Category:Erasmus University Rotterdam alumni
Pages in category "Erasmus University Rotterdam alumni"
The following 158 pages are in this category, out of 158 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 158 pages are in this category, out of 158 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Wil Albeda – Willem Albeda was a Dutch politician. He was an ARP and CDA politician who once described himself as a trade unionist and he worked for some years at the Christian Building Federation and the CNV. Then he was professor of policy in Rotterdam. Albeda was interested in international issues, from 1966 he was member and from 1973 chairman of the ARP group in the Senate. He was Minister of Social Affairs in the first cabinet Van Agt, after this he returned to the Senate and later became chairman of the Scientific Council for Government Policy. He died in Maastricht, aged 88
2. Charlie Aptroot – Charles Bernhard Charlie Aptroot is a Dutch politician of the Peoples Party for Freedom and Democracy. He was a Member of the House of Representatives from 30 January 2003 to 19 September 2012 and he focused on matters of traffic, public transport and internal affairs. Since 1 September 2012 he has been mayor of Zoetermeer, Aptroot was elected into the House of Representatives in the general election of 2003. In 2010 he contested in the election for Speaker of the House of Representatives, in the past Aptroot was a member of the municipal council of Wassenaar from 1982 to 1998 and an alderman of the same municipality from 1990 to 1996. He was also a member of the States of South Holland from 1999 to 2003, from 1978 to 2001 Aptroot was together with his brother director of the Jonco-groep, a wholesale in mercery in Rotterdam. Parlement. com biography Charlie Aptroot personal website Media related to Charlie Aptroot at Wikimedia Commons
3. Lucas Bolsius – Lucas Bolsius is a Dutch historian and politician of the Christian Democratic Appeal and since 31 August 2010 mayor of the city of Amersfoort. Bolsius studied social history at Erasmus University Rotterdam and he was a member of the States of South Holland for the Christian Democratic Appeal between 1995 and 1998. In 1998 he became member of the council of Rotterdam for the same party. He performed several jobs before becoming a politician in 2002 when he became an alderman of the municipality of Rotterdam. His responsibilities included social affairs, quarters and public space, after the 2006 elections he continued as alderman. This time his responsibilities include financial affairs, sports and public space, profile at CDA Rotterdam Rotterdam Municipal Information Site
4. Eduard Bomhoff – Eduard Jan Bomhoff is a Dutch economist and academic. Bomhoff is currently a professor at the Monash University Malaysia Campus in Kuala Lumpur. Eduard Jan Bomhoff was born on 30 September 1944 in Amsterdam in a Old Catholic family as the son of Jacobus Gerardus Bomhoff a Minister and professor of literature, the family moved in 1957 to Leiden. Bomhoff attended the Stedelijk Gymnasium Leiden and went to Leiden University, after earning a Master of Economics there he received the Doctor of Philosophy degree in economics from the Erasmus University Rotterdam in 1979. Bomhoff worked as a lecturer in monetary policy there and he earned the rank of professor in 1981, and served as director of the Rochester-Erasmus Executive Master of Business Administration program from 1986 to 1989. He later served as a professor of finance at the Nyenrode Business Universiteit, in addition to his academic career, Bomhoff founded the NYFER institute in 1995, an economic research institute designed as an alternative to the official Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis. Bomhoff was also a columnist for the NRC Handelsblad from 1989 until 2002, Bomhoff served as Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Health, Welfare and Sport from 22 July 2002 to his resignation on October 16 of that year. Bomhoff served as a member of the Pim Fortuyn List despite having been a member of the Labor Party until that election, during his time in the cabinet, Bomhoff came under attack from the Minister of Economic Affairs, Herman Heinsbroek, a fellow member of the LPF. Heinsbroek stated publicly that Bomhoff was a failure as Deputy Prime Minister, a coalition partner, the VVD party, convinced the other LPF ministers that they could replace both Bomhoff and Heinsbroek. Bomhoff told his colleagues that this would not work, but they forced him, LPF never returned to the Dutch cabinet. Bomhoff returned to academia after leaving the government, accepting positions as professor first at the University of Bahrain and he is currently serving as a professor of Economics in Monash Universitys Sunway Campus in Malaysia, in the School of Business. Bomhoff has written a book about his time in government, titled Blinde Ambitie and he has been the Malaysian principal researcher for the World Values Survey and has published his recent research in the Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology and in Public Choice. Bomhoff belongs to the Old Catholic Church but considers his religion a private matter and his religious views are quite orthodox. He is married since 1966 and has two children
5. Lans Bovenberg – Lans Bovenberg was awarded the Spinoza Prize in 2003. Bovenberg was born and raised in Oosterbeek in the Netherlands, between 1976 and 1981 he studied econometrics at the Erasmus University. Teun Kloek supervised his MSc thesis From 1981 to 1984 he studied at the University of California and he obtained his PhD in economics there at the end of 1984 for the dissertation entitled Capital Accumulation and Capital Immobility, Q-theory in a Dynamic General Equilibrium Framework. After graduation he lived in the USA, working at the International Monetary Fund, in 1990 he returned to the Netherlands and after a brief period at the Ministry of Economic Affairs he became a Professor of Economics at the Tilburg University and Erasmus University. Between 1995 and 1998 Bovenberg was deputy director at the Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis, since April 2004 he has been scientific director of research institute Netspar, which he has founded. Bovenberg is an independent member of the Dutch governments Social-Economic Councils committee for Social-Economic Policy, in 2003 he won the Spinoza prize, which allowed him to start the Netspar research institute. Also thanks to these activities he was declared to be one of the 100 most influential Dutchmen by HP/De Tijd magazine in 2007, in 2008 Bovenberg got an honorary doctorate by the University of Ghent, Belgium for his scientific contributions. In 2009 he was elected member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts, the early work of Bovenberg focussed on tax competition in open economies. Later he contributed on optimal taxes and environmental economics, most recently he focussed on population ageing and pension economics. In the area of population ageing and pension Bovenberg advocates more flexible employment contracts, to keep older workers in the labor force, he suggests to offer them more vacation and shorter working hours. He is the architect of the Dutch Life Course Saving Scheme, in 2008 Bovenberg was a member of the Commission Labour Participation, led by P. Bakker. The commission advised the Dutch government on how to increase labor force participation in the Netherlands to 80%, Bovenberg believes that people have be given incentives to make full use of their capacities and that people also have duties, not only rights. He argues that also disadvantaged social groups should be expected to participate to work and he is often considered to be a Christian Democratic Appeal ideologist, but he himself states that his view differs from those of the party in some areas. Together with other Dutch economists like Johan Graafland and Eric van Damme, lans Bovenberg is married and father of two children. He was originally a member of the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands, when he lived in the United States, he was touched by the faith and the practical living of evangelic Christians. When he returned to the Netherlands he became a Pentecostal and he is a member of the charismatic Evangelic Church Jefta in Breda, which is a part of the Pentecostal denomination Rafael Nederland. Twice a year he preaches in his church and he plans to study theology and become a part-time preacher around 2013. Education, publications and activities, Tilburg University Balancing work and family life during the life course Bovenbergs Letter to God
6. Chia Thye Poh – Dr Chia Thye Poh is a Singaporean former political prisoner. Prior to his detention, he had been a teacher, a lecturer, a socialist political activist. Subsequent to it, he has been a student and an interpreter. He travelled to Germany in 1997, and to the Netherlands at least as recently as 2000, the supervision of his PhD thesis in development economics was completed in 2006. He read physics at Nanyang University and upon graduating he worked briefly as a school teacher. Concurrent with his holding of office, he worked as a university physics professor and he was banned permanently from entering Malaysia in the wake of a political speech he delivered to the Perak division of the Labour Party of Malaysia on 24 April 1966. In July 1966, he was convicted for publishing an article in the Barisans Chinese-language newspaper. It has been noted that he was active among peace campaigners calling for an end to the US bombing of Indochina during the Vietnam War in the 1960s. In early October 1966, he and eight other Barisan Sosialis MPs boycotted the Parliament over the decision by the ruling Peoples Action Party to split from Malaysia. This was part of the Barisans strategy to protest undemocratic acts of the Government and he declared that the means of the struggle would be street demonstrations, protest meetings, strikes. On 29 October 1966, he and 22 other Barisan Sosialis leaders were arrested pursuant to powers afforded by the Internal Security Act, the official statement released by the Government alleged that Barisans attempt to arouse a mass struggle outside of parliament was prejudicial to the stability of Singapore. The round of arrests was the one conducted by the government. Chia was specifically detained for his role in organising and leading the procession on 8 October. The other detainees were released eventually after they signed a document promising to renounce violence. However, he refused as he felt that such a document would imply that he was affiliated with the CPM and, in his own words. If I had signed that statement I would not have lived in peace and he was deprived of Singapore citizenship in February 1968 as he could not produce a birth certificate to substantiate his claim that he was born in Singapore in 1933. He was served with a Banishment Order in August 1968, during his incarceration, he spent substantial time in solitary confinement at the Whitley Road Detention Centre. In late 1978, Amnesty International confirmed that he was detained at the Moon Crescent Detention Centre located within the grounds of Changi Prison, in 1982, he was moved out of prison and into a series of government halfway houses
7. Stijn Claessens – Stijn Claessens is a Dutch economist who currently serves as the Assistant Director of International Monetary Funds Research Department. He worked for fourteen years at World Bank beginning in 1987 until 2001 where he assumed various positions including that of Lead Economist. Following his tenure at the World Bank he became Professor of International Finance Policy at the University of Amsterdam where he remained for three years and still is on the faculty, Claessens was born in Udenhout, the Netherlands on June 19,1959. The second son of four, he attended a high school where he excelled in mathematics. After graduating from school, Claessens applied to Erasmus University in Rotterdam where, in May 1979, he received his bachelors in Business Economics. He then went on to receive his doctorate in Business Economics and applied for further education in the United States, Claessens earned his doctorate in economics from Erasmus University in 1984 and his Ph. D from The Wharton School of Business in 1986. During his time at Wharton he was a Research Fellow and taught International Financial Management, in the Spring of 1987 he taught at New York University as a visiting Assistant Professor of International Corporate Finance and International Financial Management. In mid-1987 he joined the World Bank as a Financial Officer, in September 2004 after relocating back to the United States he rejoined the World Bank assuming the position of Senior Adviser to the Vice-President for Financial Setor at the Bank. He left the Bank in January 2007 to join The International Monetary Fund IMF as the Chief of the Financial Studies Division in the Research Department, currently he is also the assistant director, reporting to Olivier Blanchard. Claessens remains a fellow at the Wharton School and at the London-based CEPR and he currently works on business and financial cycles. His work in the field of corporate governance has been quoted, especially The Separation of Ownership and Control in East Asian Corporations with Djankov, Simeon and Lang, Larry. His published work total over 190 books and papers, many have been cited in such as Globalization and Its Discontents and Restoring Financial Stability. His research has been published in the Journal of Financial Economics, Journal of Finance and he has edited several books, including International Financial Contagion Resolution of Financial Distress and A Reader in International Corporate Finance. Financial Crises, Causes, Consequences, and Policy Responses with M. Ayhan Kose, Luc Laeven, ISBN 978-1-47554-340-7 Political Connections and Preferential Access to Finance, The Role of Campaign Contributions with Erik Feijen and Luc Laeven, Journal of Financial Economics, forthcoming. International Financial Integration through Equity Markets, Which Firms from Which Countries Go Global, with Sergio L. Schmukler, Journal of International Money and Finance, forthcoming. Financial sector development and the Millennium Development Goals, with Erik Feijen, World Bank Publications, ISBN 0-8213-6864-8 Resolution of Financial Distress, An International Perspective on the Design of Bankruptcy Laws, with Simeon Djankov and Ashoka Mody. World Bank Publications, ISBN 0-8213-4906-6 A Reader in International Corporate Finance, Volume 1, World Bank Publications, ISBN 0-8213-6698-X Are Financial Sector Weaknesses Undermining the East Asian Miracle, with Thomas C. World Bank Publications, ISBN 0-8213-4006-9 Electronic Finance, A New Approach to Financial Sector Development, World Bank Publications, ISBN 0-8213-5104-4 International Financial Contagion, with Kristin Forbes
8. Hans van den Doel (Labour Party) – Johannes Hans van den Doel was a Dutch politician of the Labour Party. He served as a Member of the House of Representatives from 23 February 1967 until 28 August 1973, a economist and political scientist by occupation. He worked as a professor of science at the Radboud University Nijmegen from 1973 until 1975 when he became a professor of economics at the University of Amsterdam. In 1981 he suffered an infarction at the age of 44, he survived but became paralyzed. The last 30 years of his life he was largely disabled, van den Doel belonged to the founding members of Nieuw Links, then a nascent new left movement in the Labour Party. He was critical of Joop den Uyls advocacy of a mixed economy, J. van den Doel Hans van den Doel at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
9. Willem Drees Jr. – Willem Wim Drees Jr. was a Dutch politician of the Democratic Socialists 70. He served as Parliamentary leader of the Democratic Socialists 70 in the House of Representatives from 29 April 1971, after the Dutch general election of 1971 and became Minister of Transport and Water Management in the Cabinet Biesheuvel I serving from 6 July 1971 until 21 July 1972. He returned to the House of Representatives on 5 September 1972 and he resigned his positions on 20 August 1977 and retired as Leader of the Democratic Socialists 70 the same day. After attending Gymnasium Haganum from 1934 to 1940, Drees studied at the Erasmus University Rotterdam from 1940 to 1946, on 3 February 1947 he married Anna Erica Gescher. They had five children, four girls and one son Willem B, Drees the third child became a philosopher. Anna Erica Drees-Gescher died on 12 May 1988 at the age of 65, Willem Drees Jr. died on 5 September 1998 at the age of 75. Relatively young compared to his parents, his father Willem Drees died at the age of 101 and his mother Catharina Hent died at the age of 85
10. Wim Driehuis – Wim Driehuis is a Dutch economist, Emeritus Professor Economics and Business at the University of Amsterdam. Born in Utrecht Driehuis received his BA in Economics in 1963, in 1972 he received his PhD cum laude from the Erasmus University Rotterdam. Driehuis started his career as assistant for KPMG in 1960, in 1963-64 he was part-time student-researcher for SEO Economic Research and in 1965-66 he was part-time researcher for the Rabobank. In 1973 Driehuis was appointed Professor of Economics at the University of Amsterdam, in 1975 he became Professor of Macroeconomics till 1991. He then became part-time Professor of Marketing and Marketing Research till 2002, from 1990-2007 Driehuis was CEO of EMIS N. V. From 2000-2008 he was Director for PricewaterhouseCoopers, in 2002 he was appointed part-time Professor of Applied Economics, while affiliated to the Amsterdam Center for Law & Economics at the University of Amsterdam. In 1975 Driehuis was awarded the Winkler Prins Prize for the best PhD in Economics, Driehuis has authored and co-authored many books and articles in the field of macro-economics, econometric model building, labour market, market research and law and economics. Primary Commodity Prices, Analysis and Forecasting, experiments in Explaining and Forecasting the Invisible Trade of the Netherlands Bulletin Oxford Institute of Economics and Statistics. An Econometric Analysis of Liner Freight Rates, Review of Word Economics, fluctuations and Growth in a Near Full Employment Economy, a Quarterly Econometric Analysis of the Netherlands, Rotterdam University Press. Inflation, Wage bargaining, Wage Policy and Production Structure, Theory and empirical results for the Netherlands, a Sectoral Wage-Price Model for the Netherlands’ Economy, in H. Frisch, Inflation in Small Countries. Labour Market Imbalances and Structural Unemployment, Kyklos, an Analysis of the Impact of Demand and Cost factors on Employment, De Economist. A Critical View on the Preparation of Economic Policy, with A. van der Zwan, Employment and Technical Progress in Open Economies, in Economies of the Labour Market. A Sectoral Model for the Dutch Economy (with E. C. van Ierland, Macroeconomic Investment and Employment Functions in R. v. d. Unemployment in the Netherlands 1960-1983, Economica, introduction to Economics, Vol.1 and vol. Challenges for Macroeconomic Modelling, North-Holland Publishing, a Disequilibrium Model for the Dutch economy, in C. The Effects of investment Subsidies on Employment (with P. J. van den Noord, Economic Modelling
11. Joost Eerdmans – Bernard Johannes Joost Eerdmans is a Dutch politician of the Livable Rotterdam party. He is an Alderman and the Deputy mayor of Rotterdam 15 May 2014, bernard Johannes Eerdmans was born on 9 January 1971 in Harderwijk in the Dutch Province of Gelderland in a Reformed family. Eerdmans studied Management Science at the Erasmus Universiteit in Rotterdam, after working for some time on projects for the Christian Democratic Appeal, Eerdmans worked at the Ministry of Justice from 1997 until 1999. In 1999 he became secretary to Ivo Opstelten, the mayor of Rotterdam, in 2002 Eerdmans contacted Pim Fortuyn, who at that time was busy assembling a list of candidates for his new political party, Pim Fortuyn List. Eerdmans is placed 19th on the list and after the 2002 elections he became a member of the House of Representatives, after the fall of the cabinet, new elections were called. This time the LPF won only 8 seats, but since Eerdmans was second on the list he remained in Parliament and he was removed from the partys parliamentary faction after it was definitively announced that Eerdmans would be on the Eén NL candidate list for the 2006 elections. For the Dutch general election,2006, Eerdmans split with the LPF to form a new party called One NL with Marco Pastors of Leefbaar Rotterdam. After the dismal result of One NL in the 2006 elections, Eerdmans left Dutch politics, Eerdmans was elected lijsttrekker of Leefbaar Rotterdam on 6 October 2013. In the local elections of 2014 Leefbaar Rotterdam became the biggest party in Rotterdam, the party subsequently formed a coalition with D66 and CDA, in which Eerdmans is an alderman. Eerdmans has been a television host on the Dutch channel Het Gesprek and he was also one of the hosts of the Dutch program TROS Regelrecht. Official Drs. B. J. Eerdmans Parlement & Politiek
12. Peter Ester – Peter Ester is a Dutch sociologist and politician. As a member of the ChristianUnion he has been a member of the Senate since 7 June 2011 and he focuses on matters of economic affairs, agriculture, social affairs and employment, finance, infrastructure, natural environment and Kingdom relations. Ester studied sociology at Utrecht University and got promoted in economics at Erasmus University Rotterdam, among others he worked at Vrije Universiteit, Tilburg University and Utrecht University. Ester is married and a member of the Protestant Church in the Netherlands
13. Prince Friso of Orange-Nassau – Prince Friso of Orange-Nassau was a younger brother of King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands. On 17 February 2012, Prince Friso was buried under an avalanche in Lech, Austria and he was taken to a hospital in Innsbruck where he was in a critical but stable condition. His initial coma later progressed to a conscious state and it was unclear whether he would ever regain full consciousness. On 12 August 2013, one and a years after the accident. He had one brother, current King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands and one younger brother. His titles at birth were Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau, Prince Friso was baptized on 28 December 1968 in the Dom Church in Utrecht. His godparents were Prince Harald of Norway, Johan Christian Baron von Jenisch, Herman van Roijen, Queen Juliana of the Netherlands, in 1986, he graduated from the secondary school Eerste Vrijzinnig Christelijk Lyceum in The Hague. From 1986 until 1988, he studied engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. From 1988 to 1994 he studied at Delft University of Technology, additionally, he earned an MSc degree in economics from Erasmus University Rotterdam. To prepare himself for the possibility of succession to the throne, he took courses in Dutch law, Prince Friso worked from 1995 until 1996 at the Amsterdam branch of the international management consultancy McKinsey. After completing an MBA-programme at INSEAD, Prince Friso worked as president from 1998 till 2003 in Goldman Sachs International in London. In 2004, he became part-time co-president of TNO Space in Delft, from October 2006, Prince Friso was Managing Director in the London office of the private investment and advisory firm Wolfensohn & Company. Prince Friso was a co-founder of the MRI Centre in Amsterdam and was also a shareholder of Wizzair. Prince Friso was honorary chairman of the Prince Claus Fund for Culture, prior to his accident, Prince Friso was working as a chief financial officer for URENCO, a uranium enrichment company. On 30 June 2003, it was announced that Prince Friso was to marry Mabel Wisse Smit and this breach of trust was the reason the government did not seek parliamentary permission, respecting the wishes of the couple. They nevertheless married in Delft on 24 April 2004, and Mabel Wisse Smit became a member of the Dutch Royal Family but not a member of the Dutch Royal House. Considering that his elder brother King Willem-Alexander has three children, Prince Frisos exclusion from the succession was unlikely to have an effect on the monarchy in the Netherlands. After their marriage, Prince Friso and his wife Princess Mabel set up home in London, the couple had two daughters, Countess Emma Luana Ninette Sophie of Orange-Nassau, Jonkvrouwe van Amsberg, born 26 March 2005 in London
14. Aart Jan de Geus – Aart Jan de Geus is chairman of the board of the Bertelsmann Foundation. Previously, he was deputy secretary-general of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and he is a CDA Dutch politician and was the Minister of Social Affairs and Employment of the Netherlands in the first, second and third cabinet Balkenende. De Geus received his propaedeuse in accounting in 1975 and he then studied Dutch law at the Erasmus University, followed by postdoctoral studies at the Catholic University of Nijmegen. From 1980, de Geus worked for the Federation of Christian Trade Unions, in 1993 he became a vice-chairman, with a portfolio including social security, pensions, public health and public works. In this capacity he became a member of the Dutch Social-Economic Council. In 1998, he was made a partner in the consulting firm Boer & Croon, on 22 July 2002 de Geus became Minister of Social Affairs and Employment in the Balkenende I cabinet. On 16 October he took over the Ministry of Health, Welfare and he was renamed Minister of Social Affairs and Employment in the Balkenende II Cabinet. On 6 February 2007 it became known that de Geus did not plan on returning in the new cabinet and he left his ministerial position on 20 February that year and assumed his OECD duties on 5 March
15. Wassila Hachchi – Wassila Hachchi is a Dutch former politician and former civil servant and Royal Netherlands Navy officer. As a member of Democrats 66 she was an MP from 17 June 2010 until 19 January 2016 and she focused on matters of defense, development aid and Kingdom relations. Wassila Hachchi was born on 6 January 1980 in Rotterdam in the Netherlands and she is of Moroccan descent and grew up in Breda. Hachchi has a degree in administration from the Erasmus University Rotterdam and was educated at the Royal Netherlands Naval College. She was commissioned in the Royal Netherlands Navy as an officer from 2003 to 2007. On 17 June 2010, Hachchi was sworn in as a Liberal-Democrat member of the Dutch Parliament, in May 2015, Hachchi gave a TED talk at TEDx Amsterdam Women regarding social media and politics. In June 2015, Hachchi advised that all pilots undergo mandatory psychological testing, on 20 January 2016 Hachchi claimed to have left the House of Representatives to join the Hillary Clinton presidential campaign,2016, which has been denied by the campaign. Her sudden leave from the House and lack of communication caused some commotion and she was succeeded in the House by Salima Belhaj. In April 2016, she declared she renounced her D66 membership, ASIN B01NCI87ID Parlement. com biography House of Representatives biography
16. Mohammad Hatta – Mohammad Hatta was Indonesias first vice president, later also serving as the countrys prime minister. Known as The Proclamator, he and a number of Indonesians, including the first president of Indonesia, Sukarno, Hatta was born in Fort De Kock, West Sumatra, Dutch East Indies. After his early education, he studied in Dutch schools in the Dutch East Indies, Mohammad Hatta is often remembered as Bung Hatta. Hatta was born in Fort De Kock on 12 August 1902 into a prominent and his grandfather was a respected ulema in Batuhampar, near Payakumbuh. His father, Haji Mohammad Djamil, died when he was eight months old and he was left with his six sisters, as in the matrilineal society of Minangkabau tradition, he was then raised in his mothers family. His mothers family was wealthy, and Hatta was able to study Dutch as well as finishing Quran after school and he went to the Dutch language elementary school in Padang from 1913 to 1916 after he had finished Sekolah Melayu in Bukittinggi. When he was thirteen, he passed an exam that entitled him to enroll in the Dutch secondary school in Batavia, however his mother asked him to stay in Padang because he was still too young to go to the capital alone. Hatta then entered junior secondary school or MULO, during his spare time, he worked part-time in a post office. Normally, MULO students were not allowed to work, but he was able to work there because of the HBS exam qualification, Hatta was interested in football, he joined his schools football team and was made its chairman. He broadened his sphere of contacts by using his position, Hatta used to visit the office of the Sarikat Usaha, led by Taher Marah Soetan. In the office, he read Dutch newspapers, particularly about political debates in the Volksraad of the Dutch East Indies and it was at the age of sixteen that Hatta began to be interested in politics and national movements. He was chosen the treasurer of the branch of the Jong Sumatranen Bond, in 1919, Hatta finally went to the HBS in Batavia. He completed his study with distinction in 1921, and was allowed to continue to study at the Rotterdam School of Commerce in Rotterdam and he took economics as his major and earned a doctorandus degree in 1932. The degree entitled him to follow a doctorate program and he then continued to pursue the doctorate degree, and completed all requirements to be awarded it, but he never finished his thesis. Politics had taken over Hattas life, in the Netherlands, Hatta joined the Indische Vereeniging. In 1922, the changed its name to Indonesische Vereeniging and later to its Indonesian translation. Hatta was the treasurer, and then the chairman, the Perhimpoenan Indonesia then changed from being a student organization into a political organization and had an unequivocal demand for Indonesias independence. It expressed its voice through the magazine called Indonesia Merdeka of which Hatta was the editor, to gain more support from other nations, Hatta attended congresses all over Europe, always as the chairman of the Indonesian delegation