Category:Flemish tapestry artists
Pages in category "Flemish tapestry artists"
The following 27 pages are in this category, out of 27 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 27 pages are in this category, out of 27 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Pieter van Aelst III – Pieter van Aelst or Pieter van Aelst III was a Flemish tapestry weaver whose workshop commenced by his grandfather was one of the leading weavers of Flanders in the first half of the 16th century. He was likely born around 1495 in Brussels as the son of Pieter van Edingen van Aelst (also referred to as and his father and grandfather were both tapestry weavers. Pieter joined the workshop that his father had set up in Brussels in 1493 and was trained there and he became the purveyor of tapestries to the Spanish king Charles V, the then ruler of Flanders. This was likely upon the death of Pieter’s grandfather Pieter van Aelst I, in 1509 he was mentioned as a restorer of the collection of tapestries of Margaret of Austria, the governor of the Habsburg Netherlands. In 1517 he was paid for tapestries of David and John the Baptist made for the English king Henry VIII, a tapestry after Raphael’s Bearing of the Cross produced by the van Aelst workshop in 1520 played an important role in the introduction of the Italian Renaissance style in Flanders. The tapestry, which was part of a series of tapestries, in 1520 Pope Leo X commissioned a series of 20 tapestries of Children’s Games and Medici Symbols from van Aelst. The contract required the background of the tapestries to be filled with gold. The price of the gold accounted for 14,000 ducats in the price of 17,600 ducats payable for the series. The series of Children’s Games depicted winged spirits with attributes and emblems representing the emblems of the House of Medici, in 1547 and 1548 he was still listed as a tapestry maker for the court of Charles V. Around 1550 van Aelst was commissioned by the Polish king Sigismund II Augustus to make a large and these works were made in collaboration with six other Brussels workshops. As in 1560 his workshop was sold by his heirs to the prominent Brussels weaver Willem de Pannemaker, ortiz, A. Carretero, C. et al. Resplendence of the Spanish monarchy, Renaissance tapestries and armor from the Patrimonio Nacional, new York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
2. Denis van Alsloot – Denis van Alsloot was a Flemish landscape and genre painter and draughtsman. He was employed as a painter and worked for the local elite in Brussels. His works show affinity to the work of the Sonian Forest school of painters such as Jacques dArthois and Cornelis Huysmans. These painters working in Brussels had a preference for depicting scenes from the Sonian Forest near Brussels, Alsloot was born in Mechelen or possibly Brussels. His father was a tapestry worker and it is not known who was his teacher. He is first recorded in records when he joined the Brussels Guild of St Luke in 1599. He also took his first pupil in 1599 and he took a further three apprentices between 1599 and 1625. At the turn of the 17th century his career took off when he was appointed painter to Albert and Isabella. He became a painter to the elite and served a clientele of princes, courtesans and he was still alive in 1626 as is testified by a painting dated in that year. He must have died in or before 1628 as two works he had left as inheritance to a niece were bought in 1628 by the Archduchess Isabella, Van Alsloot mainly painted landscapes and scenes of local festivals and ceremonies. His work can be regarded as transitory in the development of art in the early 17th century. All his known dated works were made in Brussels between 1606 and 1626 and he often signed his works with the addition of S. A. Pic. This is short for Serenissorum Archiducum Pictor, a reference to his position as a court painter to Archduke Albert. Van Alsloot painted topographically accurate as was as imaginary landscapes, including summer and winter landscapes, like later landscape painters in Brussels such as Lucas Achtschellinck, Lodewijk de Vadder and Jacques dArthois, van Alsloot drew inspiration from the Sonian Forest near Brussels. His forested landscapes often incorporate views of castles and abbeys located in the Sonian Forest near Brussels, as van Alsloots works are generally topographically accurate, it is possible to identify places that still survive, especially near the abbeys of Groenendael and Ter Kameren. His series of views of the abbeys in the Sonian Forest was presumably made on commission for the Archduke Albert and he painted several versions of the winter view of Groenendael, all with differences as well as a few summer views. Some of his works have a feeling and are inspired by landscape painting of the 16th century. The style of his paintings shows an affinity with the work of Gillis van Coninxloo
3. Albert Auwercx – Albert Auwercx was a Brussels tapestry-maker who played an important part in the tapestry industry of that city. His workshop partner was his brother Nicolas Albert Auwercx was born around 1629 to Marcus and he was christened on 10 February 1629 in the Brussels Church of Our Lady of the Chapel, which was known for its connections to the tapestry industry. Auwercx opened his workshop in 1657 and was granted exemption from taxation by the city of Brussels in 1671, through the careful marriages of his children and the choice of godparents for their births he formed alliances with the other important tapissiers. After 1679 he served terms as dean of the tapestry guild. Auwercx was buried in the church of Our Lady of the Chapel on 31 August 1709 and his workshop continued to be maintained by his son Philippe
4. Peter Candid – Peter Candid also known as Peter de Witte was a Flemish-born Mannerist painter, tapestry designer and draughtsman active in Italy and Bavaria where he worked for many courts. He was born in Bruges and moved with his parents to Florence at the age of 10 and his father was a tapestry weaver who had been hired by the newly opened Medici weaving workshop, the Arazzeria Medicea. Their original family name was de Witte, which changed to Candido in Italy. Peter would use the family name Candid after he moved to Germany, Peter started his apprenticeship in the early 1560s under an unknown master. The earliest known record of Candids work as an artist is in relation to payment for a made in Florence in 1569. He is first mentioned as a member of the Accademia del Disegno in 1576, in the period 1582 -1583 he worked in Rome at the Sala Regia in the Vatican and then returned to Florence. By 1586 he became employed at the court of Munich upon the recommendation of the sculptor Giambologna and he was first court painter to Duke William V of Bavaria and later Maximilian I of Bavaria. For the Duke and Elector Maximilian, Candid frescoed numerous buildings, including the Munich Residenz, in the period 1600 to 1628 he was the leading artist in Munich. He was also active as an art dealer and had dealings with Philipp Hainhofer. He married and had five children, including a son Wilhelm and his daughter married the engraver Filips Sadeler in 1624. He was the teacher of Johann Ulrich Loth, a segment of Munich’s ring road is named after Candid, as is the metro station Candidplatz. Candid painted history paintings, portraits, mythological scenes and allegories and he completed many frescos and oil paintings in Italy and also made tapestry designs and other works for Cosimo I de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany. His style in Florence was influenced by the school of Michelangelo, although he was closer to Bronzino and his work also shows the influence of the Flemish tradition. In Munich he initially worked as part of a team of Italian artists under the direction of the Dutch-Italian painter Friedrich Sustris and he realised frescoes after Sustris’s designs for the court. He became more autonomous after Sustris died and Maximilian I of Bavaria had ascended the throne at the end of the century and he also supervised the execution of the tapestries by the weavers. Candid further was responsible for all interior paintings at the new buildings added by Duke Maximilian to his palaces and he executed small paintings on copper panels on religious, mythological and allegorical themes in a Mannerist style. A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture
5. Pieter Coecke van Aelst – Pieter Coecke van Aelst or Pieter Coecke van Aelst the Elder was a Flemish painter, sculptor, architect, author and designer of woodcuts, stained glass and tapestries. His principal subjects were Christian religious themes and he worked in Antwerp and Brussels and was appointed court painter to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Coecke van Aelst was a polyglot and he published translations of Ancient Roman and modern Italian architectural treatises into Flemish, French and German. These publications played a role in spreading Renaissance ideas to the Low Countries. They contributed to the transition in Northern Europe from the late Gothic style then prevalent towards a modern antique-oriented architecture, Pieter Coecke van Aelst was the son of the Deputy Mayor of Aalst. The early Flemish biographer Karel van Mander wrote in his Schilder-boeck published in 1604 that Coecke van Aelst studied under Bernard van Orley, there are no documents that prove this apprenticeship but there are strong stylistic similarities between the styles of the two artists. According to Karel van Mander Pieter Coecke van Aelst later studied in Italy where in Rome he made drawings of sculpture and architecture, although there is no firm evidence that Coecke van Aelst travelled to Italy, stylistic evidence supports the notion that he travelled to Italy. The Italian influence could, however, also be attributed to the fact that Raphael’s tapestry cartoons were available in Brussels, but Coecke van Aelst clearly also knew Raphael’s Triumph of Galatea fresco, which he could only have seen in Italy. Pieter Coecke van Aelst married twice and he married his first wife Anna van Dornicke in 1525 shortly after his move to Antwerp. Anna was the daughter of the Antwerp painter Jan Mertens van Dornicke and his father in law may have been his teacher and Coecke van Aelst took over his father-in-laws workshop after the latters death in 1527. There were two children from this first marriage, Michiel and Pieter II, Coecke van Aelst is recorded joining the local Guild of Saint Luke of Antwerp in 1527. In 1533, he travelled to Constantinople where he stayed for one year in an attempt to persuade the Turkish sultan to give him tapestry commissions and this mission failed to generate any commissions from the sultan. Coecke made many drawings during his stay in Turkey including of the buildings, people and he seems to have retained from this trip an abiding interest in the accurate rendering of nature that gave his tapestries an added dimension. The giant made its premiere many years later in 1549 at the occasion of the Joyous entry into Antwerp of Prince Philip, the giant became a regular fixture in public processions in Antwerp until the 20th century. In the year 1537 Coecke van Aelst was elected dean of the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke and he also received a stipend from the Antwerp city government. Around this time Coecke van Aelst received major commissions for the design of windows including for the Antwerp Cathedral. In the 1530s Coecke van Aelsts friend, the important painter Joos van Cleve died, around 1538-1539 Coecke van Aelst married for the second time. His second wife Mayken Verhulst was originally from Mechelen and a painter of miniatures, the couple had three children, two daughters called Katelijne and Maria and a son named Pauwel
6. Michiel Coxie – Michiel Coxie, Coxie also spelled Coxcie or Coxien, Latinised name Coxius, was a Flemish painter who studied under Bernard van Orley, who probably induced him to visit the Italian peninsula. Coxie was born in 1499 in Mechelen in the Duchy of Brabant, but Coxies principal occupation was designing for engravers, and the fable of Psyche in thirty-two sheets by Agostino Veneziano and the Master of the Die are favorable specimens of his skill. He belonged to the circle of Michelangelo and not only learned the style of the renaissance master, he also studied the philosophy and art theory of the antiquity. Returning to the Netherlands, Coxie greatly extended his practice in this branch of art, but his productions were till lately concealed under an interlaced monogram M. C. O. K. X. I. N. In 1539, Coxie returned to Mechelen, where he matriculated and painted the wings of an altarpiece for the chapel of the guild of St Luke. At van Orleys death in 1541 Coxie succeeded to the office of court painter to the Regent Maria of Austria, at that time, Coxie also designed tapestries for the Brussels looms. Many of the Jagiellonian tapestries were sold to Sigismund II Augustus for his castle on the Wawel, Coxie may also have designed the tapestries for Phillip IIs Royal Palace of Madrid depicting episodes of the life of Cyrus II, based on the writing of Herodotus. There are large masterworks of his from in the St. Rumbolds Cathedral of Mechelen, in the St. Michael and Gudula Cathedral of Brussels and his style is a unique synthesis of the Flemish and Italian artistic traditions. Influenced by Michelangelo, Da Vinci and Raphaël, he never forgot his Flemish training and he was known as the Flemish Raphael. He died at Mechelen on 5 March 1592 at the age of 92, after his death, he still influenced the painters of the first half of the seventeenth century, but he was forgotten afterwards. M - Museum Leuven presented in 2013 the first monographic exhibition on Michiel Coxie and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. article name needed
7. Lodewijk de Vadder – Lodewijk de Vadder was a Flemish Baroque landscape painter, draughtsman, engraver and tapestry designer. He came from a family of painters, his father and brothers were painters and his brother Philippe de Vadder was likely his teacher. He became a master of the Brussels Guild of St. Luke in 1628, in 1644 he obtained from the Brussels city authorities a privilege to make tapestry cartoons. He made cartoons principally for the Brussels weaving workshops of Jan Cordijs and his pupils were Ignatius van der Stock and possibly also Lucas Achtschellinck. It was originally believed that he only produced small-scale works marked with the monogram LDV and it has been demonstrated that he was responsible for a number of large-scale works that were formerly attributed to his contemporary Jacques dArthois. Like Arthois, de Vadder painted the landscapes with woods and rural areas around Brussels with a preference for sunken paths, de Vadders style is freer in composition and, with its loose, broad brushwork and intense colours, reminiscent of Rubens’ style. De Vadder, his presumed pupil Lucas Achtschellinck and Arthois are usually referred to collectively as The Sonian Forest Painters and he also drew cartoons for various tapestry manufacturers in Brussels. He was a draughtsman and some of his drawings were engraved and printed. Media related to Lodewijk de Vadder at Wikimedia Commons
8. Abraham Genoels – Abraham Genoels II or Abraham Genouil was a Flemish Baroque painter, draughtsman and engraver now mainly known for his landscape drawings and etchings. He had a career that saw him work in Paris, Rome. In his compilation of artist biographies called the Schouwburg, the early Dutch biographer Arnold Houbraken devoted a lengthy entry of 10 pages to Genoels. Houbraken described Genoels as a portrait and landscape painter who was taught drawing by Jacob Backereel in Antwerp. In 1659 he travelled with Georg Remees to Amsterdam in order to go to Paris, while waiting for a boat to Paris, he made a tour of all the kunst kabinetten, or art cabinets. Upon arrival in Paris, he lived at the home of his cousin Laurentius Francken, Millet,17 and an art student at the time, lived there also and Genoels taught him perspective. Genoels soon received a commission for tapestry designs from Gi. de la Noire Tapissier, a series of other commissions soon followed and he was admitted to the Académie Royale in Paris in 1665 by Charles le Brun. The engraver Gérard Audran helped him learn engraving while they were working for Le Brun. He worked for the Gobelins Manufactory and various leading gentlemen of Paris including François Michel Le Tellier and Louis, Grand Condé and he was accompanied on this journey as far as Amiens by the Flemish painters Jan van Huchtenburg and Adriaen Frans Boudewyns. His desire to visit Rome was fulfilled in 1674 when he had earned money to finance this undertaking in a comfortable way. He set off with a led by Marselis Liberechts, who had already been there. The other members of the group included Pieter Verbrugghen II, Frans Moens of Middelburg, further Albert Clouwet, Abraham van den Heuvel, and Soldanio. They left Antwerp in September 1674 for Cologne, and after 4–5 days took a boat down the Rhine to Mainz, and from there a market ship along the Rhine to Frankfurt. After a stay of 3 days they took a coach to Augsburg, and from there by horse towards Tirol, passing through Innsbruck, from there they descended out of the Alps along the Brenta to Treviso, and from there went by boat to Venice. They then traveled by boat along the Po to Ferrara, after 4 days they took a horse and wagon to various small cities along the way and finally arrived in Rome. He became a member of the Bentvueghels with the nickname Archimedes and this name was given him because Abraham Genoels was also a mathematician and a physicist. His companion Pieter Verbrugghen was named Ballon, and Frans Moens was named De Vlucht, Genoels sent Houbraken a copy of his Bentbrief which was signed by the witnesses to his membership ceremony. Van Haringhe nicknamed Mitridaat, pharmacist from Flanders Monnaville nicknamed de Jeught, painter from Brussels Marcello Liberechts nicknamed Papegay, in 1682 he undertook his return homewards to Antwerp
9. Jacob Jordaens – Jacob Jordaens was a Flemish painter, draughtsman and tapestry designer known for his history paintings, genre scenes and portraits. After Peter Paul Rubens and Anthony van Dyck, he was the leading Flemish Baroque painter of his day, unlike those contemporaries he never travelled abroad to study Italian painting, and his career is marked by an indifference to their intellectual and courtly aspirations. In fact, except for a few trips to locations in the Low Countries. As well as being a painter, he was a prominent designer of tapestries. Jordaens main artistic influences, besides Rubens and the Brueghel family, were northern Italian painters such as Jacopo Bassano, Paolo Veronese, and Caravaggio. Jacob Jordaens was born on 19 May 1593, the first of eleven children, to the wealthy linen merchant Jacob Jordaens Sr. little is known about Jordaens early education. It can be assumed that he received the advantages of the education provided for children of his social class. This assumption is supported by his handwriting, his competence in French. Like Rubens, he studied under Adam van Noort, who was his only teacher, during this time Jordaens lived in Van Noorts house in the Everdijstraat and became very close to the rest of the family. After eight years of training with Van Noort, he enrolled in the Guild of St. Luke as a waterschilder and this medium was often used for preparing tapestry cartoons in the seventeenth century. Although examples of his earliest watercolour works are no longer extant, in the same year as his entry into the guild,1616, he married his teachers eldest daughter, Anna Catharina van Noort, with whom he had three children. In 1618, Jordaens bought a house in Hoogstraat and he would then later buy the adjoining house to expand his household and workspace in 1639, mimicking Rubens house built two decades earlier. He lived and worked here until his death in 1678, Jordaens never made the traditional trip to Italy to study classical and Renaissance art. Despite this, he made efforts to study prints or works of Italian masters available in northern Europe. For example, Jordaens is known to have studied Titian, Veronese, Caravaggio and his commissions frequently came from wealthy local Flemish patrons and clergy, although later in his career he worked for courts and governments across Europe. Besides a large output of oil paintings he was a prolific tapestry designer. Jordaens importance can also be seen by his number of pupils, among them were his cousin and his son Jacob. Like Rubens and other artists at that time, Jordaens studio relied on his assistants, not many of these pupils went on to fame themselves, however a position in Jordaens studio was highly desirable for young artists from across Europe
10. Hans Knieper – Hans Knieper was a Flemish painter and draughtsman. He became a painter and tapestry carton designer at the Royal Danish Court. Very little is known about Knieper’s early life and training in Flanders and he was likely born in Antwerp, as he was referred to by the name Johannes de Antwerpia in his initial contract with the Danish king. The B mark was a mark of a Brussels weaving workshop. The only work attributed to him in his country is a watercolour of an allegorical figure now in Gaasbeek in Belgium. Rather than decorating the castle by importing finished art works, Frederick decided to invite artists to produce their work in situ, Knieper arrived in Kronborg in the company of the Flemish master weaver Anthonius de Goech. Anthonius de Goech brought all materials to execute the tapestries with him, Knieper was then given the post of director of the weaving workshop. He travelled back and forth between Denmark and Flanders to import further materials and skilled workers and he managed to establish a high-quality workshop near Kronborg Castle which had about 20 weavers and executed many works for the king. He probably appointed another master weaver to manage the actual weaving work in the shop and he delivered in the same year a further five tapestries of the Susanna series and two more Daniels. It has been speculated that between 1579 and 1581 the weaving activities ceased and it is not clear whether the Flemish weavers returned to their home country. In this period, Knieper continued to work as the royal painter and he made paintings for the king’s chamber and other rooms as well as the altarpiece for the castle’s chapel. Knieper was also responsible for the maintenance and preservation of the castle’s tapestries, a similar Swedish tapestry cycle with no less than 143 kings had already been planned in 1560 by the Swedish king Erik XIV. When this series was completed in 1585, the king commissioned Knieper to make the Throne Baldaquin, the Throne Baldaquin was made of 8 separate tapestry pieces which were woven with silver, gold and silk. It was intended to hang above the heads of the king and its rich materials and distinguished and refined style make it probably Northern Europes most beautiful piece of fabric. It was completed in 1586 and was in 1659 taken by the Swedes as war loot after they sacked Kronborg and it remained in the Swedish royal family until after Karl XVs death it was transferred to the State and is now in the Nationalmuseum in Stockholm. Knieper is said to have revived Danish portrait painting, portraits of king Frederick II, the queen Sophie, the queens father, the Duke Ulrich III of Mecklenburg-Güstrow, and the crown prince Christian have been attributed to him. Kniepers portrait painting and in particular the portrait of Frederick II represent a break with the domestic portrait tradition and it is the oldest known full-length profane portrait that is furthermore set into a three-dimensional pictorial space. The famous Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe invited Knieper in 1587 to come to the island Hven that he had received as a gift from king Frederick II
11. Godfried Maes – Godfried Maes was a Flemish painter, draughtsman and designer of tapestries. He was active as a painter of altarpieces and allegorical scenes and he was a prolific draughtsman who made designs for tapestry workshops, publishers and house decorations. His patrons included leading personalities in the Southern Netherlands, Godfried Maes was born in Antwerp where he trained with his father and the history painter Pieter van Lint. He became a master in the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke in 1672, the couple did not have any children. He became dean of the Guild in 1682, Godfried Maes was active in Antwerp in the period 1664-1700. His work was well received throughout the Southern Netherlands. He completed commissions for churches and private clients in Antwerp, Brussels and he worked for Eugen Alexander Franz, 1st Prince of Thurn and Taxis in Brussels for whom he realized ceiling decorations with allegorical scenes glorifying the family of Thurn and Taxis. The design represented the figures of Peace and Freedom accompanied by the muses Calliope and he was the teacher of Willem Ignatius Kerricx, Matheus Neckens, Anthonie du Pré, Dominicus Smout, Jacob Sucquet and Gerard Thomas. He died in Antwerp on 30 May 1700 as is testified by the inscription on his grave in the St James Church in Antwerp, Godfried Maes painted religious, mythological and allegorical themes on a grand scale. He is therefore regarded as a representative of the last generation of Flemish artists who practised Baroque painting. However, his work shows affinity with the Classicism that had developed in Italy. Maes made 83 preparatory designs for an edition of the Metamorphoses of Ovidius, Maes’ widow sold 45 of these drawings to the Dutch art dealer Jacob de Wit in 1717. The drawings remained together until 1762 when they were sold and dispersed, the designs were apparently never used in a publication prior to the sale of the drawings to de Wit. The drawings and drawings after Maes’ designs were engraved by Bernard Picart et Peter van Gunst for the 1732 edition of the French translation of the Metamorphoses by the abbot Antoine Banier. The design drawings have become split up and some are kept at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Fondation Custodia, Maes designs for the Metamorphoses show a good knowledge of anatomy and a taste for drawing. These drawings reveal a secure and precise brush, an inclination for idealization and they reveal the influence of Antique models and Roman examples of the Renaissance and a similarity to the achievements of the French artists of the late 17th century. However, his compositions do not deny his Northern heritage in their interest for minute detail and these drawings show Maes to be one of the most interesting artists of the Flemish classicism at the end of the 17th century. He provided cartoons to the Flemish tapestry workshops and he is recorded as a designer for the Brussels tapestry workshop of Urbanus Leyniers
12. Adam Frans van der Meulen – Adam Frans van der Meulen was a Flemish Baroque painter specialising in battle scenes. He was active first in Brussels, where he was a pupil of Pieter Snayers, van der Meulen was trained by the Belgian court painter Pieter Snayers of Brussels. His first work as an independent artist was done in Brussels and he painted genre and history pieces. He joined the guild in his native city, Brussels. His paintings during the campaigns of Flanders in 1667 so delighted Louis that from that date van der Meulen was ordered to him in all his expeditions. In 1673 he was received into the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture, attained the grade of councillor in 1681, according to Houbraken, he was famous for his battle scenes, before being invited to France. After his first wife died, Le Bruns cousin fell in love him and he dared not refuse her. He was buried in the St. Hippolyte church in Gobelins and he is best represented by the series of twenty-three paintings, mostly executed for Louis XIV, now in the Louvre. They show that he retained his Flemish predilections in point of color. Adam Frans van der Meulen ran a workshop that assisted him in completing private commissions for patrons that did not belong to the court of Louis XIV. He also designed tapestries for the Gobelins factory that depicted accurate historical details of the battles and he was appointed to a high position in the Royal Academy. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Meulen. Liedtke, Walter A. Flemish paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, new York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Adam Frans van der Meulen on Artnet
13. Bernard van Orley – Although he never visited Italy, he belongs to the group of Italianizing Flemish painters called the Romanists, who were influenced by Italian Renaissance painting, in his case especially by Raphael. He was born and died in Brussels, and was the court artist of the Habsburg rulers and this too may well have been learned from Raphael, whose workshop in Rome was unprecedentedly large. Accordingly, his surviving works vary considerably in quality. There are many drawings, mostly studies for designs for tapestries and he or his workshop would have produced full-scale cartoons for the tapestries, but these were normally lost in the course of weaving, when they were cut into strips. His paintings are either religious subjects or portraits, these mostly of Habsburgs repeated in several versions by the workshop. But his tapestries were more varied, reflecting the range of that medium, from biblical cycles to allegories, battle. His father had been a designer in Brussels, and several of Bernards descendents were artists. His family came originally from Luxembourg, descendants from the Seigneurs dOurle or dOrley and his branch of the family then moved to the Duchy of Brabant, where his father Valentin van Orley was born as an illegitimate child and lost his noble lineage. Bernard and his brother Everard were both born in Brussels, the painted wing panels of the sculpted Saluzzo retable are attributed to Valentin van Orley, describing the Life of St. Joseph. The retable itself is Gothic in style, but these wing panels already show some characteristic of the Renaissance style, the panels of the Life of St. Roch in the Saint James Church, Antwerp have been ascribed to Everard van Orley. In 1512 Bernard van Orley married Agnes Seghers, in 1539, shortly after Agnes death and his four boys followed in the footsteps of their father and also became painters. It is sometimes presumed that Bernard van Orley completed his art education in Rome in the school of Raphael, at that time, there were only a few painters with some renown in Brussels, such as Van Laethem and painters from the Coninxloo family. They were made to be woven into tapestries for Pope Leo X by Pieter van Aalst, one of his earliest signed works dates from 1512, the Triptych of the Carpenters and Masons Corporation of Brussels, also called the Apostle Altar. The central panel is in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna, and it recounts the lives of two apostles Thomas and Matthew. It was originally commissioned for a chapel in the Our Blessed Lady of Zavel Church in Brussels, in 1515 he was asked to take over the commission of a triptych for the Brotherhood of the Holy Cross in a chapel in the Sint-Walburga church in Veurne. He finished and delivered it in 1522, the left panel is on display in the Royal Museum of Fine Arts of Belgium. The front shows Saint Helena meeting the pope in a setting of Renaissance buildings. The back is a painting of Christ falling under the Cross
14. Pannemaeker – The family of de Pannemaeker or de Pannemaker were tapestry weavers from the Southern Netherlands, more or less equivalent to modern-day Belgium. In 1520, Pieter de Pannemaeker commissioned the artist Bernard van Orley to make cartoons for his workshop. A surviving fragment depicts the Allegory of the Four Winds, in 1527, Pieter de Pannemaeker and van Orley were brought before the Inquisition at Leuven for attending the Protestant sermons of Lutheran preacher Claes van der Elst. Pieter was at first stripped of his title, but later let off with the payment of an annual fine, and by 1532 was producing tapestries for Francis I of France. Pieters son Willem became an influential figure in the weaving industry. From cartoons by Jan Cornelisz Vermeyen, Willem produced the twelve-piece Conquest of Tunis for Emperor Charles V, among his patrons were Cardinal Granvelle and the 3rd Duke of Alba. His wealth enabled him to purchase the van Aelst property in 1560, erasmus de Pannemaker operated two looms in Brussels. His mark can be found on the massive tapestry History of Rome, erasmus and his brother Francois, who died in Lille in 1700, produced six panels for an Antwerp dealer in 1669. Francois and his son Andre are recorded as weavers at Tournai and he received the Croix de Chevalier de lOrdre du Mérite Agricole from the French government in 1886 for his contributions to botanical science and horticulture. Images of The Last Supper Studies in Western Tapestry
15. Willem de Pannemaker – Willem de Pannemaker, was a Flemish tapestry designer. He was born in Brussels and was possibly the son of Peter de Pannemaker I and he is known for works after designs by Jan Cornelisz Vermeyen. Generalitat de Catalunya has the best collections of him Ortiz, A. Carretero, resplendence of the Spanish monarchy, Renaissance tapestries and armor from the Patrimonio Nacional. New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
16. Peter Paul Rubens – Sir Peter Paul Rubens was a Flemish/Netherlandish draughtsman and painter. He is widely considered as the most notable artist of Flemish Baroque art school, the catalogue of his works by Michael Jaffé lists 1,403 pieces, excluding numerous copies made in his workshop. His commissioned works were mostly history paintings, which included religious and mythological subjects and he painted portraits, especially of friends, and self-portraits, and in later life painted several landscapes. Rubens designed tapestries and prints, as well as his own house and he also oversaw the ephemeral decorations of the royal entry into Antwerp by the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand in 1635. His drawings are mostly extremely forceful but not overly detailed and he also made great use of oil sketches as preparatory studies. For altarpieces he painted on slate to reduce reflection problems. Rubens was born in the city of Siegen to Jan Rubens and he was named in honour of Saint-Peter and Paul, because he was born on their solemnety. His father, a Calvinist, and mother fled Antwerp for Cologne in 1568, after increased religious turmoil and persecution of Protestants during the rule of the Spanish Netherlands by the Duke of Alba. Jan Rubens became the adviser of Anna of Saxony, the second wife of William I of Orange. Following Jan Rubens imprisonment for the affair, Peter Paul Rubens was born in 1577, the family returned to Cologne the next year. In 1589, two years after his fathers death, Rubens moved with his mother Maria Pypelincks to Antwerp, religion figured prominently in much of his work and Rubens later became one of the leading voices of the Catholic Counter-Reformation style of painting. In Antwerp, Rubens received a Renaissance humanist education, studying Latin, by fourteen he began his artistic apprenticeship with Tobias Verhaeght. Subsequently, he studied under two of the leading painters of the time, the late Mannerist artists Adam van Noort. Much of his earliest training involved copying earlier works, such as woodcuts by Hans Holbein the Younger. Rubens completed his education in 1598, at time he entered the Guild of St. Luke as an independent master. In 1600 Rubens travelled to Italy and he stopped first in Venice, where he saw paintings by Titian, Veronese, and Tintoretto, before settling in Mantua at the court of Duke Vincenzo I Gonzaga. The colouring and compositions of Veronese and Tintoretto had an effect on Rubenss painting. With financial support from the Duke, Rubens travelled to Rome by way of Florence in 1601, there, he studied classical Greek and Roman art and copied works of the Italian masters
17. Pieter Spierinckx – Pieter Spierincks or Pieter Nicolaes Spierinckx was a Flemish painter and designer of tapestries. He was an important representative of the Italianizing movement in Flemish landscape painting and he worked for prominent patrons including the kings of France and Spain. Very little is known about the life and training of Pieter Spierincks and he became a master in the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke in 1655. He was active in Antwerp in the period 1655-1660, later he was in Italy, Lyon and Paris. In Paris he worked for the French king Louis XIV of France for whom he painted landscapes and he was back in Antwerp in 1666. He was married to Jenne Marie de Jode, the daughter of the prominent engraver Gerard de Jode and he likely died in Antwerp although it is possible that he died during a trip to England. He was the teacher of Geeraert Cruys and Jean Carel van de Bruynel, Pieter Spierincks is known for his landscape paintings and the designs he made for the tapestry workshops in Brussels and Oudenaarde. The landscapes he painted for the French king are said to show the influence of Salvator Rosa and his landscapes were also influenced by Paul Bril. His Italianising landscapes further show similarity to the works of Claude Lorrain and his Italianising style was very popular in his time and represents the decorative trend that arose in Flemish art in the middle of the 17th century. The staffage in his landscapes was regularly the work of specialist painters such as Peter Ykens, the cartoons he made for the tapestry workshops were often a collaborative effort with other artists such as Lodewijk van Schoor and Peter Ykens. Some hunting still lifes attributed to him are likely the work of J. J. A pair of his paintings are held by the Museo del Prado in Madrid. They were part of the Spanish royal collection, media related to Pieter Spierinckx at Wikimedia Commons
18. Jan Cornelisz Vermeyen – Jan Cornelisz Vermeyen, or Jan Mayo, or Barbalonga was a Dutch Northern Renaissance painter. Based on his will, rediscovered in 1998, Vermeyen was born in Beverwijk in 1504, according to Karel van Mander he was honored for his career in the service of Charles V. He was a friend of Jan van Scorel and his portrait was engraved by Jan Wierix for Dominicus Lampsonius, Vermeyen was a painter and tapestry designer, probably a pupil of Jan Gossaert. About 1525 he became painter to Margaret of Austria, regent of the Netherlands. Between 1530 and 1535 he was active in Augsburg and Innsbruck, in 1535 he accompanied the Emperor Charles V, the nephew of the Archduchess, at the Conquest of Tunis. He worked in Spain in 1536, after which he moved to Brussels and he designed a set of twelve tapestries commemorating scenes from the campaign that would travel with Charles wherever he went, to bear witness to this triumph. This journey supplied him with scenes for later works, including tapestries designed in 1545/48 for Charles Vs sister Regent of Hungary, Mary of Hungary, many portraits are ascribed to him on very little evidence, according to modern scholars. He was followed by Willem de Pannemaker and Jan van Hemessen, Vermeyen on Artnet http, //www. artcyclopedia. com/artists/vermeyen_jan. html Horn, Hendrick. J. Jan Cornelisz Vermeyen, painter of Charles V and his conquest of Tunis, Paintings, Etchings, Drawings, Cartoons, doornspijk.504 pp. +340 ills. in b/w and 32 in col. Http, //www. arcadja. com/auctions/en/vermeyen_jan_cornelisz_/artist/49833/ Ortiz, A. Carretero, resplendence of the Spanish monarchy, Renaissance tapestries and armor from the Patrimonio Nacional. New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
19. Jan Wildens – Jan Wildens was a Flemish painter and draughtsman specializing in landscapes. His Realist landscapes show an eye for detail and have a serene character and he was a regular collaborator with Rubens and other leading Flemish Baroque painters of his generation for whose compositions he painted the landscapes. Jan Wildens was born in Antwerp as the son of Hendrick Wildens and his father died when Jan was still young and his mother remarried to Cornelis Cock, who later became the father in law of the Antwerp portrait painter Cornelis de Vos. In 1596 Jan Wildens was registered at the Antwerp Guild of St. Luke as an apprentice of Pieter van der Hulst, Wildens became a master of the Antwerp Guild of St. Luke in 1604. He set up his own workshop and took Abraham Leerse on as an apprentice in 1610, from this period date a series of 12 drawings of the months, which were engraved and published in print form. Wildens travelled in 1613 or 1614 to Italy where he stayed until 1616, around 1615-1616 he created a series of 12 landscape paintings representing the 12 months of the year, roughly similar to his early drawings. These paintings show his increasing interest in Realism, which was likely a result of his exposure to the landscapes of his compatriot Paul Bril who worked in Rome, upon returning to Antwerp, he became a frequent collaborator and a close friend of Peter Paul Rubens. Wildens was responsible for the landscapes in the cartoons by Rubens for his series on Publius Decius Mus. The two artists continued to collaborate on many works, Wildens also became a frequent collaborator of other leading Antwerp painters. In 1619 Wildens married Maria Stappaert with Rubens acting as a witness at the wedding, marias niece Hélène Fourment later became Rubens second wife. Maria Stappaert died in 1624 after bearing Wildens two sons, both of whom became painters, Jan Baptist and Jeremias, both of his sons died young. Wildens became very prosperous thanks to his professional success, Rubens was in overall charge of this project. Wildens contributed two city views of Antwerp for the occasion, in the house he inherited from his mother in the Lange Nieuwstraat in Antwerp he opened a picture gallery with over 700 paintings. The gallery was very successful and was later be run by his son Jeremias, when Rubens died in 1640, Jan Wildens acted as a testamentary executor or his estate. His pupils included his sons Jan Baptist and Jeremias and Hendrick van Balen the Younger, Jan Wildens was a landscape specialist. The compositions of his early landscapes before his visit to Italy were influenced by such as Jan Brueghel the Younger, Gillis van Coninxloo, Joos de Momper. In this early period he produced a series of 12 drawings of the months, as was not uncommon at the time the prints sharply contrast agricultural labors and courtly urban diversions. In Italy Wildens discovered the art of his compatriot Paul Bril with its realism