1. Therese Brandl – Therese Brandl was a Nazi concentration camp guard. In March 1942, Brandl was one of several SS women to be assigned to Auschwitz I concentration camp and her duties included watching over women in the sorting sheds and as the SS Rapportaufseherin. In October 1942, she was moved to the newly opened Auschwitz II extermination camp at Birkenau and she was convicted of crimes against humanity after the war during the Auschwitz Trial in Kraków and executed. Born in Staudach-Egerndach, Bavaria, Brandl entered Ravensbrück concentration camp in March 1940 to begin her training under SS-Oberaufseherin Johanna Langefeld. Sent to Auschwitz I during March 1942, Brandl worked in the laundry and soon rose through the ranks and became an Erstaufseherin directly under Margot Dreschel, in the summer of 1943, she received a medal from the Reich for her good conduct in the camps. In November 1944, all children were transferred to Camp A, in November 1944, with the approach of the Soviet Army, she was sent to the Mühldorf Forest subcamp of Dachau along with Mandel and was demoted to Aufseherin. Not many reports have surfaced about Brandls behavior at Muhldorf and she ultimately fled from Muhldorf on 27 April 1945, weeks before the arrival of the United States Army. On 29 August 1945, the U. S. Army arrested her in the Bavarian mountains of Germany, in November 1947 she was tried by the Polish authorities along with Mandl, Luise Danz, Hildegard Lächert and Alice Orlowski in the Auschwitz Trial at Kraków. On 22 December 1947, Brandl was convicted of participating in the selection of inmates to be put to death and she was hanged in prison on 28 January 1948, four days before her 46th birthday. Female guards in Nazi concentration camps G. Álvarez, MónicaTherese Brandl – Brandl at the time of her arrest, 1945
2. Maria Mandl – Mandl was born in Münzkirchen, Upper Austria, then part of Austria-Hungary, the daughter of a shoemaker. On 15 May 1939, she, along with other guards and she quickly impressed her superiors and, after she had joined the Nazi Party on 1 April 1941, was elevated to the rank of a SS-Oberaufseherin in April 1942. She oversaw daily roll calls, assignments for Aufseherinnen and punishments such as beatings and floggings, on 7 October 1942, Mandl was assigned to the Auschwitz II Birkenau camp where she succeeded Johanna Langefeld as SS-Lagerführerin of the women camp under SS-Kommandant Rudolf Höß. As a woman she could never outrank a man, but her control over female prisoners and her female subordinates was absolute. The only man Mandl reported to was the commandant and she controlled all the female Auschwitz camps and female subcamps including at Hindenburg, Lichtewerden and Raisko. Mandl took a liking to Irma Grese, whom she promoted to head of the Hungarian womens camp at Birkenau. According to some accounts, Mandl often stood at the gate into Birkenau waiting for an inmate to turn and look at her, any who did were taken out of the lines and never heard from again. At Auschwitz, Mandl was known as The Beast, and for the two years she participated in selections for death and other documented abuses. She signed inmate lists, sending an estimated half a million women and children to their deaths in the gas chambers at Auschwitz I, Mandl created the Womens Orchestra of Auschwitz to accompany roll calls, executions, selections and transports. An Auschwitz prisoner, Lucia Adelsberger, later described it in her book, Auschwitz, Ein Tatsachenbericht, music was ordered for all occasions, for the addresses of the Camp Commanders, for the transports and whenever anybody was hanged. For services rendered, Mandl was awarded the War Merit Cross 2nd class, in November 1944, she was assigned to the Mühldorf subcamp of Dachau concentration camp and Elisabeth Volkenrath became head of Auschwitz, which were liberated in late January 1945. In May 1945, Mandl fled from Mühldorf into the mountains of southern Bavaria to her birthplace, the United States Army arrested Mandl on 10 August 1945. Interrogations reportedly revealed her to be intelligent and dedicated to her work in the camps. She was handed over to the Peoples Republic of Poland in November 1946, stanisława Rachwałowa was imprisoned in the cell next to Maria Mandl and Therese Brandl. Rachwałowa was proficient enough in German to interpret for the wardens and she stated that the last time she and the two German war criminals met - after they had been sentenced to death and shortly before their executions took place - both had asked her for forgiveness. Mandl was hanged on 24 January 1948, aged 36, Brandl was hanged on 28 January 1948, aged 45. Irma Grese Ilse Koch Female guards in Nazi concentration camps Brown, the Camp Women, The Female Auxiliaries Who Assisted the SS in Running the Nazi Concentration Camp System, Schiffer Publishing 2002, ISBN 0-7643-1444-0Maria Mandl – Mandl after her arrest by US troops, 1945
3. Marie Antoinette – Marie Antoinette (/ˈmæriˌæntwəˈnɛt/, /ˌɑ̃ːntwə-/, /ˌɑ̃ːtwə-/, US /məˈriː-/, French, born Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna, was the last Queen of France and Navarre before the French Revolution. She was born an Archduchess of Austria, and was the fifteenth and second youngest child of Empress Maria Theresa and Francis I, in April 1770, upon her marriage to Louis-Auguste, heir apparent to the French throne, she became Dauphine of France. After eight years of marriage, Marie Antoinette gave birth to a daughter, Marie-Thérèse Charlotte, the Diamond Necklace affair damaged her reputation further. On 10 August 1792, the attack on the Tuileries forced the family to take refuge at the Assembly. On 21 September 1792, the monarchy was abolished, after a two-day trial begun on 14 October 1793, Marie Antoinette was convicted by the Revolutionary Tribunal of high treason, and executed by guillotine on Place de la Révolution on 16 October 1793. Maria Antonia was born on 2 November 1755, at the Hofburg Palace and she was the youngest daughter of Empress Maria Theresa, ruler of the Habsburg Empire, and her husband Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. Her godparents were Joseph I and Mariana Victoria, King and Queen of Portugal, Archduke Joseph, shortly after her birth, she was placed under the care of the Governess of the Imperial children, Countess von Brandeis. Maria Antonia was raised with her older sister Maria Carolina. As to her relationship with her mother, it was difficult, despite the private tutoring she received, results of her schooling were less than satisfactory. At the age of ten she could not write correctly in German or in any language used at court, such as French. Under the teaching of Christoph Willibald Gluck, Maria Antonia developed into a good musician and she learned to play the harp, the harpsichord and the flute. During the familys gatherings in the evenings, she would sing and she also excelled at dancing, had an exquisite poise, and loved dolls. Following the Seven Years War and the Diplomatic Revolution of 1756, Empress Maria Theresa decided to end hostilities with her longtime enemy, on 14 May she met her husband at the edge of the forest of Compiègne. Upon her arrival in France, she adopted the French version of her name, a further ceremonial wedding took place on 16 May 1770 in the Palace of Versailles and, after the festivities, the day ended with the ritual bedding. The lack of consummation of the marriage plagued the reputation of both Louis-Auguste and Marie Antoinette for the seven years. The initial reaction to the marriage between Marie Antoinette and Louis-Auguste was mixed, on the one hand, the Dauphine was beautiful, personable and well-liked by the common people. Her first official appearance in Paris on 8 June 1773 was a resounding success, on the other hand, those opposed to the alliance with Austria, and others, for personal reasons, had a difficult relationship with Marie Antoinette. Madame du Barry, for example, was Louis XVs mistress and had political influence over himMarie Antoinette – Marie Antoinette with the Rose Portrait by Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun, 1783.
4. Elisabeth Plainacher – Elisabeth Plainacher, or Elsa Plainacher, was an alleged Austrian witch. She was the person executed for sorcery in the city of Vienna. Elsa Plainachers parents operated a mill in Pielamund by the Danube and she was married three times and had children. When her daughter Margaret died, she became the guardian of her four grandchildren by her, three of them soon died, and only one, Anna, was left. Anna suffered from epilepsy, which was seen as a sign of the Devil, Elsa was seen as responsible for the sickness of Anna and also for the deaths of her husband and three other grandchildren. Elsa was arrested and taken to Vienna, where her case was overseen by the Jesuit inquisitor Georg Scherer, during the interrogations, she confessed to anything under torture. She was judged guilty and sentenced to be executed by burning, die Torturen der Hexe von Wien, Folterprotokoll 1583Elisabeth Plainacher – Elisabeth Plainacher