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Pages in category "Food colorings"
The following 74 pages are in this category, out of 74 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Food colorings.|
The following 74 pages are in this category, out of 74 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Food coloring – Food coloring, or color additive, is any dye, pigment or substance that imparts color when it is added to food or drink. They come in many forms consisting of liquids, powders, gels, Food coloring is used both in commercial food production and in domestic cooking. Food colorants are used in a variety of non-food applications including cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, home craft projects. People associate certain colors with certain flavors, and the color of food can influence the flavor in anything from candy to wine. During the Middle Ages, the economy in the European countries was based on agriculture, under feudalism, aesthetic aspects were not considered, at least not by the vast majority of the generally very poor population. This situation changed with urbanization at the beginning of the Modern Age, one of the very first food laws, created in Augsburg, Germany, in 1531, concerned spices or colorants and required saffron counterfeiters to be burned. With the onset of the revolution, people became dependent on foods produced by others. These new urban dwellers demanded food at low cost, analytical chemistry was still primitive and regulations few. Copper arsenite was used to recolor used tea leaves for resale and it also caused two deaths when used to color a dessert in 1860. Again his tea if mixed or green, he would not escape without the administration of a little Prussian blue. Many color additives had never tested for toxicity or other adverse effects. Historical records show that injuries, even deaths, resulted from tainted colorants, in 1851, about 200 people were poisoned in England,17 of them fatally, directly as a result of eating adulterated lozenges. Originally, these were dubbed coal-tar colors because the materials were obtained from bituminous coal. Many synthesized dyes were easier and less costly to produce and were superior in coloring properties when compared to naturally derived alternatives, some synthetic food colorants are diazo dyes. Diazo dyes are prepared by coupling of a compound with a second aromatic hydrocarbons. The resulting compounds contain conjugated systems that absorb light in the visible parts of the spectrum. The attractiveness of the synthetic dyes is that their color, lipophilicity, the color of the dyes can be controlled by selecting the number of azo-groups and various substituents. Yellow shades are often achieved by using acetoacetanilide, Red colors are often azo compounds
2. Alkanna tinctoria – Alkanna tinctoria, the dyers alkanet or alkanet, is a herb in the borage family. Its main notability is its roots are used as a red dye, the plant is also known as dyers bugloss, orchanet, Spanish bugloss or Languedoc bugloss. It is native in the Mediterranean region, Alkanna tinctoria has a bright blue flower. The plant has a red root of blackish appearance externally but blue-red inside. The root produces a red colouring material which has been used as a dye in the Mediterranean region since antiquity. The root as a dyestuff is soluble in alcohol, ether, and the oils and it is used to give colour to wines and alcoholic tinctures, to vegetable oils, and to varnishes. Powdered and mixed with oil, the root is used as a wood stain. When mixed into an oily environment it imparts a crimson color to the oil, which, when applied to a wood, moves the wood color towards dark-red-brown rosewood, and accentuates the grain of the wood. Alkanet is traditionally used in Indian food under the name Ratan Jot, in Australia alkanet is approved for use as a food colouring, but in the European Union it is not. It has been used as colorant for lipstick and rouge, in alkali environments the alkanet dye has a blue color, with the color changing again to crimson on addition of an acid. The colour is red at pH6.1, purple at 8.8, hence, it can be used to do alkali-acid litmus tests. The colouring agent in Alkanna tinctoria root has been isolated and named alkannin. In English in the medieval era, the name alkanet meant Alkanna tinctoria. In the centuries since then, the name has come to be used informally for some botanically related other plants and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Alkanet. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Ward
3. Alkannin – Alkannin is a natural dye that is obtained from the extracts of plants from the borage family Alkanna tinctoria that are found in the south of France. The dye is used as a coloring and in cosmetics. It is used as a food additive in regions such as Australia, and is designated in Europe as the E number E103. The chemical structure as a derivative was first determined by Brockmann in 1936. Alkannin has a red color in a greasy or oily environment. The enzyme 4-hydroxybenzoate geranyltransferase utilizes geranyl diphosphate and 4-hydroxybenzoate to produce 3-geranyl-4-hydroxybenzoate and diphosphate and these compounds are then used to form alkannin. Alkannin is an antioxidant and has an effect against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. It is also known to have wound healing, antitumor, shikonin is also found in the Chinese herbal medicine plant Lithospermum erythrorhizon, the red-root gromwell. The dried root is a Chinese herbal medicine with various antiviral and biological activities, including inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1
4. Allura Red AC – Allura Red AC is a red azo dye that goes by several names including Allura Red, Food Red 17, C. I. It is used as a dye and has the E number E129. The compound is a derivative of naphthalene, it is red powder. It usually comes as a salt, but can also be used as both calcium and potassium salts. These salts are soluble in water, in solution, its maximum absorbance lies at about 504 nm and its melting point is above 300 °C. Allura Red AC is a very popular dye throughout the world, annual production in 1980 was greater than 2.3 million kilograms. S. Since the 1970s and the advocacy of Benjamin Feingold, there has been public concern that food colorings may cause ADHD-like behavior in children. In 2015, the EFSA found that the exposure estimates did not exceed the ADI of 7 mg/kg bw per day in any population. Allura Red AC was at one time banned in Denmark, Belgium, France and Switzerland, the European Union approves Allura Red AC as a food colorant. In Norway, it was banned between 1978 and 2001, a period in which azo dyes were only used in alcoholic beverages. In the United States, Allura Red AC is approved by the FDA for use in cosmetics, drugs, when prepared as a lake it is disclosed as Red 40 Lake or Red 40 Aluminum Lake. It is used in tattoo inks and is used in many products, such as soft drinks, childrens medications. Record in the Household Products Database of NLM UK Food Guide on E129 International Programme on Chemical Safety Some more details, other common names List of Foods and Drugs containing Red Dye #40
5. Amaranth (dye) – Food Red 9, Acid Red 27, Azorubin S, or C. I.16185 is a dark red to purple azo dye used as a food dye and to color cosmetics. The name was taken from amaranth grain, a plant distinguished by its red color and it can be applied to natural and synthetic fibers, leather, paper, and phenol-formaldehyde resins. As a food additive it has E number E123, Amaranth usually comes as a trisodium salt. It has the appearance of reddish-brown, dark red to purple water-soluble powder that decomposes at 120 °C without melting and its water solution has absorption maximum at about 520 nm. Like all azo dyes, Amaranth was, during the middle of the 20th century, made from coal tar, since 1976 Amaranth has been banned in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration as a suspected carcinogen. Its use is legal in some countries, notably in the United Kingdom where it is most commonly used to give Glacé cherries their distinctive color. After an incident in 1954 involving FD&C Orange Number 1, the FDA retested food colors, in 1960 the FDA was given jurisdiction over color additives, limiting the amounts that could be added to foods and requiring producers of food color to ensure safety and proper labeling of colors. Permission to use food additives was given on a provisional basis, the FDA gave generally recognized as safe provisional status to substances already in use, and extended Red No. In 1971 a Soviet study linked the dye to cancer, by 1976 over 1 million pounds of the dye worth $5 million was used as a colorant in $10 billion worth of foods, drugs and cosmetics. Consumer activists in the United States, perturbed by what they perceived as collusion between the FDA and food conglomerates, put pressure on the FDA to ban it, the FDA banned FD&C Red No.2 in 1976. FD&C Red No.40 replaced the banned Red No.2, Amaranth Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act
6. Annatto – Annatto is an orange-red condiment and food coloring derived from the seeds of the achiote tree. It is often used to impart a yellow or orange color to foods and its scent is described as slightly peppery with a hint of nutmeg and flavor as slightly nutty, sweet and peppery. The color of annatto comes from carotenoid pigments, mainly bixin and norbixin. The condiment is typically prepared by grinding the seeds to a powder or paste, similar effects can be obtained by extracting some of the color and flavor principles from the seeds with hot water, oil, or lard, which are then added to the food. In these uses, annatto is an alternative to synthetic food coloring compounds. Annatto is of commercial value in the United States because the Food. The annatto tree B. orellana is believed to originate from Brazil and it was probably not initially used as a food additive, but for other purposes such as ritual and decorative body painting, sunscreen, and insect repellent, and for medical purposes. It was used for Mexican manuscript painting in the 16th century and it is also called by local names such as achiote, bija, roucou, koesoewe or kusuwe, onoto, atsuete, or colorau. Its use has spread in times to other parts of the world. Ground annatto seeds, often mixed with seeds or spices, are used in form of paste or powder for culinary use, especially in Latin American, Jamaican, Chamorro. Many cuisines traditionally use annatto in recipes of Spanish origin that originally call for saffron, for example, in arroz con pollo, in Venezuela, annatto is used in the preparation of hallacas, perico, and other traditional dishes. Annatto seeds are also a component of some local sauces and condiments, such as recado rojo in Yucatán, Annatto paste is an important ingredient of cochinita pibil, the spicy pork dish popular in Mexico. It is also a key ingredient in the drink tascalate from Chiapas, in the Philippines it is used for the sauce of pancit. Annatto is used currently to impart a yellow or orange color to many industrialized and semi-industrialized foods, in the European Union, it is identified by the E number E160b. Annatto has been a traditional colorant for Gloucester cheese since the 16th century, during the summer, the high levels of carotene in the grass would have given the milk an orange tint which was carried through into the cheese. This orange hue came to be regarded as an indicator of the best cheese, the custom of adding annatto then spread to other parts of the UK, for cheeses such as Chesire and Red Leicester, as well as colored cheddar made in Scotland. Many cheddars are produced in white and red varieties, with the latter being more popular despite the only difference between the two being the presence of annatto as a coloring. That practice has extended to many modern processed cheese products, such as American cheese, the yellow to orange color is produced by the chemical compounds bixin and norbixin, which are classified as carotenoids
7. Apocarotenal – Apocarotenal, or trans-β-apo-8-carotenal, is a carotenoid found in spinach and citrus fruits. Like other carotenoids, apocarotenal plays a role as a precursor of vitamin A, the empirical chemical formula for apocarotenal is C30H40O. Apocarotenal has an orange to orange-red colour and is used in foods, pharmaceuticals, depending on the product forms, apocarotenal is used in fat based food, beverages, dairy products and sweets. Its E number is E160e and it is approved for usage as an additive in the USA, EU and Australia. Epidemiological studies have shown people with high β-carotene intake and high plasma levels of β-carotene have a significantly reduced risk of lung cancer. Some info on apocarotenal Olson, A. J, the biosynthesis and metabolism of carotenoids and retinol
8. Astaxanthin – It belongs to a larger class of chemical compounds known as terpenes, terpenes are built from five carbon precursors, isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. Astaxanthin is classified as a xanthophyll, but currently employed to describe compounds that have oxygen-containing moities, hydroxyl or ketone. Indeed, astaxanthin is a metabolite of zeaxanthin and/or canthaxanthin, containing both hydroxyl and ketone functional groups, like many carotenoids, astaxanthin is a colorful, lipid-soluble pigment. This colour is due to the chain of conjugated double bonds at the centre of the compound. Astaxanthin is found in microalgae, yeast, salmon, trout, krill, shrimp, crayfish, crustaceans, and it provides the red color of salmon meat and the red color of cooked shellfish. Professor Basil Weedons group was the first to prove the structure of astaxanthin by synthesis, astaxanthin, unlike several carotenes and one other known carotenoid, is not converted to vitamin A in the human body. Like other carotenoids, astaxanthin has self-limited absorption orally and such low toxicity by mouth that no toxic syndrome is known and it is an antioxidant with a slightly lower antioxidant activity in some model systems than other carotenoids. However, in living organisms the free-radical terminating effectiveness of each carotenoid is heavily modified by its lipid solubility, while astaxanthin is a natural dietary component, it can also be used as a food supplement. The supplement is intended for human, animal, and aquaculture consumption, the industrial production of astaxanthin comes from both natural and synthetic sources. The U. S. Food and Drug Administration has approved astaxanthin as a coloring for specific uses in animal. The European Commission considers it food dye and it is given the E number E161j, natural astaxanthin is generally recognized as safe by the FDA, but as a food coloring in the United States it is restricted to use in animal food. Astaxanthin is present in most red-coloured aquatic organisms, the content varies from species to species, but also from individual to individual as it is highly dependent on diet and living conditions. Astaxanthin, and other chemically related asta-carotenoids, has also found in a number of lichen species of the arctic zone. Currently, the primary source for natural astaxanthin is the microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis. Haematococcus pluvialis seems to accumulate the highest levels of astaxanthin in nature, commercially, more than 40 g of astaxanthin can be obtained from one kg of dry biomass. Haematococcus pluvialis has the advantage of the population doubling every week, however, it does require some expertise to grow the algae with a high astaxanthin content. Specifically, the microalgae are grown in two phases, first, in the green phase, the cells are given an abundance of nutrients to promote proliferation of the cells. The cells, with their high concentrations of astaxanthin, are then harvested, in contrast to synthetic and bacteria sources of astaxanthin, yeast sources of astaxanthin consist mainly of the -form, an important astaxanthin source in nature
9. Azorubine – Azorubine, carmoisine, Food Red 3, Azorubin S, Brillantcarmoisin O, Acid Red 14, or C. I.14720 is a synthetic red food dye from the azo dye group. It usually comes as a disodium salt and it is a red to maroon powder. It is used for the purposes where the food is heat-treated after fermentation, in the US, this color was listed in 1939 as D&C Red No.10 for use in externally applied drugs and cosmetics. It was delisted in 1963 because no party was interested in supporting the studies needed to establish safety and it was never used in food in the US. In the EU azorubine is authorized for use in foods and beverages, such as cheeses, dried fruit, and some alcoholic beverages. There are no provisions for azorubine in the Codex Alimentarius, azorubine has shown no evidence of mutagenic or carcinogenic properties and an acceptable daily intake of 0–4 mg/kg was established in 1983 by the WHO. Since the 1970s and the advocacy of Benjamin Feingold, there has been public concern that food colorings may cause ADHD-like behavior in children. However, in 2009 the EFSA re-evaluated the data at hand, there is no evidence to support broad claims that food coloring causes food intolerance and ADHD-like behavior in children. It is possible that food coloring may act as a trigger in those who are genetically predisposed
10. Betanin – Betanin, or Beetroot Red, is a red glycosidic food dye obtained from beets, its aglycone, obtained by hydrolyzing away the glucose molecule, is betanidin. As a food additive, its E number is E162, betanin degrades when subjected to light, heat, and oxygen, therefore, it is used in frozen products, products with short shelf life, or products sold in dry state. Betanin can survive pasteurization when in products with sugar content. In dry form betanin is stable in the presence of oxygen, the color of betanin depends on pH, between four and five it is bright bluish-red, becoming blue-violet as the pH increases. Once the pH reaches alkaline levels betanin degrades by hydrolysis, resulting in a yellow-brown color, betanin is a betalain pigment, together with isobetanin, probetanin, and neobetanin. Other pigments contained in beet are indicaxanthin and vulgaxanthins, betanin is usually obtained from the extract of beet juice, the concentration of betanin in red beet can reach 300–600 mg/kg. Other dietary sources of betanin and other include the Opuntia cactus, Swiss chard. In hot processed candies, it can be used if added at the part of the processing. Betanin is also used in soups as well as tomato and bacon products, betanin has not been implicated as causing clinical food allergy when used as a coloring agent. Betanin can be used for coloring meat and sausages. Occurrence, chemistry and application of betanin