Category:Explorers of Mexico
Pages in category "Explorers of Mexico"
The following 24 pages are in this category, out of 24 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 24 pages are in this category, out of 24 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Albert S. Evans – Albert S. Evans was an American explorer and writer. Prior to 1856, he lived in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and worked as a broker and he lived in Chicago and worked for many years at the Daily Journal. Evans arrived in San Francisco in 1861, began working as a journalist for the Morning Call and he published two travelogues, Our Sister Republic, A Gala Trip through Tropical Mexico in 1869 -1870, and Á La California, Sketches of Life in the Golden State. The books were published by A. L. Bancroft of San Francisco, in 1863, Evans became editor for some years of The Daily Alta California in San Francisco, and continued in that capacity for several years. He lived in the city for 12 years, and he feuded with Mark Twain when both were in the city. Evans died 22 October 1872, a passenger on the steamship Missouri, sources Introduction of A La CaliforniaAlbert S. Evans – Colonel Albert S. Evans, from A La California
2. Juan de Grijalva – Juan de Grijalva was a Spanish conquistador, and relation of Diego Velázquez. He went to Hispaniola in 1508 and to Cuba in 1511, Grijalva was one of the earliest to explore the shores of Mexico. According to Hernán Cortés,170 people went with him, but according to Pedro Mártir, the main pilot was Antón de Alaminos, the other pilots were Juan Álvarez, Pedro Camacho de Triana, and Grijalva. Other members included Francisco de Montejo, Pedro de Alvarado, Juan Díaz, Francisco Peñalosa, Alonso de Ávila, Alonso Hernández, Julianillo, Melchorejo and they embarked in the port of Matanzas, Cuba, with four ships in April 1518. After rounding the Guaniguanico in Cuba, Grijalva sailed along the Mexican coast, discovered Cozumel, the Río Grijalva in Mexico was named after him. He was also the first Spaniard to encounter Moctezuma IIs delegation, one of the natives joined them, being baptized as Francisco, and became an interpreter on Cortes expedition. Bernal Díaz del Castillo wrote about the travels of Juan de Grijalva in his book, hernan Cortes stayed at Juans home in Trinidad, Cuba, at the start of his Mexican expedition. He recruited men there, including the five Alvarado brothers and he was killed by natives in Honduras on 21 January 1527Juan de Grijalva – Juan de Grijalva
3. Francisco de Ibarra – Francisco de Ibarra was a Basque explorer, founder of the city of Durango, and governor of the Spanish province of Nueva Vizcaya, in present-day Durango and Chihuahua. Francisco de Ibarra was born about 1534 in Eibar, Gipuzkoa, the young Ibarra noted silver in the vicinity of present-day Fresnillo, but passed it by. He explored further and founded towns at San Martín and Avino, in 1562, Ibarra headed another expedition to push farther into northwest Mexico. In particular, he was searching for the golden city of Copala. He did not find the treasure, but explored and conquered what is now the Mexican state of Durango. Ibarra was appointed governor of the newly formed province of Nueva Vizcaya in 1562, in 1564, Ibarra, following rumors of rich mineral deposits, crossed the Sierra Madre Occidental to conquer what is now southern Sinaloa. Prospectors discovered silver veins in the new territory, and in 1565, de Ibarra founded the towns of Copala, soldiers under Ibarras direction explored north from Durango in 1567, and founded the town of Santa Bárbara in present-day Chihuahua to mine the silver they found there. Francisco de Ibarra died on 3 June 1575 in Pánuco, Sinaloa, one of the silver-mining cities that he foundedFrancisco de Ibarra – Francisco de Ibarra
4. Eusebio Kino – Eusebio Francisco Kino, was an Italian Jesuit, missionary, geographer, explorer, cartographer and astronomer. For the last 24 years of his life he worked in the then known as the Pimería Alta, modern-day Sonora in Mexico. He explored the region and worked with the indigenous Native American population, including primarily the Tohono OOdham, Sobaipuri and he proved that the Baja California Peninsula is not an island by leading an overland expedition there. By the time of his death he had established 24 missions, Kino was born Eusebius Chinus in the village of Segno, then in the sovereign Prince-bishopric of Trent, a part of the Holy Roman Empire. Other sources cite his name as Eusebio Francesco Chini and his parents were Franciscus Chinus and Margherita Luchi. The exact date of his birth is unknown but he was baptized on 10 August 1645 in the parish church, Kino was educated in Innsbruck, Austria, and after recuperating from a serious illness, he joined the Society of Jesus on 20 November 1665. From 1664-69, he received training as a member of the Society at Freiburg, Ingolstadt. After completing a stage of training in the Society, during which he taught mathematics in Ingolstadt. Although Kino wanted to go to the Orient, he was sent to New Spain, due to travel delays while crossing Europe, he missed the ship on which he was to travel and had to wait a year for another ship. While waiting in Cádiz, Spain, he wrote some observations, done during late 1680 and early 1681, about his study of a comet, which he published as the Exposición astronómica de el cometa. This publication was later the subject of a sonnet by the noted colonial nun and poet of New Spain, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, kinos first assignment was to lead the Atondo expedition to the Baja California peninsula of Las Californias Province of New Spain. He established the Misión San Bruno in 1683, after a prolonged drought there in 1685, Kino and the Jesuit missionaries were forced to abandon the mission and return to the viceregal capital of Mexico City. See also Spanish missions in the Sonoran Desert Father Kino began his career in the Pimería Alta on the morning of 14 March 1687,24 years and this was the morning he left Cucurpe, a town once considered the Rim of Christendom. Once Father Kino arrived in the Pimería Alta, at the request of the natives, subsequently Kino traveled across northern Mexico, and to present day California and Arizona. He followed ancient trading routes established millennia prior by the natives and these trails were later expanded into roads. His many expeditions on horseback covered over 50,000 square miles, Kino was important in the economic growth of the area, working with the already agricultural indigenous native peoples and introducing them to European seed, fruits, herbs and grains. He also taught them to raise cattle, sheep and goats, kinos initial mission herd of twenty cattle imported to Pimería Alta grew during his period to 70,000. Historian Herbert Bolton referred to Kino as Arizonas first rancher, in his travels in the Pimería Alta, Father Kino interacted with 16 different tribesEusebio Kino – Equestrian statue in Segno
5. Alessandro Malaspina – Alessandro Malaspina was an Italian explorer who spent most of his life as a Spanish naval officer. He signed his letters in Spanish Alexandro, which is usually modernized to Alejandro by Spanish scholars, Malaspina was born in Mulazzo, a small principality ruled by his family. Today part of Tuscany, it was part of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. Alessandros parents were the Marquis Carlo Morello and Caterina Meli Lupi di Soragna, during 1762–1765, his family lived in Palermo with Alessandros great-uncle, Giovanni Fogliani Sforza dAragona, the viceroy of Sicily. From 1765 to 1773 he studied at the Clementine College in Rome, in 1773 he was accepted into the Order of Malta and spent about a year living on the island of Malta where he learned the basics of sailing. Malaspina entered the Royal Navy of Spain in 1774 and received the rank of Guardiamarina, between 1774 and 1786 he took part in a number of naval battles and received many promotions. In January 1775, aboard the frigate Santa Teresa, Malaspina took part of the expedition to relieve Melilla, shortly after he was promoted to frigate-ensign. In July 1775 he participated the siege of Algiers and in 1776 was promoted to ships ensign, from 1777 to 1779, aboard the frigate Astrea, Malaspina made a round-trip voyage to the Philippines, rounding the Cape of Good Hope in both directions. During the voyage he was promoted to frigate-lieutenant, in January 1780 he was in the Battle of Cape Santa Maria and shortly thereafter was promoted to ships lieutenant. During the Great Siege of Gibraltar, Malaspina served on a floating battery, in December of the same year, aboard the San Justo, Malaspina participated in the fighting at Cape Espartel. He was soon promoted again, to frigate-captain. In 1782 he was suspected of heresy and denounced to the Spanish Inquisition, from March 1783, to July 1784, Malaspina was second-in-command of the frigate Asunción during a trip to the Philippines. As with his first trip to the Philippines the route went by the Cape of Good Hope in both directions, in 1785, back in Spain, Malaspina, on board the brigantine Vivo, took part in hydrographic surveys and mapping of parts of the coast of Spain. During the same year he was named Lieutenant of the Company of the Guardiamarinas of Cádiz, from September 1786 to May 1788 Malaspina made a commercial circumnavigation of the world on behalf of the Royal Philippines Company. During this voyage he was in command of the frigate Astrea and his route went via Cape Horn and, returning, the Cape of Good Hope. Higgins had made this recommendation following the visit of the Lapérouse expedition to Concepcion in March 1786, following the Astreas return to Spain, Malaspina produced, in partnership with José de Bustamante, a proposal for an expedition along the lines set out in Higginss memorandum. A short time later, on 14 October 1788, Malaspina was informed of the acceptance of his plan. In September 1788 Alessandro Malaspina and José de Bustamante y Guerra approached the Spanish government, the explorers proposed a scientific-political expedition that would visit nearly all the Spanish possessions in America and AsiaAlessandro Malaspina – Alessandro Malaspina
6. Francisco de Montejo – Francisco de Montejo y Álvarez was a Spanish conquistador in Mexico and Central America. Francisco de Montejo was born in Salamanca, Spain, in 1479 to Juan de Montejo and he left Spain in 1514, and arrived in Cuba in time to join Grijalvas expedition along the coast of Yucatán and the Gulf of Mexico. There he had the rank of Captain, and command of 4 ships, on his return to Cuba, he joined the Hernán Cortés expedition, and helped found the city of Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz with Alonso Hernandez Puertocarrero. Cortés sent Francisco and Alonso as proctors to King Charles of Spain in 1519 to report on the expedition, while in Spain Montejo married Beatriz de Herrera. In December 1526 the Spanish King, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, issued a decree naming Montejo Adelantado. He returned to Yucatán in 1528, and attempted to conquer it along the east coast but was back by the ferocity of the resistance of the Maya living along this coast. In 1530 he decided to try conquering Yucatán from the west, from 1531–1535 he tried unsuccessfully to conquer western Yucatán, with some successes but in 1535 his forces were driven from Yucatán. In 1533, Montejo received a decree giving him permission to conquer Puerto Caballos. This put him in conflict with Pedro de Alvarado, who had received a decree in 1532. This only became an issue after Alvarado declared he had conquered and pacified the province of Honduras in 1536, Alvarado continued as Governor of Honduras until 1540, although he was recalled to Spain in 1537. In 1540, the Spanish King awarded the Governorship of Honduras to Montejo and it would fall to Montejos son, Francisco de Montejo, to conquer Yucatán. He founded the city of San Francisco de Campeche in 1540, in 1546, the elder Montejo assumed the title of Governor and Captain General of Yucatán. However, by 1550 complaints about him caused him to be recalled to Spain where he died in 1553, Montejo was survived by his eponymous son, and a daughter, Catalina Montejo y Herrera. Chamberlain, Robert Stoner The Conquest and Colonization of Honduras Chamberlain, Robert Stoner The Conquest and Colonization of YucatánFrancisco de Montejo – For other uses, see Francisco de Montejo (disambiguation).
7. Francisco de Ulloa – Francisco de Ulloa was a Spanish explorer who explored the west coast of present-day Mexico under the commission of Hernán Cortés. It is not known whether Ulloa accompanied Cortés on his first expedition to the New Spain, by the account of Bernal Díaz del Castillo, he came to Mexico later while transporting letters to Cortés from his wife. According to some historians, Ulloa was influential in helping subdue the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan by naval power. Lawrence, proving the existence of the Northwest Passage, the expedition left on July 8 sailing northwards along the coast and reaching the Gulf of California six weeks later. Ulloa named it the Sea of Cortés in honor of his patron, when one of his ships was lost in a storm Ulloa paused to repair the other two ships, and then resumed his voyage on September 12, eventually reaching the head of the Gulf. Unable to find the Strait of Anián, Ulloa turned south and sailed along the eastern coast of the Baja California Peninsula, landing at the Bay of La Paz. After taking on supplies of wood and water Ulloa rounded the tip of the peninsula with great difficulty, the progress of his small ships was hampered by the fierce winds and high seas he encountered, eventually forcing him to turn back to New Spain. The voyage eventually reached 28 degrees north near the Isla de Cedros, although his discoveries a peninsula, his reports were used to create maps depicting California as an island. According to Díaz del Castillo, Ulloa was stabbed to death in 1540, by other accounts, his ship was lost without a trace during the return voyage from Baja California. Supposedly his ship was swept inland with a tsunami, later becoming known as the Lost Ship of the Desert, catholic Encyclopedia Francisco de Ulloa AmericanJourneys. org Francisco de UlloaFrancisco de Ulloa – Route of the 1539 voyage by Francisco de Ulloa from (Acapulco) along the west coast of Mexico