Pages in category "Encomenderos"
The following 44 pages are in this category, out of 44 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 44 pages are in this category, out of 44 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Encomienda – The encomienda was a labor system, rewarding conquerors with the labor of particular groups of people. It was first established in Spain during the Roman period, and it was applied on a much larger scale during the Spanish colonization of the Americas and the Philippines. Conquered peoples were considered vassals of the Spanish monarch and the award of an encomienda was a grant from the crown to a particular individual. In the encomienda, the Spanish crown granted a person a specified number of natives from a community, with the indigenous leaders in charge of mobilizing the assessed tribute. In return, the natives would provide tributes in the form of metals, maize, wheat, in the first decade of Spanish presence in the Caribbean, Spaniards divided up the natives, who in some cases were worked relentlessly. With the ouster of Christopher Columbus, the Spanish crown sent a governor, Fray Nicolás de Ovando. In many cases natives were forced to do hard labor and subjected to extreme punishment, however, Queen Isabella of Castile had forbidden Indian slavery and deemed the indigenous free vassals of the crown, allowing many natives and Spaniards to appeal to the Real Audiencias. In the former Inca Empire, for example, the system continued the Incaic traditions of extracting tribute in the form of labor, the heart of encomienda and encomendero lies in the Spanish verb encomendar, to entrust. The encomienda was based on the Reconquista institution in which adelantados were given the right to extract tribute from Muslims or other peasants in areas that they had conquered and resettled. The encomienda system in Spanish America differed from the Peninsular institution in that encomenderos did not own the land on which the natives lived, the system did not entail any direct land tenure by the encomendero, Indian lands were to remain in the possession of their communities. This right was protected by the crown of Castile because the rights of administration in the New World belonged to this crown. The first grantees of the encomienda or encomenderos were usually conquerors who received grants of labor by virtue of participation in a successful conquest. Later, some receiving encomiendas in New Spain were not conquerors themselves but were well connected that they received grants. He designated as pobladores antiguos, a group of undetermined number of encomenderos in New Spain, holders of encomiendas also included women and indigenous notables. The daughter of Doña Marina and conqueror Juan Jaramillo, Doña Maria Jaramillo, two of Moctezumas daughters, Doña Isabel Moctezuma and her younger sister, Doña Leonor Moctezuma, were granted extensive encomiendas in perpetuity by Hernan Cortes. Doña Leonor Moctezuma married in succession two Spaniards, and left the encomiendas to her daughter by her second husband, vassal Inca rulers established after the conquest also sought and were granted encomiendas. Indeed, the settler-conquistadors knew the fury of the aroused Indian lords, voyagers, explorers, initially, the encomienda system was devised to meet the needs of the early agricultural economies in the Caribbean. Later it was adopted to the economy of Peru and Upper PeruEncomienda – Francisco Hernández Giron was a Spanish encomendero in the Viceroyalty of Peru who protested the New Laws in 1553. These laws, passed in 1542, gave certain rights to indigenous peoples and protected them against abuses. Drawing by Felipe Guamán Poma de Ayala.
2. Fazenda – Fazenda now denotes any kind of farm. Fazendas created major export commodities for Brazilian trade, but also led to intensification of slavery in Brazil, coffee provided a new basis for agricultural expansion in southern Brazil. In the provinces of Rio de Janeiro and then São Paulo, coffee estates, or fazendas, by 1850, coffee made up more than 50% of Brazils exports, and more than half of world coffee production. Along with the expansion of coffee growing came an intensification of slavery in Brazil, as the countrys primary form of labor. More than 1.4 million Africans were forced to be slaves in Brazil in the last 50 years of the slave trade, because of the increased profit from the trade of coffee, the years after 1850 saw considerable growth and prosperity in Brazil. Dom Pedro II proved to be willing to expand economic prosperity, railroads, steamships and the telegraph were introduced to Brazil, all paid for by the money the fazendas supplied from their coffee crop. In growing cities such as Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, merchants, lawyers, a classFazenda – Piedade farm. The master house of a coffee plantation farm founded in the 18th century in Party do Alferes, Rio de Janeiro.
3. Guido de Lavezaris – Guido de Lavezaris was the second Spanish Governor General of the Philippines. He succeeded Miguel López de Legazpi in 1572 as governor, and was succeeded by Francisco de Sande on August 25,1575, little was known of Governor-General Lavezares. In 1543, he became a member of the Villalobos Expedition that traveled to the Philippines and he became the royal treasurer of the expedition during the navigation. Later on, he was one of prisoners who escaped from a prison in Ambon Island when Villalobos crew. Lavezaris also conquered the peninsula of Camarines and granted vast encomiendas to his loyal generals, in 1574, he defeated the notorious Chinese pirate Limahong when the latter attempted to colonize the Philippines. In 1575, Spanish friar Martín de Rada filed a complaint to King Philip II of Spain against Lavezaris and he was reported for abusing power and imposing higher tributes to the natives. He never returned to Spain but retired as a wealthy encomendero and his successor Francisco de Sande issued a decree in 1576 stating the division of his encomienda into smaller lands which were to be distributed to the natives. Sande also filed legal cases like usurpation to him, but this was later absolved by Philip II, the municipality of Lavezares, Northern Samar was named after him. “La Relación del suceso de la venida del tirano chino del gobernador Guido de Lavezares, Épica española en Asia en el siglo XVI. ”Edición, transcripción y notas, Juan Francisco MauraGuido de Lavezaris – Guido de Lavezaris
4. Laws of Burgos – They forbade the maltreatment of the indigenous people and endorsed their conversion to Catholicism. The laws were created following the conquest and Spanish colonization of the Americas in the West Indies, the scope of the laws was originally restricted to the island of Hispaniola but was later extended to Puerto Rico and Jamaica. They also established a minutely regulated regime of work, pay, provisioning, living quarters, hygiene, women more than four months pregnant were exempted from work. The document also prohibited the use of any form of punishment by the encomenderos and it also ordered that the Indians be catechized, outlawed bigamy, and required that the huts and cabins of the Indians be built together with those of the Spanish. It respected, in ways, the traditional authorities, granting chiefs exemptions from ordinary jobs. The limited fulfillment of the laws led to protests and claims. Cardinal Archbishop Domingo de Mendoza of Seville, heard reports of the abuse of the Americas Indians, the colonists plan backfired, though, and the Spanish King was outraged by the cases of maltreatment of the Indians. To solve the moral and legal question, he commissioned a group of theologians, after 1508, the friars made the case to defend the aboriginal American Indians from becoming serfs or slaves of the new colonists. In Burgos, on 27 December 1512, thirty-five laws were put into effect to secure the freedom of the Indigenous peoples of the Americas,1, The Indians are to be moved to encomiendas. For every fifty Indians, four lodges shall be built and this land cannot be taken from them since they were taken from their original land. The Indians will do the planting of all of the food, during the proper seasons, the encomenderos will have the Indians plant corn and raise the hens. 2, The Indians will leave their land voluntarily to come to the encomiendas so that they shall not suffer from being removed by force,3, The citizen to whom the Indians are given must erect a structure to be used as a church. In the church must be a picture of Our Lady and a bell with which to call the Indians to prayer time, the person who has them in the encomienda must go with them to church every night and make sure they cross themselves and sing several hymns. If an Indian does not come to the church, he is not allowed to rest the next day,4, To make sure the Indians are learning Christianity properly, they shall be tested every two weeks and taught what they do not know by the Encomendero. He shall teach them the Ten Commandments, the Seven Deadly Sins, any encomendero that does not do this properly will be fined six gold pesos. 5, A church will be built equidistant from all estates, on Sundays, Mass shall be observed and a feast will be eaten. If the encomendero does not bring his Indians, he will be charged ten gold pesos,6, If The church is too far away, another will be built. 7, The priests who collect tithes from the estates must have priests continually in the churches of the estates,8, There shall be churches built at the mines so that the Indians working the mines may hear mass on SundaysLaws of Burgos – Colonization
5. Antonio de Mendoza – Mendoza was born at Alcalá la Real, the son of the Second Conde de Tendilla, Íñigo López de Mendoza y Quiñones and Francisca Pacheco. He was married to María Ana de Trujillo de Mendoza, Mendoza became Viceroy of New Spain in 1535 and governed for 15 years, longer than any subsequent viceroy. On his arrival in New Spain, he found a recently conquered territory beset with Indian unrest and rivalry among the Spanish conquerors and his difficult assignment was to govern in the kings name without making an enemy of Hernando Cortés. Cortés himself had expected to be made the permanent ruling crown official of New Spain, in 1530 the crown granted Cortés the title of the Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca with multiple encomiendas. With the arrival of Viceroy Mendoza in 1535, Cortés pursued his own interests from his palace in Cuernavaca. Mendozas status as a noble and his familys loyalty to the Spanish crown made him a candidate for appointment. These institutions were the first and second respectively to be established in the mainland of the Americas. In 1536 he began the minting of silver and copper coins, also under his instructions, the first printing press in the New World was brought to Mexico in 1539, by printer Juan Pablos. The first book printed in Mexico, La Escala Espiritual de San Juan Clímaco, on May 18,1541 don Antonio founded the city of Valladolid. In Peru, the implementation of the New Laws resulted in outright rebellion, mendozas policy of obedezco pero no cumplo meant I respect the authority of the crown, but in my judgment I do not implement particular legislation. In 1542 an insurrection of the Indians, called the Mixtón Rebellion threatened to push the Spaniards out of northwestern Mexico, the Viceroy himself had to take the field and bring all disposable manpower. The rebellion was quenched and the surviving Indians were harshly punished, by the viceroys order men, women and children were seized and executed, some by cannon fire, some torn apart by dogs, and others stabbed. In 1548 he suppressed an uprising of the Zapotecs, the Codex Mendoza is named for him. Many of the political and economic policies he established endured throughout the colonial period. He promoted the construction of hospitals and schools and encouraged improvements in agriculture and his administration did much to bring stability and peace to New Spain. He was succeeded as viceroy of New Spain by Don Luis de Velasco and it is reported that his advice to his successor was, Do little and do that slowly. On July 4,1549 in Brussels, Emperor Charles V named Mendoza viceroy of Peru and he traveled overland from Mexico to Panama, and then by boat to Peru. He arrived and took up his new office on November 25,1550, however, he soon became ill, and died in 1552Antonio de Mendoza – Don Antonio de Mendoza
6. Isabel Moctezuma – Doña Isabel Moctezuma was a daughter of the Aztec ruler Moctezuma II. She was the consort of the Aztec emperors Cuitláhuac and Cuauhtémoc, after the Spanish conquest, Doña Isabel was recognized as Moctezumas legitimate heir, and became one of the Mexican Indians granted an encomienda. Among the others were her half-sister Marina Moctezuma, and Juan Sánchez, Doña Isabel was married to three Aztec emperors and three Spaniards and widowed five times. She had an out of wedlock, Leonor Cortés Moctezuma. Her sons founded a line of Spanish nobility, the title of Duke of Moctezuma de Tultengo still exists. Doña Isabels mother was Princess Teotlalco and her name was Tecuichtzin. Teotlalco was Moctezumas principal wife and, thus, among Moctezumas daughters Tecuichpotzin had primacy, as a small child, Tecuichpotzin was married to Atlixcatzin, who died by 1520. After her father was killed, either by his own people or the Spanish, Cuitláhuac died of smallpox after only sixty days of rule and Cuauhtémoc became emperor and married Tecuichpotzin. She was only about eleven or twelve years old at the time of her third marriage, when the Aztecs revolted and expelled Cortés and his army from Tenochtitlan, Tecuichpotzin was left behind in the city by the Spanish. Aztec leaders quickly married her to Cuitláhuac, the new emperor, Cortés returned in 1521 with a large group of Spaniards and Indian allies, mostly from Tlaxcala, to attack Tenochtitlan. The Aztecs, their numbers and morale depleted by an epidemic, were defeated. Cuauhtémoc and his attempted to flee Tenochtitlan by boat. On surrendering, Cuauhtémoc asked the Spanish to respect the ladies of his court, in 1525, Cortés executed Cuauhtemoc and Tecuichpotzin was widowed for the third time. Cortés valued Tecuichpotzin as a symbol of what he wished to portray as the continuity of rule between the Aztecs and the Spanish. She was instructed in Christianity, converted to Catholicism, probably in 1526, and baptized as Isabel, every indication is that Doña Isabel, the former Aztec princess Tecuichpotzin, was devout in her new religion. She gave generously in alms to the Augustinians, to the point that she was asked to stop, Isabel’s education as a Christian did not include teaching her to read and she remained illiterate. Cortés arranged the marriage of Doña Isabel to his close colleague Alonso de Grado in June 1526, part of the marriage arrangement was the granting of a large encomienda to Doña Isabel. The encomienda consisted of the city of Tacuba west of Tenochitlan and was the largest encomienda in the Valley of Mexico, the encomienda of Doña Isabel endured for centuriesIsabel Moctezuma – Genealogy of Tecuichpoch
7. New Laws – The text of the New Laws has been translated to English. The New Laws were the results of a reform movement spurred by what was seen as the effective, decades-old Leyes de Burgos. These had been effective to an extent due to the opposition of some colonists. Some regarded the laws as legalizing the system of forced Indian labor, during the reign of King Charles I, the reformers gained strength, with a number of Spanish missionaries making the case for stricter rules, including the controversial Bartolomé de las Casas. His alleged goal was the abolition of the system, which forced the Indians to abandon their previous lifestyle. His role in the movement earned him the nickname Defender of the Indians. However, his motivations were also political. Eventually, the reformists were able to influence the King to pass a new set of reforms came to be known as the New Laws. The New Laws stated that the natives would be considered free persons, the natives were only required to pay the encomenderos tribute, and, if they worked, they would be paid wages in exchange for their labor. The laws also prohibited the sending of indigenous people to work in the mines unless it was absolutely necessary, as a result, the promulgation of the New Laws caused great unrest among the privileged Spaniards. In Peru it led to a revolt, led by Gonzalo Pizarro, Pizarro headed protesting encomenderos who took to arms in order to maintain their rights by force. Gonzalo Pizarro was invited by the Supreme Court to assume control over its government after marching from Bolivia to Lima with his troops, Pizarro forced himself upon Lima and Quito. The revolt led to the overthrow of Viceroy Blasco Núñez Vela, Pizarro and his army defeated and killed Núñez Vela in 1546. Pizarros power stretched all the way to Panama, Charles I and the court became alarmed and were convinced that the immediate abolition of the encomienda system would bring economic ruin to the colonies. To deal with the revolt, Charles I sent Pedro de la Gasca, however, Pizarro declared Peru independent from the King. La Gasca saw fit to provisionally suspend the New Laws, Pizarro was later captured and executed, having been accused of being a traitor to the King. Although in New Spain, the reaction of encomenderos was noncompliance. New Spains first viceroy Don Antonio de Mendoza prudently refrained from enforcing the parts of the New Laws most objectionable to the encomenderos, over time, there was compliance with most aspects of themNew Laws – Cover of "Leyes Nuevas" of 1542.
8. Slavery in the Spanish New World colonies – The Spanish colonists provided the Americas with a colonial precedent for slavery and influenced the development of modern racial ideologies, such as limpieza de sangre. Spaniards regarded some indigenous people as tribute under the system during the late 1400s. Spanish slavery in the Americas did not diverge drastically from that in other European colonies and it reshuffled the Atlantic Worlds populations through forced migrations, helped transfer American wealth to Europe, and promoted racial and social hierarchies throughout the empire. In fact, Spanish colonization set some records in the field of slavery. The Asiento, the contract for trading in slaves in the vast Spanish territories was a major engine of the Atlantic slave trade. When Spain first enslaved Native Americans on Hispaniola, and then replaced them with captive Africans, the tale of Spanish exploits in the Americas, amplified for propagandistic reasons, earned such notoriety that European rivals called it the Black Legend. Enslaved people challenged their captivity in ways that ranged from introducing non-European elements into Christianity to mounting alternative societies outside of the plantation system, the first open black rebellion occurred in Spanish plantations in 1521. Resistance, particularly to the enslavement of people, also came from Spanish religious. The first speech in the Americas for the universality of human rights and against the abuses of slavery was also given on Hispaniola, resistance to Amerindian captivity in the Spanish colonies produced the first modern debates over race and the legitimacy of slavery. And uniquely in the Spanish American colonies, laws like the New Laws of 1542, were enacted early in the period to protect natives from bondage. Altogether, the struggle against slavery in the Spanish American colonies left a tradition of opposition that set the stage for current conversations about human rights. The Spanish had established precedents for regimes of forced labor prior to their encounter with New World peoples, over centuries in Iberia, Muslims had enslaved Christians, and with the Christian reconquest, the victors enslaved the Moors. Slavery was an institution that was economic in function, but it had strong social dimensions as well, enslaved persons were outsiders of some kind, by ethnicity, language, or religion or some combination. In Iberia, slaves were considered human and possessed some rights, there were some Muslim slaves remaining in Christian Spain after 1492, but increasingly enslaved Africans via the Portuguese slave trade became part of Spains social mosaic. Black slaves in Spain were overwhelmingly domestic servants, and increasingly became prestigious property for elite Spanish households, artisans acquired black slaves and trained them in their trade, increasing the artisans output. Both the Spanish and the Portuguese colonized the Atlantic islands off the coast of Africa, the sugar complex consisted of slave labor for cultivation and processing, with the sugar mill and equipment established with investor capital. When plantation slavery was established in Spanish America and Brazil, they replicated the elements of the complex in the New World on a larger scale. Another form of forced labor used in the New World with origins in Spain was the encomienda and this institution of forced labor was employed by the Spaniards in the Canary Islands following their conquestSlavery in the Spanish New World colonies – Slavery
9. Valladolid debate – The Valladolid debate was the first moral debate in European history to discuss the rights and treatment of a colonized people by colonizers. It consisted of a number of opposing views about the way natives were to be integrated into life, their conversion to Christianity and their rights. Although both sides claimed to have won the disputation, there is no clear record supporting either interpretation, the affair is considered one of the earliest examples of moral debates about colonialism, human rights of colonized peoples and international relations in history. In Spain, it served to establish de las Casas as the primary and he and others contributed to the passing of the New Laws of 1542, which limited the encomienda system further. Though they did not fully reverse the situation, the laws achieved considerable improvement in the treatment of Indians, more importantly, the debate reflected a concern for morality and justice in 16th century Spain that only surfaced in other colonial powers centuries later. Spains colonization and conquest of the Americas inspired a debate especially regarding the compulsory Christianization of the Indians. His efforts influenced the papal bull Sublimis Deus of 1537, more significantly, Las Casas was instrumental in the passage of the New Laws of 1542, which were designed to end the encomienda system. Moved by Las Casas and others, in 1550 the King of Spain Charles V ordered further military expansion to cease until the issue was investigated, the King assembled a Junta of eminent doctors and theologians to hear both sides and to issue a ruling on the controversy. Las Casas represented one side of the debate and his position found some support from the monarchy, which wanted to control the power of the encomenderos, and within the Catholic Church. Representing the other side was Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda, whose arguments supported the interests of the colonists, though Las Casas tried to bolster his position by recounting his experiences with the encomienda systems mistreatment of the Indians, the debate remained on largely theoretical grounds. The Spaniards, according to Sepúlveda, were entitled to other peoples for performing such vicious practices as idolatry, sodomy. Wars had to be waged in order to uproot crimes that offend nature and this was an obligation to which every Spaniard, whether secular or religious, had to conform. Sepúlveda issued four main justifications for enslaving Indians, first, their natural condition deemed them fit for slavery, and it was the responsibility of the Spaniards to act as masters. Second, Spaniards were entitled to prevent Indians from engaging in cannibalism as they saw fit, third, the same went for Indians who sacrificed innocents to their gods. Fourth, slavery was a method of converting Indians to Christianity. He drew on Aristotles theory of slavery and the Humanist tradition to argue that the Indians were predisposed to slavery. Las Casas pointed out every individual was obliged by international law to prevent the innocent from being treated unjustly. He also cited Saint Augustine and Saint John Chrysostom, both of whom had opposed the use of force to punish crimes against nature, human sacrifice was wrong, but it would be better to avoid war by any means possibleValladolid debate – "Wild Men" depicted on the facade of the Colegio de San Gregorio