Category:Executed people from Henan
Pages in category "Executed people from Henan"
The following 46 pages are in this category, out of 46 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 46 pages are in this category, out of 46 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Chao Cuo – Chao Cuo was a Chinese political advisor and official of the Han Dynasty, renowned for his intellectual capabilities and foresight in martial and political matters. Although not against the philosophy of Confucius, he was described by later Eastern Han scholars as a Legalist and he was an early advocate of revoking the heqin treaty with the Xiongnu nomads of the north. He compared the relative strengths and weaknesses of both Han Chinese and Xiongnu military tactics, in a written work of 169 BC, he advocated a systematic policy to populate and defend frontier zones. He fell victim to execution when political rivalries at the court convinced Emperor Jing that Chaos death would curtail or at least mitigate the Rebellion of the Seven States. Chao Cuo was born in Yuzhou, Henan and served the courts of Emperor Wen of Han. However, since Fu was too old to give lectures, he had his educated daughter teach Chao instead. The capstone of Chaos political career in the capital Changan was his appointment in 155 BC to the post of Imperial Secretary —one of the three most senior posts in the central government. He was well known for his knowledge about politics, warfare, agriculture, economics, border defense, the heqin agreement was supposed to guarantee peace and stability between the Han and Xiongnu. It was not until after the Battle of Mayi during Emperor Wus reign that the treaty was finally abolished in favor of an offensive military strategy to break apart the Xiongnu Empire. In a memorandum entitled Guard the Frontiers and Protect the Borders that he presented to the throne in 169 BC, Chao compared the relative strengths of Xiongnu, however, he viewed Xiongnu cavalry inferior when faced with Han infantry and chariots on flat, level plains. He emphasized the superiority of Han iron armor and weapons over the Xiongnus leather armor and he deemed the Chinese composite crossbow and repeating crossbow superior to the Xiongnus composite bow. When dismounted, he believed that the Xiongnu, untrained in infantry tactics, in his Rise of the Chinese Empire, historian Chun-shu Chang outlines the main points on frontier development embodied in Chaos Guard the Frontiers and Protect the Borders proposal of 169 BC. The following are excerpts from Chaos written memorandum, for the immigrants in such border areas, the government will construct walled cities, well protected by high walls, deep moats, catapults, and thorns. Each city, along strategic points and thoroughfares, will be designed to hold no fewer than one thousand households. Each walled city will have an inner wall and an outer wall 150 paces apart. Each residential area in the area is to be surrounded by sandy fields to detect the intrusion of enemies in the night. The Government will construct houses and provide farming tools before the arrival of the migrants, the government will reward anyone who stops a Hsiung-nu raid and will award him half of what he recovers from the enemy. First enlist ordinary and pardoned convicts, then given by their masters to purchase aristocratic ranks. The government will reward them with ranks, and their families will be exempt from taxation, the government will build frontier communities that are rooted locally, tightly connected, mutually assisted, and militarily united against the barbarians
2. Yue Fei – Yue Fei, courtesy name Pengju, was a Han Chinese military general who lived during the Southern Song dynasty. His ancestral home was in Xiaoti, Yonghe Village, Tangyin, Xiangzhou and he was granted the posthumous name Wumu by Emperor Xiaozong in 1169, and later granted the posthumous title King of È by Emperor Ningzong in 1211. Widely seen as a patriot and national hero in China. A biography of Yue Fei, the Eguo Jintuo Zubian, was written 60 years after his death by his grandson, Yue Feis biography is found in the 365th chapter of the book and is numbered biography 124. Some later historians including Deng Guangming now doubt the veracity of many of Yue Kes claims about his grandfather. According to the History of Song, Yue Fei was named Fei, meaning to fly, because at the time he was born, a large bird like a swan landed on the roof of his house. Yue Feis second biography, is a novel titled Shuo Yue Quan Zhuan, was written by Qian Cai. A dating symbol in its preface points either to the year 1684 or to 1744 and it was banned during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor. There are two versions of this novel in existence. The original one had 80 chapters, there was an illustrated edition of this version published in 1912. The other version also had 80 chapters and was published during the reign of the Tongzhi Emperor and it is currently sold under the title General Yue Fei. Some people mistakenly take this novel to be historical fact when it is purely fiction, indeed some of the events described there are nothing more than Qian Cais own imagination. The Song Yue E Wang Nianpu was written by Qian Ruwen in 1924, several sources state that Yue was born into a poor tenant farmers family in Tangyin County, Anyang prefecture, Henan province. A few days later, a young child squeezed Yue Feis hand too hard, soon, it began to rain and the Yellow River flooded, wiping out the village. Yue Feis father held onto the clay jar as it was swept down the river, although the much older Biography of Yue Fei also mentions the flood, it states Yue Huo survived. It reads, After, would offer sacrifices at his tomb, Yue Feis father used his familys plot of land for humanitarian efforts, but after it was destroyed in the flood, the young Yue Fei was forced to help his father toil in the fields to survive. Yue received most of his education from his father. In 1122 Yue joined the army, but had to return later that year after the death of his father
3. Wei Yan – Wei Yan, courtesy name Wenchang, was a military general of the state of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period. Originally a foot soldier under the warlord Liu Bei, Wei Yan rose through the ranks and his talent and performance during battles helped him to become a prominent figure in the Shu military in a short period of time. He was later appointed as the Administrator of Hanzhong Commandery and as an Area Commander in 219, between 228 and 234, he participated actively in the Northern Expeditions led by the Shu chancellor-regent Zhuge Liang against Shus rival state, Cao Wei. After Zhuge Liangs death in 234, Wei Yan was killed by another Shu general, Ma Dai, Wei Yan was from Yiyang Commandery in Jing Province. As one of Liu Beis personal retainers, he followed Liu Bei into Yi Province in 212 to attack the warlord Liu Zhang and he had many military accomplishments and was assigned as a General of the Standard. When Liu Bei announced his decision to entrust Wei Yan with that responsibility, during his tenure, Wei Yan borrowed the concept of double gates from the ancient text Zhou Yi and laid numerous camps along the outskirt and trail exits linking to Hanzhong. His defence mechanism was very effective in driving the enemy out, in 221, Liu Bei founded the state of Shu Han and became its first emperor. He died in 223 and was succeeded by his son, Liu Shan, in that year, Liu Shan made Wei Yan a Marquis of a Chief Village. About four years later, Shus chancellor-regent Zhuge Liang launched the first of a series of campaigns to attack Shus rival state Cao Wei, Wei Yan supervised the front division, and he held the appointments of Major under the Chancellor and Inspector of Liang Province. Wei Yan treated his soldiers well and was known for his bravery, however, he was also boastful of his talents and his peers tended to avoid him. Yang Yi, an aide of Zhuge Liang, made no concession to Wei Yan. Wei Yan participated in most – if not all – of the Northern Expeditions against the state of Cao Wei. During the second campaign, Wei Yan suggested to Zhuge Liang to take a route to attack Changan, a strategic city in Wei. Zhuge Liang then led the Shu army to besiege Chencang, where they could only lament upon the defence of the 1,000 defenders led by the Wei general Hao Zhao. After one and a months of little progress, the ill-fated campaign was terminated. However, the Wei generals Fei Yao and Guo Huai wanted to earn some merits before their retreat, so they attacked Wei Yan at Yangxi, thus, the Shu force behind the enemy lines was able to make a prudence dictated return to Hanzhong Commandery. Wei Yan was then promoted to Front Military Adviser Senior General Who Attacks the West, Zhuge Liang rejected the plan, and Wei Yan felt that Zhuge was a coward and complained that his talent was not put to good use. Wei Yans reasoning for his Ziwu Valley Plan was recorded in the historical text Weilüe and it stated, Wei Yan received intelligence that the defender of the strategic city Changan, Xiahou Mao, was cowardly and incompetent
4. Zhang Xun (Tang dynasty) – Zhang Xun was a general of the Chinese Tang Dynasty. However, he was criticized by some contemporaries and some later historians as lacking humanity due to his encouragement of cannibalism during the Battle of Suiyang. Other historians praised him for his faithfulness to Tang. Zhang Xun was born in 709, during the reign of Emperor Zhongzong of Tang and it was said that he was studious in military strategies in his youth and had great ambitions. It was also said that he associated with those he considered to be gentlemen. He was said to have served capably at Qinghe, and while there, after his term of service was over, he returned to the Tang Dynasty capital Changan. At that time, the affairs were dominated by the chancellor Yang Guozhong. Zhang refused, stating that it was inappropriate for a subject to be a flatterer. He later served as the magistrate of Zhenyuan County, after Zhang arrived at Zhenyuan, he executed Hua for his abuse of power but pardoned Huas associates, who were able to correct their ways. He also governed the county simply, and the people favored his governance and his older brother Zhang Xiao was also an imperial official, and both were known for their literary talent. One of his generals, Zhang Tongwu, advanced east from Luoyang and led to the submission of a number of Tang officials, including Zhang Xuns superior Yang Wanshi, Yang forced Zhang Xun to become his secretary general and lead a delegation to welcome Zhang Tongwu. Several thousands of officials and common citizens followed him and he selected 1,000 men and took them to Yongqiu, where fellow Yan-resistor Jia Bi had taken up position to defend against the Tang-official-turned-Yan-general Linghu Chao. When Linghu counterattacked, Jia died in battle, and Zhang became solely in command of Tang forces in defense of Yongqiu, Linghu soon returned with a 40, 000-strong Yan army, along with other Yan generals Li Huaixian, Yang Chaozong, and Xie Yuantong. Yongqiu was under siege for some 60 days, but Yan forces could not capture Yongqiu and were forced to withdraw. Zhang feigned agreement, and the morning, he displayed a portrait of Emperor Xuanzong and led the soldiers in bowing to it. It was said that this affirmed the loyalty that the soldiers had for Tang, with Yongqiu not falling to him, Linghu was again forced to lift the siege and withdraw to Chenliu. Meanwhile, when another Yan general, Li Tingwang, tried to pass Yongqiu and attack Ningling and Xiangyi, Zhang attacked him and forced him to break off the attack on Ningling and Xiangyi. In winter 756, Linghu, along with Wang Fude, again attacked Yongqiu, however, Linghu and Li then built a new fort north of Yongqiu to cut off Yongqius supply lines
5. Cai Yong – Cai Yong courtesy name Bojie was a scholar of the Eastern Han Dynasty. He was well-versed in calligraphy, music, mathematics and astronomy, One of his daughters was the famous Cai Wenji. Cai Yong was born into a local family in Chenliu. When his father Cai Leng died, Cai Yong lived with his uncle Cai Zhi while taking care for his own mother for her last three years. When she died, Cai Yong became known for his arrangement of his mothers tomb, after that, Cai Yong studied composition, mathematics, astronomy, pitch-pipes, and music under Hu Guang, one of the highest-ranking officials in the Han court. In the early 160s Cai Yong was recommended to the Emperor Huan by the senior eunuchs for his skill with the drums, on his way to the capital, Cai Yong feigned illness to return home to study in seclusion. Ten years later in the early 170s, Cai Yong went to serve Qiao Xuan as a clerk, afterwards, Cai Yong served as a county magistrate and then a Consultant in the capital, in charge of editing and collating the text in the library. Known for his skills, he was constantly commissioned to write eulogies, memorial inscriptions. In 175, in fear of trying to alter the Confucian classics to support their views, Cai Yong. Emperor Ling approved, and the result was the Xiping Stone Classics, completed in 183, throughout his political career, he was an advocate of restoring ceremonial practices and often criticized against the eunuchs influence in politics. He was successful in persuading the emperor to participate in a ritual in the winter of 177 through his memorials, in the autumn of 178, the scholars were asked for advice on recent ill omens. Cai Yong responded with criticisms of eunuch pretensions, the eunuchs learnt of the attack, and accused Cai Yong and his uncle Cai Zhi of extortion. They were thrown into prison and sentenced to death, but the sentence was remitted to exile in the northern frontiers. Nine months later, he cited to the throne that his work on the history and classics were at risk from enemy raids. However, he offended the sibling of an influential eunuch during a banquet before his return. Cai Yong fled south to the Wu and Guiji commanderies and stayed there for twelve years, when Dong Zhuo came to power in 189, he summoned Cai Yong back to the capital. At first Cai Yong was unwilling, but Dong Zhuo enforced his demand with the threat I can eliminate whole clans, Cai Yong had no choice but to comply. Under Dong Zhuo, Cai Yong was made a General of the Household, in 192, when Dong Zhuo was killed in a plot by Wang Yun, Cai Yong was put into prison and sentenced to death for allegedly expressing grief at Dong Zhuos death
6. Shang Yang – Shang Yang was an important Chinese statesman of the State of Qin during the Warring States period. His policies laid the foundation that enabled Qin to conquer all of China, uniting the country for the first time and he and his followers contributed to the Book of Lord Shang strain of what has modernly been termed Chinese Legalism. With the support of Duke Xiao of Qin, Shang Yang left his position in Wei to become the chief adviser in Qin. There his numerous reforms transformed the peripheral Qin state into a militarily powerful, changes to the states legal system propelled the Qin to prosperity. Enhancing the administration through an emphasis on meritocracy, Shangs policies weakened the power of the feudal lords, assigning land to soldiers based upon their military successes and stripping unfighting nobility of land rights. The army was separated into twenty military ranks, based upon battlefield achievements, as manpower was short in Qin, Shang encouraged the cultivation of unsettled lands and wastelands and immigration, favouring agriculture over luxury commerce. Shang introduced his second set of changes in 350 BCE, which included a new standardized system of land allocation, under Shangs tenure, Qin quickly caught up with and surpassed the reforms of other states. As manpower was short in Qin relative to the states at the time. Shang made laws forcing citizens to marry at a young age and he also enacted policies to free convicts who worked in opening wastelands for agriculture. Shang partly abolished primogeniture and created a tax on households that had more than one son living in the household. Shang moved the capital to reduce the influence of nobles on the administration, deeply despised by the Qin nobility, Shang Yang could not survive Duke Xiao of Qins death. The next ruler, King Huiwen, ordered the nine familial exterminations against Shang and his family, Yang had previously humiliated the new duke by causing him to be punished for an offense as though he were an ordinary citizen. Yang went into hiding and tried to stay at an inn, the innkeeper refused because it was against Yangs laws to admit a guest without proper identification, a law Yang himself had implemented. Yang was executed by jūliè, his family was also executed. Despite his death, King Huiwen kept the reforms enacted by Shang, a number of alternate versions of Shang Yangs death have survived. According to Sima Qian in his Records of the Grand Historian, Shang Yang fled to his fiefdom, after the battle, King Hui of Qin had Yangs corpse torn apart by chariots as a warning to others. Confucian scholars were highly opposed to Shang Yangs legalist approach, encyclopedia of China, 1st ed. Xie, Qingkui, Shang Yang. Encyclopedia of China, 1st ed. 国史概要 ISBN 7-309-02481-8 戰國策, 秦第一 Li Yu-ning, duyvendak, J. J. L. 商君書 - Shang Jun Shu