Category:Fictional super soldiers
Pages in category "Fictional super soldiers"
The following 67 pages are in this category, out of 67 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 67 pages are in this category, out of 67 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Eugenics – Eugenics is a set of beliefs and practices that aims at improving the genetic quality of the human population. The exact definition of eugenics has been a matter of debate since the term was coined, frederick Osborns 1937 journal article Development of a Eugenic Philosophy framed it as a social philosophy—that is, a philosophy with implications for social order. That definition is not universally accepted, osborn advocated for higher rates of sexual reproduction among people with desired traits, or reduced rates of sexual reproduction and sterilization of people with less-desired or undesired traits. Alternatively, gene selection rather than people selection has recently been made possible through advances in genome editing, in this period, eugenic ideas were espoused across the political spectrum. Consequently, many countries adopted eugenic policies with the intent to improve the quality of stock of their countries. S. Furthermore, negative eugenics in particular is considered by many to be a violation of human rights. Another criticism is that eugenic policies eventually lead to a loss of genetic diversity, the concept of positive eugenics to produce better human beings has existed at least since Plato suggested selective mating to produce a guardian class. The idea of eugenics to decrease the birth of inferior human beings has existed at least since William Goodell advocated the castration. Galton had read his half-cousin Charles Darwins theory of evolution, which sought to explain the development of plant and animal species, based on his biographical studies, Galton believed that desirable human qualities were hereditary traits, though Darwin strongly disagreed with this elaboration of his theory. In 1883, one year after Darwins death, Galton gave his research a name, with the introduction of genetics, eugenics relied on an ideology of genetic determinism in which human character was due to genes, unaffected by education or living conditions. Many of the early geneticists were not Darwinians, and evolution theory was not needed for eugenics policies based on genetic determinism, throughout its recent history, eugenics has remained controversial. Eugenics became a discipline at many colleges and universities and received funding from many sources. Both sought support from leading clergymen and modified their message to meet religious ideals, in 1909 the Anglican clergymen William Inge and James Peile both wrote for the British Eugenics Education Society. Inge was a speaker at the 1921 International Eugenics Conference. Three International Eugenics Conferences presented a global venue for eugenists with meetings in 1912 in London, Eugenic policies were first implemented in the early 1900s in the United States. It also took root in France, Germany, and Great Britain, later, in the 1920s and 30s, the eugenic policy of sterilizing certain mental patients was implemented in other countries including Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Japan and Sweden. In addition to being practiced in a number of countries, eugenics was internationally organized through the International Federation of Eugenics Organizations, politically, the movement advocated measures such as sterilization laws. In its moral dimension, eugenics rejected the doctrine that all beings are born equal
2. Genetic engineering – Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is the direct manipulation of an organisms genome using biotechnology. It is a set of used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within. Genes may be removed, or knocked out, using a nuclease, gene targeting is a different technique that uses homologous recombination to change an endogenous gene, and can be used to delete a gene, remove exons, add a gene, or introduce point mutations. An organism that is generated through genetic engineering is considered to be a modified organism. The first GMOs were bacteria generated in 1973 and GM mice in 1974, insulin-producing bacteria were commercialized in 1982 and genetically modified food has been sold since 1994. GloFish, the first GMO designed as a pet, was first sold in the United States in December 2003, Genetic engineering techniques have been applied in numerous fields including research, agriculture, industrial biotechnology, and medicine. However the European Commission has also defined genetic engineering broadly as including selective breeding, cloning and stem cell research, although not considered genetic engineering, are closely related and genetic engineering can be used within them. Synthetic biology is a discipline that takes genetic engineering a step further by introducing artificially synthesized material from raw materials into an organism. If genetic material from another species is added to the host, if genetic material from the same species or a species that can naturally breed with the host is used the resulting organism is called cisgenic. Genetic engineering can also be used to remove material from the target organism. In Europe genetic modification is synonymous with genetic engineering while within the United States of America it can refer to conventional breeding methods. The Canadian regulatory system is based on whether a product has novel features regardless of method of origin, within the scientific community, the term genetic engineering is not commonly used, more specific terms such as transgenic are preferred. Plants, animals or micro organisms that have changed through genetic engineering are termed genetically modified organisms or GMOs, bacteria were the first organisms to be genetically modified. Plasmid DNA containing new genes can be inserted into the bacterial cell and these genes can code for medicines or enzymes that process food and other substrates. Plants have been modified for insect protection, herbicide resistance, virus resistance, enhanced nutrition, tolerance to environmental pressures, most commercialised GMOs are insect resistant and/or herbicide tolerant crop plants. Genetically modified animals have used for research, model animals. The genetically modified animals include animals with genes knocked out, increased susceptibility to disease, hormones for extra growth, humans have altered the genomes of species for thousands of years through selective breeding, or artificial selection as contrasted with natural selection, and more recently through mutagenesis. Genetic engineering as the manipulation of DNA by humans outside breeding
3. Captain America – Captain America is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Created by cartoonists Joe Simon and Jack Kirby, the character first appeared in Captain America Comics #1 from Timely Comics, Captain America was designed as a patriotic supersoldier who often fought the Axis powers of World War II and was Timely Comics most popular character during the wartime period. The popularity of superheroes waned following the war and the Captain America comic book was discontinued in 1950, since Marvel Comics revived the character in 1964, Captain America has remained in publication. Captain America wears a costume that bears an American flag motif, near the end of the war, he was trapped in ice and survived in suspended animation until he was revived in the present day. Captain America was the first Marvel Comics character to have appeared in media outside comics with the release of the 1944 movie serial, in 1940, writer Joe Simon conceived the idea for Captain America and made a sketch of the character in costume. I wrote the name Super American at the bottom of the page, Simon said in his autobiography, there were too many Supers around. Captain America had a sound to it. There werent a lot of captains in comics, the boy companion was simply named Bucky, after my friend Bucky Pierson, a star on our high school basketball team. Simon recalled in his autobiography that Timely Comics publisher Martin Goodman gave him the go-ahead, there were two young artists from Connecticut that had made a strong impression on me. Al Avison and Al Gabriele often worked together and were successful in adapting their individual styles to each other. Actually, their work was not too far from Kirbys, if they worked on it, and if one inker tied the three styles together, I believed the final product would emerge as quite uniform. The two Als were eager to join in on the new Captain America book, but Jack Kirby was visibly upset, youre still number one, Jack, I assured him. Its just a matter of a deadline for the first issue. Ill make the deadline, Jack promised, ill pencil it myself and make the deadline. I hadnt expected this kind of reaction, but I acceded to Kirbys wishes and, it turned out, was lucky that I did. There might have been two Als, but there was only one Jack Kirby, I wrote the first Captain America book with penciled lettering right on the drawing boards, with very rough sketches for figures and backgrounds. Kirby did his thing, building the muscular anatomy, adding ideas, then he tightened up the penciled drawings, adding detailed backgrounds, faces and figures. Al Liederman would ink that first issue, which was lettered by Simon and Kirbys regular letterer and we wanted to have our say too
4. John Connor – John Connor is a fictional character of the Terminator franchise. In the narrative of his universe, John Connor is a messianic figure who will lead the Resistance to defeat an empire of robotic Terminators amassed by Skynet following Judgment Day. With foreknowledge from his parents, John fends off Terminator assassination attempts in the second, in the fourth film, John fights with the Resistance in a post-apocalyptic setting after Skynet has taken over. In The Terminator, John is mentioned and is the basis of the film, the Terminator is attempting to kill Sarah Connor because she will be his mother, but does not make a physical appearance. However, at the end of the film, Sarah is shown to be pregnant with John, John makes his first true appearance in Terminator 2, Judgment Day which takes place in 1995, played by Edward Furlong. He was a 10-year-old juvenile delinquent living with foster parents while his mother was at a hospital for the mentally insane, one day, while in an arcade with a friend, the T-1000 and the T-800 - a reprogrammed android sent by Johns future self, fight over him. This starts a sequence where the T-800 and John try to lose the T-1000. Later that night, his mother out and he and the T-800 go to save her. John teaches The Terminator how to be like a human and he teaches him sayings like hasta la vista, baby. Also, John Connor is briefly seen as an adult, played by Michael Edwards, in this battle scene, his face is heavily scarred. Dalton Abbot, also played John as a toddler in a dream sequence, the alternate ending for Terminator 2, Judgment Day depicts Sarah Connor alive and well on August 29,2029. John Connor has become a U. S. senator and father to a daughter in a world where Skynet was never able to start its war on humanity. While Sarah states that Judgment Day has been averted, John accepts that he still has a destiny to make a difference, in Terminator 3, Rise of the Machines, which takes place in 2003, John Connor, portrayed by Nick Stahl, is now a young adult. John has been living off-the-grid after the events of the second film and his mother eventually developed terminal leukemia and died. In the film, John crosses paths with Katherine Kate Brewster and he is attacked by a T-X Terminator, which was sent from the future. Unlike its predecessors, the T-Xs objective was to terminate his future officers as secondary targets because Johns location was unknown, when it encounters John it changes its priority to focus entirely on him and Kate. A protector T-850 is also sent back in time to protect John and it is via the radios in this bunker that John begins to organize the resistance. Since Judgment Day, John has been broadcasting radio messages to both the Resistance forces and surviving refugees in an effort to maintain morale and hope, the story features a new character named Marcus Wright, and a younger Kyle Reese
5. Deadpool – Deadpool is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Created by artist/writer Rob Liefeld and writer Fabian Nicieza, the character first appeared in The New Mutants #98. Initially Deadpool was depicted as a supervillain when he made his first appearance in The New Mutants and later in issues of X-Force, but later evolved into his more recognizable antiheroic persona. Deadpool, whose name is Wade Wilson, is a disfigured and mentally unstable mercenary with the superhuman ability of an accelerated healing factor. The character is known as the Merc with a Mouth because of his nature and tendency to break the fourth wall. The characters popularity has seen him feature in other media. Created by artist/writer Rob Liefeld and writer Fabian Nicieza, Deadpool made his first appearance in the pages of The New Mutants #98 cover dated February 1991. According to Nicieza, Liefeld came up with the visual design and name. Liefeld, a fan of the Teen Titans comics, showed his new character to then-writer Fabian Nicieza, upon seeing the costume and noting his characteristics, Nicieza contacted Liefeld, saying this is Deathstroke from Teen Titans. Nicieza gave Deadpool the real name of Wade Wilson as an inside-joke to being related to Slade Wilson, other inspirations were Spider-Man and Wolverine. Liefeld states, Wolverine and Spider-Man were the two properties I was competing with at all times, I didnt have those, I didnt have access to those. I had to make my own Spider-Man and Wolverine, thats what Cable and Deadpool were meant to be, my own Spider-Man and my own Wolverine. Both Deadpool and Cable were also meant to be tied into Wolverine’s history already from the start, as Liefeld describes, if I could tie anything into Wolverine, I was winning. What Danny DeVitos character was to Arnold Schwarzeneggers character in Twins, in his first appearance, Deadpool is hired by Tolliver to attack Cable and the New Mutants. In 1993, the received his own miniseries, titled The Circle Chase, written by Fabian Nicieza. It was a success and Deadpool starred in a second, self-titled miniseries written in 1994 by Mark Waid, pencilled by Ian Churchill. Waid later commented, Frankly, if Id known Deadpool was such a creep when I agreed to write the mini-series, someone who hasnt paid for their crimes presents a problem for me. In 1997, Deadpool was given his own ongoing title, initially written by Joe Kelly, Deadpool became an action comedy parody of the cosmic drama, antihero-heavy comics of the time
6. Deathstroke – Deathstroke is a fictional supervillain appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character was created by Marv Wolfman and George Pérez and he is a mercenary and assassin who first appeared in The New Teen Titans #2. Wizard magazine rated him the 24th greatest villain of all time, originally the archenemy of the Teen Titans, writers have developed him over the years as an adversary of other heroes in the DC Universe, parallels have been established between him and Batman. The character has been adapted from the comics into multiple forms of media, including several Batman related projects. Slade Wilson/Deathstroke later appeared on The CWs live-action TV series Arrow, Joe Manganiello will portray the character in the upcoming DC Extended Universe film The Batman which stars Ben Affleck as the titular character. Deathstroke the Terminator first appeared in 1980, in the issue of the book New Teen Titans. He was originally introduced as the Terminator, a mercenary who was completing the terms of a contract undertaken by his son Ravager, due to his popularity, Deathstroke received his own series, Deathstroke the Terminator, in 1991. It was retitled Deathstroke the Hunted for issues #0 and #41-45, the series was cancelled with issue #60. In total, Deathstroke ran for 65 issues, following his injury in DC Universe, Last Will and Testament, Deathstroke appears in one of the four Faces of Evil one-shots, written by David Hine. The full title has not completely out of use, having been referenced as recently as Justice League Elite. Slade Wilson was sixteen years old when he first enlisted in the United States Army, after serving a stint in Korea, he was later assigned to Camp Washington where he had been promoted to the rank of Major. In the early 1960s, he met Captain Adeline Kane who was tasked with training soldiers in new fighting techniques in anticipation of brewing troubles taking place in Vietnam. Kane was amazed at how skilled Slade was and how quickly he adapted to modern conventions of warfare and she immediately fell in love with him, and realized that he was without a doubt the most able-bodied combatant she had ever encountered. She offered to privately train Slade in guerrilla warfare, in less than a year, Slade mastered every fighting form presented to him and was soon promoted to the rank of lieutenant colonel. Six months later, Adeline and he were married and she became pregnant with their first child, the war in Vietnam began to escalate and Slade was shipped overseas. In the war, his unit massacred a village, an event which sickened him and he was also rescued by SAS member Wintergreen, to whom he would later return the favor. Chosen for an experiment, the Army imbued him with enhanced physical powers in an attempt to create meta human super soldiers for the U. S. military. Deathstroke became a mercenary soon after the experiment when he defied orders, however, Slade kept this career secret from his family, even though his wife was an expert military combat instructor
7. Grimlock – Grimlock is the name of several fictional robot characters in the Transformers franchise. He is usually portrayed as the strong, power-mongering leader of the Dinobots. In 2007, USA Today polled people as to which Transformer they want to appear in the installment in the Transformers film series. Grimlock is the most fearsome and powerful member of the Dinobots, nevertheless, he is a valiant warrior whose actions command respect from all who are witness to them, both friend and foe. Grimlock is among the strongest of the Transformers, possibly an equal to, or even superior to Optimus Prime, in Tyrannosaurus rex mode, his powerful jaws can snap virtually anything that comes between them - from steel cables to a Decepticon limb. He also can shoot an energy ray from his mouth, in robot mode, Grimlock wields an energon sword, whose blade is sheathed in crackling energon and can slice a 2-foot-thick concrete wall in one slash. He also uses a double-barreled, self-propelled rocket launcher and he is almost invulnerable in his Tyrannosaurus Rex mode as shown with his battle with Megatron due to Megatrons primary weapon, his arm-mounted fusion cannon having little or no effect on Grimlock. Unlike the other Dinobots, Grimlock is the one whose name doesnt begin with an S. Grimlock was one of the favorite Autobots of IGN. Grimlock was voted the 6th top Transformer who was considered to be badass in the comics by Topless Robot, according to X-Entertainment Grimlock was the 2nd top Transformers figure of all time. However, the cartoon would diverge wildly from this when it introduced the reptilian robots, Grimlock is voiced by Gregg Berger. The discovery of fossilized bones in a cavern in their volcano base set the Earthbound Autobots on the track to creating the Dinobots. Intrigued by the creatures, and with additional knowledge supplied by Spike, Wheeljack and it has not been explained why he or the other Dinobots were able to be fitted with personalities which can only be found on Cybertron from Vector Sigma. Apparently there is a difference between the brain and personalities in Transformers and their brains are simple, yet still it is the personalities that make them sentient. It is evident that addition of personalities or sparks and its origin was after the fact, in his private thoughts, however, Grimlock considered Optimus Prime too weak to lead, seeking the position for himself. When Soundwave read his mind and learned of this animosity, Megatron was able to trick Grimlock, to stop the turncoat Dinobots, two new ones were created, Snarl and Swoop. Ultimately, it was when Optimus Prime threw himself into harms way to save Grimlock from an explosion that he accepted his mistake and rejoined the Autobots. In a rare display of modesty and humility, Grimlock emotionally apologised to Prime, admitted his jealousy of the leader, the two subsequently patched up their differences. The final straw for Grimlock came when he and the Dinobots were injured in a Decepticon trap at an airfield, enraged, Grimlock refused to take orders from Optimus Prime any more, and he and the other dinobots left
8. Kasumi (Dead or Alive) – Kasumi is a player character and the primary protagonist of the Dead or Alive fighting game series by Team Ninja and Tecmo. Kasumi has served as the character of the Dead or Alive franchise since its premiere in 1996. She was the official protagonist in the first two games in the series and was also a character in the fifth game and in the film DOA, Dead or Alive. In the games canon, Kasumi, also known as the Kunoichi of Destiny, is a female ninja princess who has left her clan. There are several Dead or Alive player and boss characters who are clones of her, Kasumi has become a symbol of the Dead or Alive franchise and is the personal favourite of Team Ninjas founder and the series creator Tomonobu Itagaki. She has been the subject of various merchandise and was used to promote the Xbox consoles in Japan, Kasumi is a popular sex symbol in video game culture and an iconic ninja character. Due to differences in cultural norms, she has attracted some controversy in the West involving eroticism. Kasumi is the character and protagonist of the first two games in the series. She and her brother Hayate are the heirs apparent of their clan. In the series backstory, she was destined to become the 18th Master of the Mugen Tenshin ninja clan when Hayate was left comatose after an attack by their renegade uncle Raidou. On a personal quest of revenge, Kasumi, highly skilled in the Tenjin Mon style ninjutsu, fled to enter the Dead or Alive tournament and defeat Raidou, becoming an outlaw, Kasumi kills Raidou and avenges Hayate, winning the first DOA tournament. Kasumi escapes, defeats her clone and attempts to return to her village and she is labeled a traitor because leaving the village is punishable by death, and she is constantly hunted by assassins. Despite this, she wishes to see Hayate—the clans leader—and half-sister Ayane. She eventually meets her brother, and after trying to persuade him to forget DOATEC and return to the Mugen Tenshin village with her, she is attacked by Ayane, Kasumi follows Hayate to the DOATEC Tri-Tower to confront Helena Douglas, who has taken control of DOATEC. Kasumi fights her way past Helena and heads for the laboratory to destroy her powerful clone, Kasumi fights to the best of her ability, but Alpha-152 escapes in the chaos caused by a Mugen Tenshin attack. Upon spotting Helena entering the blazing helipad, Kasumi risks her life trying to intervene, Kasumi returns in Dead or Alive 5, where she is unable to return to her village, lives on the run and continues to be a target. Kasumi joins forces with Helena to find Alpha-152, refusing help from other characters, after defeating her clone, she is attacked and killed by Hayate and Ayane. However, it is revealed that she was an Alpha clone programmed to believe she is the original, Kasumi receives a message from the ninja master Ryu Hayabusa, telling her that Hayate is in danger and she is needed in battle
9. Sabretooth (comics) – Sabretooth is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics, most commonly in association with the X-Men. Created by writer Chris Claremont and artist/co-writer John Byrne, the character first appeared in Iron Fist #14 and he is a vicious assassin responsible for numerous deaths both as a paid mercenary and for his personal pleasure. Sabretooths long-time enemy is the mutant and X-Men member Wolverine, with conflicting accounts as to the origin of their feud and it is known that Wolverine and Sabretooth were victims of the Cold War supersoldier program Weapon X, and that Sabretooth saw Wolverine as competition and therefore antagonized him. While Wolverine is depicted as suppressing his more savage qualities, Sabretooth does the opposite and embraces them, the character has appeared in several X-Men animated series and video games. Played by Tyler Mane, Sabretooth was a henchman of Magneto in the first X-Men film and X-Men, Liev Schreiber plays him in the 2009 film X-Men Origins, Wolverine. In May 2008, Wizard magazine ranked Sabretooth #193 of the 200 best comic characters of all time. In 2009, Sabretooth was also ranked as IGNs 44th Greatest Comic Book Villain of All Time, the character first appeared in Iron Fist #14 and was created by Chris Claremont and John Byrne. Sabretooth was initially conceived as a recurring antagonist for Iron Fist and he works for a time with the Constrictor as a partner-in-crime, and clashes repeatedly with Iron Fist and Power Man. Sabretooth also appeared in such as The Spectacular Spider-Man. Chris Claremont introduced him as a minor X-Men villain, a member of the Marauders and he rose to greater prominence when he was split off from the Marauders and became a recurring antagonist of an individual member of the X-Men, Wolverine. Chris Claremont had meant for Sabretooth to be Wolverines father, though this was contradicted by subsequent writers, Claremont, when asked what he had intended to be the relationship between Wolverine and Sabretooth, stated, Father and son. Thats why Sabretooth always considered Logan sloppy seconds to his original / real deal, the other critical element in my presentation of their relationship was that, in their whole life, Logan has never defeated Sabretooth in a knock-down, drag-out, kill-or-be-killed berserker fight. By the same token, on one of his birthdays, Sabretooth has always managed to find him, no matter where Logan was or what he was doing. For no other reason than to him that he could. In Wolverine vol.2 #42, genetic tests performed by S. H. I. E. L. D, confirmed that Sabretooth and Wolverine were not father and son. An interviewer asked Paul Jenkins if Dog Logan, a character from Wolverines early life, Paul Jenkins said he had not intended it to be him, but said he would not have a problem with another writer doing it later. At the end of the miniseries Astonishing Spider-Man & Wolverine it is shown that Dog and Victor Creed are not the same person, in X-Men Forever, Chris Claremonts continuation of his run on X-Men, Sabretooth is established as Wolverines father. He attacks the X-Mansion, but is blinded by Storm,2 #3, were that of a weaker Sabretooth clone created by Mister Sinister
10. T-1000 – A similar T-1000 Terminator appears in the 2007-08 FOX television series, Terminator, The Sarah Connor Chronicles, where it is referred to as a T-1001. Therefore, it is portrayed by actors in the film. In Terminator 2, the T-1000 is portrayed primarily by Robert Patrick, in Terminator 2 and Terminator 2, 3-D Battle Across Time, the T-1000 is presented as a technological leap over the 800 Series Terminator. Teaser trailers for Terminator 2 deliberately withheld the notion that the T-1000 character was the villain, a tagline for the film was This time there are two. Prior to the release, Robert Patrick was promoted as portraying Austin. Once Cameron actually started working on the script, in 1990, Camerons original pick to play the T-1000 was rock musician Billy Idol, and storyboards had the robot resembling him, but a serious motorcycle accident prevented Idol from accepting the role. Then, he thought of casting actor Michael Biehn, who played Kyle Reese in The Terminator, in the role with the explanation that Skynet managed to clone Reeses body and use it for a new Terminator. If the 800 series is a kind of human Panzer tank, for a more machine-like performance, Patrick had to learn how to both fire a pistol without flinching and run effortlessly without heavy breathing or signs of exhaustion. The development of computer-generated imagery by Industrial Light & Magic to manipulate, re-create, the computer graphics composed 6 of the 15 minutes that the T-1000 displays its morphing and healing abilities. The visual effects used in Terminator 2 to create the T-1000 won the Academy Award for Visual Effects, the company also contributed the digital imagery of James Camerons True Lies and Titanic. In Terminator Genisys, the effects of the T-1000 were made by British effects company Double Negative, the animation was mostly similar to how it was done in Terminator 2, only with more advanced fluid simulations. To properly depict the liquid metal being dissolved by acid, Double Negatives artists studied acid burning through aluminum, in the Terminator 2 storyline, the T-1000 is made of liquid metal. The T-1000 also has the ability to extrude small, simple items from itself, for example, it creates a motorcycle helmet and sunglasses when these items were necessary for its disguise. The T-1000 can also change its color and texture to convincingly simulate flesh, clothing. It is capable of mimicking voices as well, including the ability to extrapolate a relatively small voice sample to generate a wider array of words or inflections as required. Like all Terminators, the T-1000 possesses superhuman strength and it can also run fast enough to catch up to a police car accelerating away from it, although at times it can acquire and drive vehicles if it requires increased speed. The T-1000 is effectively impervious to damage, such as being dismembered, riddled with bullets. In T,2, this Terminator is even frozen using liquid nitrogen and shattered when its body is shot
11. Green Lantern – Green Lantern is the name of a number of superheroes appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. They fight evil with the aid of rings that grant them a variety of extraordinary powers, the first Green Lantern character, Alan Scott, was created in 1940 during the initial popularity of superheroes. Alan Scott usually fought common criminals in New York City with the aid of his magic ring, the publication of this character ceased in 1949 during a general decline in the popularity of superhero comics, but the character saw a limited revival in later decades. Additional members of this agency, all of whom call themselves Green Lanterns, were introduced over time, prominent Green Lanterns who also have had starring roles in the books include Guy Gardner, John Stewart, Kyle Rayner, Simon Baz and Jessica Cruz. The Green Lanterns are among DC Comics longer lasting sets of characters and they have been adapted to television, video games, and motion pictures. Martin Nodell created the first Green Lantern and he first appeared in the Golden Age of comic books in All-American Comics #16, published by All-American Publications, one of three companies that would eventually merge to form DC Comics. This Green Lanterns real name was Alan Scott, an engineer who, after a railway crash, came into possession of a magic lantern which spoke to him. From this, he crafted a ring which gave him a wide variety of powers. The limitations of the ring were that it had to be charged every 24 hours by touching it to the lantern for a time, and that it could not directly affect objects made of wood. Alan Scott fought mostly ordinary human villains, but he did have a few paranormal ones such as the immortal Vandal Savage, most stories took place in New York. As a popular character in the 1940s, the Green Lantern featured both in books such as All-American Comics and Comic Cavalcade, as well as his own book. He also appeared in All Star Comics as a member of the team known as the Justice Society of America. After World War II the popularity of superheroes in general declined, the Green Lantern comic book was cancelled with issue #38, and All Star Comics #57 was the characters last Golden Age appearance. When superheroes came back in fashion in later decades, Alan Scott was revived, initially, he made guest appearances in other superheroes books, but eventually got regular roles in books featuring the Justice Society. He never got another solo series, between 1995 and 2003, DC Comics changed Alan Scotts superhero codename to Sentinel in order to distinguish him from the newer and more popular science fiction Green Lanterns. In 2011, the Alan Scott character was revamped and his costume was redesigned and the source of his powers was changed to that of the mystical power of nature. In 1959, Julius Schwartz reinvented the Green Lantern character as a science fiction hero named Hal Jordan, Hal Jordans powers were more or less the same as Alan Scotts, but otherwise this character was completely different and unrelated to the Green Lantern of the 1940s. He had a new name, a costume, and a rewritten origin story
12. Cybernetics – Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary approach for exploring regulatory systems—their structures, constraints, and possibilities. Norbert Wiener defined cybernetics in 1948 as the study of control and communication in the animal. In the 21st century, the term is used in a rather loose way to imply control of any system using technology. Cybernetics is relevant to, for example, mechanical, physical, biological, cognitive and its focus is how anything processes information, reacts to information, and changes or can be changed to better accomplish the first two tasks. Cybernetics includes the study of feedback, black boxes and derived concepts such as communication and control in living organisms, machines and organizations including self-organization. Concepts studied by cyberneticists include, but are not limited to, learning, cognition, adaptation, social control, emergence, convergence, communication, efficiency, efficacy, in cybernetics these concepts are abstracted from the context of the specific organism or device. During the second half of the 20th century cybernetics evolved in ways that distinguish first-order cybernetics from second-order cybernetics, more recently there is talk about a third-order cybernetics. System dynamics, originated with applications of electrical engineering control theory to other kinds of models by Jay Forrester at MIT in the 1950s, is a related field. Cybernetics has been defined in a variety of ways, by a variety of people, as with the ancient Greek pilot, independence of thought is important in cybernetics. French physicist and mathematician André-Marie Ampère first coined the word cybernetique in his 1834 essay Essai sur la philosophie des sciences to describe the science of civil government. The term was borrowed by Norbert Wiener, in his book Cybernetics, to define the study of control and communication in the animal, the word cybernetics was first used in the context of the study of self-governance by Plato in The Alcibiades to signify the governance of people. The word cybernétique was also used in 1834 by the physicist André-Marie Ampère to denote the sciences of government in his system of human knowledge. This was the first artificial truly automatic self-regulatory device that no outside intervention between the feedback and the controls of the mechanism. Although they considered part of engineering, Ktesibios and others such as Heron. Alfred Russel Wallace identified this as the principle of evolution in his famous 1858 paper, in 1868 James Clerk Maxwell published a theoretical article on governors, one of the first to discuss and refine the principles of self-regulating devices. Jakob von Uexküll applied the feedback mechanism via his model of functional cycle in order to explain animal behaviour, electronic control systems originated with the 1927 work of Bell Telephone Laboratories engineer Harold S. Black on using negative feedback to control amplifiers. Early applications of negative feedback in electronic circuits included the control of gun mounts, W. Numerous papers spearheaded the coalescing of the field. In 1935 Russian physiologist P. K. Anokhin published a book in which the concept of feedback was studied, in 1936, Ștefan Odobleja publishes Phonoscopy and the clinical semiotics