolution and he has denounced violent acts by the police and military, and has represented revolutionaries and the families of those killed in court. In February 2011, Ali was detained in a raid by Egyptian security forces on the HMLC and he is against the rule of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces and supports postponing the drafting of a new constitution until after the 2012 election. A latecomer to the 2012 presidential race, Ali announced his candidacy the day after he became eligible to run, Ali lays great stress on education, which he believes will lift Egypt out of poverty.
He seeks a balance between the public and private sectors, Ali does not belong to a political party and never has belonged to one. He calls himself the candidate of the poor and he is supported primarily by students, activists and workers, generally on the left of the political spectrum. Alis campaign slogan is We will fulfill our dream, Ali was born in Daqahlia to a modest rural family. He graduated in 1995 and earned a degree from Zagazig University’s law school, Khaled Ali has been a prominent labor activist and lawyer. Al-Ahram Weekly called him a legendary anti-corruption crusader, and CounterPunch described him as Egypt’s best-known counselor and defender of independent unions, in 2011, he was given the “Egyptian Corruption Fighter” award by the “Egyptians Against Corruption. Alis career has been highlighted by several prominent legal cases and victories, most involving corruption and he fought corruption by the Mubarak government, which had illegally privatized public land and public sector factories.
Suing government officials for selling property, he won a judgment ordering the return of several large companies to public ownership. A2001 judgment in a case spearheaded by Ali saw labor syndicates gain more freedoms and his victory winning the renationalization of large companies, sold by the former regime in corrupt deals, included retailer Omar Effendi, the Nile Cotton Weaving Company and several other factories. In February 2010, he said, The government represents the marriage between authority and money—and this marriage needs to be broken up and we call for the resignation of Ahmad Nazifs government because it only works for businessmen and ignores social justice. We call for a wage and a maximum wage, as well as the connection of wages to prices. We call for annual increases in line with inflation rates. We are against the privatization of the insurance sector and call for the fixing of all temporary labor contracts
Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed
Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed or Aḥmad Luṭfī Sayyid Pasha was an Egyptian intellectual, anti-colonial activist and the first director of Cairo University. He was a person in the Egyptian nationalist movement and used his position in the media to strive. He was one of the architects of modern Egyptian nationalism as well as the architect of Egyptian secularism and liberalism and he was fondly known as the Professor of the Generation. Lutfi was one of the fiercest opponents of pan-Arabism, insisting that Egyptians are Egyptians and he is considered one of the most influential scholars and intellectuals in the history of Egypt. Lutfi was born in the village of Berqin, near Al Senbellawein in the Dakahlia Governorate on 15 January 1872. He was educated in a traditional kuttāb, a government school in Manṣūra, the Khedivial Secondary School in Cairo, while at law school, Al-Sayyid made contact with influential people such as Muhammad Abduh and Hassuna al-Nawawi. Abduh played a role in Lutfis experience with his reformist movement as well as his ideology concerning politics.
After graduating from law school, Lutfi entered the department of government services and worked there until 1905. Lutfi became editor-in-chief of a newspaper called al-Jarida in 1907, the paper was prominent for writing enlightened and liberal materials and attracted the attention of many liberal activists. The writings Lutfi composed for al-Jarida during his time as editor-in-chief are considered his most important, the Denshawai incident was a violent clash that occurred in June 1906 between Egyptian peasants in the village of Denshaway and British soldiers who were pigeon hunting in the area. The British had occupied Egypt in 1882 and used British soldiers to put down the Urabi Rebellion. On June 13,1906, five British officers were hunting for pigeons in Denshaway, the hunt was approved, but the headsman was not with the officers. They shot pigeons belonging to villagers, angering the owners, the major catalyst was the accidental shooting of the wife of the prayer leader at the local mosque.
Enraged, the Egyptians mobbed the British officers and camp, the British officers opened fire on the villagers, wounded five, and set fire to the grain of Abd-el-Nebi. Abd-el-Nebi, whose wife had been injured, struck one of the officers with a stick. He was joined by the elderly Hassan Mahfouz, whose pigeons had been killed, other villagers threw stones at them. The officers surrendered their weapons, along with their watches and money, two officers escaped, one of whom managed to contact the British Army, the other died of heatstroke some distance from the village. An Egyptian peasant who tried to help the man was killed by soldiers who came across them