Category:Fictional super soldiers
Pages in category "Fictional super soldiers"
The following 66 pages are in this category, out of 66 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 66 pages are in this category, out of 66 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Eugenics – Eugenics is a set of beliefs and practices that aims at improving the genetic quality of the human population. The exact definition of eugenics has been a matter of debate since the term was coined, frederick Osborns 1937 journal article Development of a Eugenic Philosophy framed it as a social philosophy—that is, a philosophy with implications for social order. That definition is not universally accepted, osborn advocated for higher rates of sexual reproduction among people with desired traits, or reduced rates of sexual reproduction and sterilization of people with less-desired or undesired traits. Alternatively, gene selection rather than people selection has recently been made possible through advances in genome editing, in this period, eugenic ideas were espoused across the political spectrum. Consequently, many countries adopted eugenic policies with the intent to improve the quality of stock of their countries. S. Furthermore, negative eugenics in particular is considered by many to be a violation of human rights. Another criticism is that eugenic policies eventually lead to a loss of genetic diversity, the concept of positive eugenics to produce better human beings has existed at least since Plato suggested selective mating to produce a guardian class. The idea of eugenics to decrease the birth of inferior human beings has existed at least since William Goodell advocated the castration. Galton had read his half-cousin Charles Darwins theory of evolution, which sought to explain the development of plant and animal species, based on his biographical studies, Galton believed that desirable human qualities were hereditary traits, though Darwin strongly disagreed with this elaboration of his theory. In 1883, one year after Darwins death, Galton gave his research a name, with the introduction of genetics, eugenics relied on an ideology of genetic determinism in which human character was due to genes, unaffected by education or living conditions. Many of the early geneticists were not Darwinians, and evolution theory was not needed for eugenics policies based on genetic determinism, throughout its recent history, eugenics has remained controversial. Eugenics became a discipline at many colleges and universities and received funding from many sources. Both sought support from leading clergymen and modified their message to meet religious ideals, in 1909 the Anglican clergymen William Inge and James Peile both wrote for the British Eugenics Education Society. Inge was a speaker at the 1921 International Eugenics Conference. Three International Eugenics Conferences presented a global venue for eugenists with meetings in 1912 in London, Eugenic policies were first implemented in the early 1900s in the United States. It also took root in France, Germany, and Great Britain, later, in the 1920s and 30s, the eugenic policy of sterilizing certain mental patients was implemented in other countries including Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Japan and Sweden. In addition to being practiced in a number of countries, eugenics was internationally organized through the International Federation of Eugenics Organizations, politically, the movement advocated measures such as sterilization laws. In its moral dimension, eugenics rejected the doctrine that all beings are born equal
2. Genetic engineering – Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is the direct manipulation of an organisms genome using biotechnology. It is a set of used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within. Genes may be removed, or knocked out, using a nuclease, gene targeting is a different technique that uses homologous recombination to change an endogenous gene, and can be used to delete a gene, remove exons, add a gene, or introduce point mutations. An organism that is generated through genetic engineering is considered to be a modified organism. The first GMOs were bacteria generated in 1973 and GM mice in 1974, insulin-producing bacteria were commercialized in 1982 and genetically modified food has been sold since 1994. GloFish, the first GMO designed as a pet, was first sold in the United States in December 2003, Genetic engineering techniques have been applied in numerous fields including research, agriculture, industrial biotechnology, and medicine. However the European Commission has also defined genetic engineering broadly as including selective breeding, cloning and stem cell research, although not considered genetic engineering, are closely related and genetic engineering can be used within them. Synthetic biology is a discipline that takes genetic engineering a step further by introducing artificially synthesized material from raw materials into an organism. If genetic material from another species is added to the host, if genetic material from the same species or a species that can naturally breed with the host is used the resulting organism is called cisgenic. Genetic engineering can also be used to remove material from the target organism. In Europe genetic modification is synonymous with genetic engineering while within the United States of America it can refer to conventional breeding methods. The Canadian regulatory system is based on whether a product has novel features regardless of method of origin, within the scientific community, the term genetic engineering is not commonly used, more specific terms such as transgenic are preferred. Plants, animals or micro organisms that have changed through genetic engineering are termed genetically modified organisms or GMOs, bacteria were the first organisms to be genetically modified. Plasmid DNA containing new genes can be inserted into the bacterial cell and these genes can code for medicines or enzymes that process food and other substrates. Plants have been modified for insect protection, herbicide resistance, virus resistance, enhanced nutrition, tolerance to environmental pressures, most commercialised GMOs are insect resistant and/or herbicide tolerant crop plants. Genetically modified animals have used for research, model animals. The genetically modified animals include animals with genes knocked out, increased susceptibility to disease, hormones for extra growth, humans have altered the genomes of species for thousands of years through selective breeding, or artificial selection as contrasted with natural selection, and more recently through mutagenesis. Genetic engineering as the manipulation of DNA by humans outside breeding
3. Cybernetics – Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary approach for exploring regulatory systems—their structures, constraints, and possibilities. Norbert Wiener defined cybernetics in 1948 as the study of control and communication in the animal. In the 21st century, the term is used in a rather loose way to imply control of any system using technology. Cybernetics is relevant to, for example, mechanical, physical, biological, cognitive and its focus is how anything processes information, reacts to information, and changes or can be changed to better accomplish the first two tasks. Cybernetics includes the study of feedback, black boxes and derived concepts such as communication and control in living organisms, machines and organizations including self-organization. Concepts studied by cyberneticists include, but are not limited to, learning, cognition, adaptation, social control, emergence, convergence, communication, efficiency, efficacy, in cybernetics these concepts are abstracted from the context of the specific organism or device. During the second half of the 20th century cybernetics evolved in ways that distinguish first-order cybernetics from second-order cybernetics, more recently there is talk about a third-order cybernetics. System dynamics, originated with applications of electrical engineering control theory to other kinds of models by Jay Forrester at MIT in the 1950s, is a related field. Cybernetics has been defined in a variety of ways, by a variety of people, as with the ancient Greek pilot, independence of thought is important in cybernetics. French physicist and mathematician André-Marie Ampère first coined the word cybernetique in his 1834 essay Essai sur la philosophie des sciences to describe the science of civil government. The term was borrowed by Norbert Wiener, in his book Cybernetics, to define the study of control and communication in the animal, the word cybernetics was first used in the context of the study of self-governance by Plato in The Alcibiades to signify the governance of people. The word cybernétique was also used in 1834 by the physicist André-Marie Ampère to denote the sciences of government in his system of human knowledge. This was the first artificial truly automatic self-regulatory device that no outside intervention between the feedback and the controls of the mechanism. Although they considered part of engineering, Ktesibios and others such as Heron. Alfred Russel Wallace identified this as the principle of evolution in his famous 1858 paper, in 1868 James Clerk Maxwell published a theoretical article on governors, one of the first to discuss and refine the principles of self-regulating devices. Jakob von Uexküll applied the feedback mechanism via his model of functional cycle in order to explain animal behaviour, electronic control systems originated with the 1927 work of Bell Telephone Laboratories engineer Harold S. Black on using negative feedback to control amplifiers. Early applications of negative feedback in electronic circuits included the control of gun mounts, W. Numerous papers spearheaded the coalescing of the field. In 1935 Russian physiologist P. K. Anokhin published a book in which the concept of feedback was studied, in 1936, Ștefan Odobleja publishes Phonoscopy and the clinical semiotics
4. Medication – A pharmaceutical drug is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease. Drug therapy is an important part of the field and relies on the science of pharmacology for continual advancement. Drugs are classified in various ways, one of the key divisions is by level of control, which distinguishes prescription drugs from over-the-counter drugs. Other ways to classify medicines are by mode of action, route of administration, biological system affected, an elaborate and widely used classification system is the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. The World Health Organization keeps a list of essential medicines, Drug discovery and drug development are complex and expensive endeavors undertaken by pharmaceutical companies, academic scientists, and governments. Governments generally regulate what drugs can be marketed, how drugs are marketed, controversies have arisen over drug pricing and disposal of used drugs. In the US, a drug is, A substance recognized by an official pharmacopoeia or formulary, a substance intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease. A substance intended to affect the structure or any function of the body, a substance intended for use as a component of a medicine but not a device or a component, part or accessory of a device. Pharmaceutical or a drug is classified on the basis of their origin, Drug from natural origin, Herbal or plant or mineral origin, some drug substances are of marine origin. Drug from chemical as well as origin, Derived from partial herbal and partial chemical synthesis Chemical. Drug derived from animal origin, For example, hormones, Drug derived from microbial origin, Antibiotics Drug derived by biotechnology genetic-engineering, hybridoma technique for example Drug derived from radioactive substances. An elaborate and widely used system is the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. The World Health Organization keeps a list of essential medicines, the main classes of painkillers are NSAIDs, opioids and Local anesthetics. For consciousness Some anesthetics include Benzodiazepines and Barbiturates, the main categories of drugs for musculoskeletal disorders are, NSAIDs, muscle relaxants, neuromuscular drugs, and anticholinesterases. Euthanasia is not permitted by law in countries, and consequently medicines will not be licensed for this use in those countries. Administration is the process by which a patient takes a medicine, there are three major categories of drug administration, enteral, parenteral, and other. It can be performed in various forms such as pills, tablets. There are many variations in the routes of administration, including intravenous and they can be administered all at once as a bolus, at frequent intervals or continuously
5. Brainwashing – Mind control is a theory that human subjects can be indoctrinated in a way that causes an impairment of autonomy, an inability to think independently, and a disruption of beliefs and affiliations. In this context, brainwashing refers to the involuntary reeducation of basic beliefs and these theories were later expanded and modified by psychologists including Margaret Singer and Philip Zimbardo to explain conversions to some new religious movements. This resulted in scientific and legal debate, with Eileen Barker, James Richardson, other theories have been proposed by scholars including, Robert Cialdini, Stanley A. Deetz, Robert Jay Lifton, Michael J. Freeman, Daniel Romanovsky, Kathleen Taylor, and Benjamin Zablocki. However, in the view of most scholars, the theory of control is not accepted as scientific fact. The Oxford English Dictionary records the earliest known English-language usage of brainwashing in an article by newspaperman Edward Hunter, in Miami News, the term punned on the Taoist custom of cleansing/washing the heart/mind before conducting certain ceremonies or entering certain holy places. British radio operator Robert W. Ford and British army Colonel James Carne also claimed that the Chinese subjected them to brainwashing techniques during their war-era imprisonment. The U. S. military and government laid charges of brainwashing in an effort to undermine detailed confessions made by military personnel to war crimes, if they did, however, too familiar are the mind-annihilating methods of these Communists in extorting whatever words they want. The men themselves are not to blame, and they have my deepest sympathy for having been used in this abominable way, the report states exhaustive research of several government agencies failed to reveal even one conclusively documented case of brainwashing of an American prisoner of war in Korea. In contrast American POWs in the custody of North Koreas Chinese Communist allies did face a concerted interrogation and indoctrination program, however, systematic, physical torture was not employed in connection with interrogation or indoctrination, the report states. The enemy introduced himself as a friend of the workers of America, in many instances the Chinese did not search the American captives, but frequently offered them American cigarettes. This display of friendship caught most Americans totally off-guard and they never recovered from the impression made by the Chinese. Fter the initial contact with the enemy, some Americans seemed to believe that the enemy was sincere and they relaxed and permitted themselves to be lulled into a well-disguised trap the cunning enemy. Two academic studies of the repatriation of American prisoners of war by Robert Jay Lifton and by Edgar Schein concluded that brainwashing, in 1961, they both published books expanding on these findings. Schein published Coercive Persuasion and Lifton published Thought Reform and the Psychology of Totalism and he argued that the books of Edward Hunter pushed the CIA brainwashing theory onto the general public. CIA experiments using various drugs such as LSD and Mescaline drew from Nazi scientist research during World War II. In the 1970s, the movement applied mind control theories to explain seemingly sudden. The media was quick to follow suit, and social scientists sympathetic to the anti-cult movement, while some psychologists were receptive to these theories, sociologists were for the most part skeptical of their ability to explain conversion to NRMs. On the contrary, the theories and the fear surrounding them was used as a tool for the western anti-cult movement to rationalize the persecution of minority religious groups, most adherents participate for only a short time, and the success in retaining members is limited
6. Pseudoscience – Pseudoscience consists of claims, beliefs, or practices presented as being plausible scientifically, but which are not justifiable by the scientific method. The term pseudoscience is often considered pejorative because it suggests something is being presented as science inaccurately or even deceptively, accordingly, those termed as practicing or advocating pseudoscience often dispute the characterization. The demarcation between science and pseudoscience has philosophical and scientific implications, differentiating science from pseudoscience has practical implications in the case of health care, expert testimony, environmental policies, and science education. The word pseudoscience is derived from the Greek root pseudo meaning false and the English word science, an earlier recorded use of the term was during 1843 by the French physiologist François Magendie. From time to time, though, the usage of the word occurred in a formal, technical manner around a perceived threat to individual and institutional security in a social and cultural setting. A number of principles are accepted by scientists as standards for determining whether a body of knowledge, method. Experimental results should be reproducible and verified by other researchers, statistical quantification of significance, confidence, and error are also important tools for the scientific method. During the mid-20th century, Karl Popper emphasized the criterion of falsifiability to distinguish science from nonscience, falsifiability means a result can be disproved. For example, a statement such as God exists may be true or false, Popper used astrology and psychoanalysis as examples of pseudoscience and Einsteins theory of relativity as an example of science. The point is made there is no physical test to refute the claim of the presence of this dragon. No matter what test you think you can devise, there is then a reason why this does not apply to the invisible dragon, sagan concludes, Now, whats the difference between an invisible, incorporeal, floating dragon who spits heatless fire and no dragon at all. During 1942, Robert K. Merton identified a set of five norms which he characterized as what makes a real science, If any of the norms were violated, Merton considered the enterprise to be nonscience. These are not broadly accepted by the scientific community and his norms were, Originality, The tests and research done must present something new to the scientific community. Detachment, The scientists reasons for practicing this science must be simply for the expansion of their knowledge, the scientists should not have personal reasons to expect certain results. Universality, No person should be able to easily obtain the information of a test than another person. Social class, religion, ethnicity, or any other factors should not be factors in someones ability to receive or perform a type of science. Skepticism, Scientific facts must not be based on faith, one should always question every case and argument and constantly check for errors or invalid claims. Public accessibility, Any scientific knowledge one obtains should be available to everyone