Category:Foreign Heroes of the Soviet Union
Pages in category "Foreign Heroes of the Soviet Union"
The following 34 pages are in this category, out of 34 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 34 pages are in this category, out of 34 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Marcel Albert – Marcel Albert was a French World War II flying ace who flew for the air forces of the Vichy government and the Free French forces, and also for the Royal Air Force. Albert grew up in a working-class family and he became a mechanic, building gearboxes for Renault, and was accepted for pilot training in the French Armée de lAir in May 1938. After primary and advanced training, he was posted at the training center in Chartres. In February 1940 Albert was assigned to Groupe de Chasse I/3, a unit operating Frances top fighter, when German troops invaded France in May 1940, his squadron was redeployed to the Reims airfield. On 14 May 1940, Albert shot down a Do 17 bomber and later that day and he also earned a probable victory over a Heinkel He 111 bomber before the armistice. Under the Vichy government, his squadron was redeployed to Algeria where Albert flew a few missions against the British forces in Gibraltar, on 14 October he and two other pilots defected and surrendered their airplanes to the British. Having reached England, Albert joined the RAF and flew 47 missions in Spitfires with 340 Squadron, in late 1942, Albert joined the Normandie fighter group, a Free French fighter unit that was being sent to the Soviet Union to help fight the Germans. The Normandie group entered the fight in April 1943, flying Russian-built Yak-1 fighters, Albert quickly proved to be one of Normandies best pilots. His first kill was over a Focke-Wulf Fw 189 on 16 June 1943, in July he claimed 3 more, and he was given command of the 1st escadrille on 4 September 1943. During the offensive against Eastern Prussia in October 1944, he scored 7 victories and his score totaled 23 victories in 262 combat missions, making him the second highest-scoring French ace of World War II. On 27 November 1944 he was awarded the Soviet Unions highest decoration, after the war Albert flew as a test pilot in 1946 and was later sent to Czechoslovakia as air attaché, where he met his future wife. In 1948, he left the military and moved to the United States with his wife, Albert died there on 23 August 2010. Aerostories Interview with Marcel Albert at simulation-france-magazine. com Marcel Albert at Find a Grave
2. Abdel Hakim Amer – Mohamed Abdel Hakim Amer was an Egyptian general and political leader. Amer was born in Astal, Samallot, in the Al Minya Governorate on 11 December 1919, after finishing grade school, he attended the Cairo Military Academy and graduated in 1938. He was commissioned into the Egyptian Army in 1939, Amer served in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, took part in the 1952 Revolution and commanded the Egyptian Army in the Suez Crisis, the North Yemen Civil War and the Six-Day War. Amer played a role in the military coup that overthrew King Farouk in 1952. The following year, Amer was made Egypts Chief-of-Staff, bypassing four military ranks, in 1956, Amer was appointed commander-in-chief of the joint military command established by Egypt and Syria. He also led Egyptian forces against both Israeli and allied British-French forces during the 1956 Suez war, after the fighting ended, Amer accused Nasser of provoking an unnecessary war and then blaming the military for the result. As Nassers representative in Syria, Amer was detained by rebels during the 1961 Syrian coup détat, in March 1964, Amer was made first vice-president to Nasser and deputy supreme commander, with the power to rule for 60 days if the president was incapacitated. Amers distinguished career came to an end after Egypts crushing defeat by Israel in the Six-Day War of June 1967. Many historians have stated that much the Egyptian militarys failures in the 1967 war can be laid at the feet of Amer, when Amer heard of the fall of Abu Ageila to Israel, he panicked and ordered all units in the Sinai to retreat. This order effectively meant the defeat of Egypt, shortly after the Six Day War ended, he was relieved of all his duties and forced into early retirement. In August that year, Amer, along with over 50 Egyptian military officers and he was kept under house arrest at his villa in Giza. After surviving and being taken home the day, he managed to evade his guards. Later, Cairo radio announced his burial in his village of Astal. Amer chose the option and received a full military burial. Anwar Al Sadat, who later became President of Egypt, expressed his opinion if he was in Amers position. In September 2012, Amers family filed a case to investigate his death and they claimed that he was murdered. Abdel Hakim Amer was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union on 13 May 1964, malaysia, Honorary Grand Commander of the Order of the Defender of the Realm
3. Ahmed Ben Bella – Ahmed Ben Bella was an Algerian socialist soldier and revolutionary who was the first President of Algeria from 1963 to 1965. Ahmed Ben Bella was born in Maghnia, in the department of Oran, western Algeria, on 25 December 1916. He was son of a farmer and small businessman, who supported his family through this economic activities and he had five brothers and two sisters. As it, he started complaining and chafed imperialism and colonialism and criticized French cultural influence, Ben Bella volunteered for service in the French Army in 1936. The Army was one of the few avenues of advancement for Algerians under colonial rule, posted to Marseille he played center mid-field for Olympique de Marseille in 1939–1940. His only appearance for the club was in a game against FC Antibes in the Coupe de France on 29 April 1940 in Cannes and he also scored a goal during the game. The club officials offered him a spot on the team. He also played for IRB Maghnia, Ben Bella conscripted to the army again in 1940, believing that this would give Algerians an equal treatment. Thereby, he fought for the French during World War II and he received the ″Croix de guerre″ after manning an anti-aircraft post during the german invasion in 1940. He was demobilised after the fall of France but joined a regiment of Moroccan tirailleurs with whom he saw throughout the Italian campaign. There, he was awarded because of his bravery demonstrated at Monte Cassino. For this, he was promoted to the rank of warrant officer, and he received the ″Médaille militaire″, on May 81945, while France was celebrating Germany’s capitulation, big protests started to occur in the Algerian town of Setif. Cruelties of colonialism became worse during the period, so Algerian people stood up against it. Thus, the protests turned to five days of rape and killing, the anti-colonialist however, put Algerian number of deaths around ten thousands. This shocked Ben Bella and his Algerian companions, as they realized that they start receiving an equal treatment even after their services in war. After the events of Setif, Ben Bella returned to Algeria, reincorporating into its political life, French authorities sent assailants with the intentions of assassinating him on his farm. The attempt to his life failed, but Ben Bella’s farm was confiscated, after the Government election of Marcel-Edmond Naegelen, he became part of a group that thought democratic independence was something illusory. Together with Messali Hadjs and his party, he founded the Organisation Spéciale and this was the immediate predecessor of the National Liberation Front
4. Fidel Castro – Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz was a Cuban revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008. Politically a Marxist–Leninist and Cuban nationalist, he served as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba from 1961 until 2011. Under his administration, Cuba became a one-party socialist state, industry and business were nationalized, born in Birán, Oriente as the son of a wealthy Spanish farmer, Castro adopted leftist anti-imperialist politics while studying law at the University of Havana. After a years imprisonment, he traveled to Mexico where he formed a revolutionary group, returning to Cuba, Castro took a key role in the Cuban Revolution by leading the Movement in a guerrilla war against Batistas forces from the Sierra Maestra. After Batistas overthrow in 1959, Castro assumed military and political power as Cubas Prime Minister, adopting a Marxist–Leninist model of development, Castro converted Cuba into a one-party, socialist state under Communist Party rule, the first in the Western Hemisphere. Policies introducing central economic planning and expanding healthcare and education were accompanied by control of the press. These actions, coupled with Castros leadership of the Non-Aligned Movement from 1979 to 1983 and Cubas medical internationalism, following the Soviet Unions dissolution in 1991, Castro led Cuba into its Special Period and embraced environmentalist and anti-globalization ideas. In the 2000s he forged alliances in the Latin American pink tide—namely with Hugo Chávezs Venezuela—and signed Cuba up to the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas, in 2006 he transferred his responsibilities to Vice-President Raúl Castro, who was elected to the presidency by the National Assembly in 2008. Castro is a world figure. His supporters view him as a champion of socialism and anti-imperialism whose revolutionary regime advanced economic, critics view him as a dictator whose administration oversaw human-rights abuses, the exodus of a large number of Cubans, and the impoverishment of the countrys economy. He was decorated with various awards and significantly influenced various individuals. In 1960 Castro was bestowed with the Grand Slam Silver Trophy in the prestigious Ernest Hemingway International Billfishing Tournament after he caught a sailfish, Castro was born out of wedlock at his fathers farm on August 13,1926. His father, Ángel Castro y Argiz, was a migrant to Cuba from Galicia, aged six, Castro was sent to live with his teacher in Santiago de Cuba, before being baptized into the Roman Catholic Church at the age of eight. Being baptized enabled Castro to attend the La Salle boarding school in Santiago, in 1945 he transferred to the more prestigious Jesuit-run El Colegio de Belén in Havana. Although Castro took an interest in history, geography and debating at Belén, he did not excel academically, in 1945, Castro began studying law at the University of Havana. Admitting he was illiterate, he became embroiled in student activism. In 1947, Castro joined the Party of the Cuban People, a charismatic figure, Chibás advocated social justice, honest government, and political freedom, while his party exposed corruption and demanded reform. Though Chibás came third in the 1948 general election, Castro remained committed to working on his behalf, in later years anti-Castro dissidents accused him of committing gang-related assassinations at the time, but these remain unproven
5. Roland de la Poype – Roland Paulze dIvoy de la Poype was a World War II fighter ace, member of the Normandie-Niemen fighter group that fought on the Soviet front. He was also an industry pioneer and founder of the Antibes Marineland in 1970. His father, an agronomist and reserve officer in the French army, was killed at the front in May 1940, aged 19 years old in August 1939 de la Poype enrolled in the French air force and began training as a pilot. He finished his training in March 1940, shortly before the German invasion of France, with comrades from the fighter training school of Etampes, he managed to flee to Saint-Jean-de-Luz to board a ship to England. An indication of his abilities, he was selected as wingman by the squadrons commanding officer, 32-victory Irish ace. He claimed his first aircraft destroyed, a Messerschmitt Bf 109, on 22 August 1942 over Gravelines, the two squadrons, initially called the Normandie Group, were assigned the Yak-1B fighter and attached to the 303rd Fighter Aviation Division of the 1st Air Army. On 31 August 1943 he shot down a Ju 87 Stuka dive-bomber and this was his second aerial victory and his first on the Soviet front. De la Poype was one of four members of the regiment to be awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union. After leaving the Soviet Union on 20 June 1945 he became an air attaché in Belgium, an inventor, de La Poype understood that plastics and disposable packaging would become very important. As head of the Société dEtudes et dApplications du Plastique, he set up his first plastics factory in May 1947 and he is also the designer of the Citroen Mehari. De la Poype created the Marineland in Antibes in 1970 in order to educate the public about marine life and he retired in 1985 but retained ownernership until 2006. He and his artist wife Marie-Nöelle lived in a lavish Paris apartment a half-mile from the Trocadero and he was also mayor of Champigné and was the owner of a golf course near Angers
6. Muhammed Faris – Muhammed Ahmed Faris is a Syrian military aviator. He was the first Syrian and the second Arab in space, born in Aleppo, Syria, he was a pilot in the Syrian Air Force with the rank of a colonel. He specialized in navigation when he was selected to participate in the Intercosmos spaceflight program on 30 September 1985 and he flew as Research Cosmonaut in the Interkosmos program on Soyuz TM-3 to the Mir space station in July 1987, spending 7 days 23 hours and 5 minutes in space. He returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-2, Muhammed Faris was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union on 30 July 1987. He was also awarded the Order of Lenin, after his spaceflight, he returned to the Syrian Air Force and lived in Aleppo. He is married and has three children, on 4 August 2012, during the Syrian civil war, he defected from Assads government and joined the armed opposition. On 13 September 2012, made an interview with Al Aan TV. List of Muslim astronauts Spacefacts biography of Muhammed Faris
7. Bertalan Farkas – Bertalan Farkas is the first Hungarian cosmonaut and the first Esperantist in space. He is currently the president of Airlines Service and Trade, with Charles Simonyis travel, Farkas is no longer the only Hungarian who has been to space. Born in Gyulaháza, he graduated from the George Kilián Aeronautical College in Szolnok in 1969 and he then attended the Krasnodar Military Aviation Institute in the Soviet Union, from where he graduated in 1972. After earning his qualifications at University, Farkas joined the Hungarian Air Force, in 1978 he volunteered to become a cosmonaut and was selected as part of the fifth international programme for Intercosmos. His backup cosmonaut was Béla Magyari, Farkas, along with Soviet cosmonaut Valeri Kubasov, was launched into space on Soyuz 36 from Baikonur Cosmodrome on May 26,1980, at 18,20. While in orbit, Farkas conducted experiments in material science, after 7 days,20 hours and 45 minutes, and having completed 124 orbits, Farkas and Kubasov returned to Earth, landing 140 km southeast of Jezkazgan. Bertalan Farkas was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union on June 30,1980, Farkas is married to Anikó Farkas, and has three children, Aida, Ádám and Bertalan. He loves tennis and plays it often and he was a member of the Hungarian Democratic Forum, a Hungarian conservative political party, and was its candidate at the 2006 parliamentary election in the Baktalórántháza election district. He holds the rank of Commander in the Military and Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem in Hungary, spacefacts biography of Bertalan Farkas His biography at Hungary. hu
8. Erich Honecker – From 1976 onward he was also the countrys official head of state as chairman of the State Council following Willi Stophs relinquishment of the post. Honeckers political career began in the 1930s when he became an official of the Communist Party of Germany, a position for which he was imprisoned during the Nazi era. Following World War II, he was freed and soon relaunched his political activities, founding the organisation the Free German Youth in 1946. Honeckers eighteen years at the helm of the soon-to-collapse German Democratic Republic came to an end. However, the proceedings were abandoned due to illness and he was freed from custody to travel to join his family in exile in Chile, where he died in May 1994 from liver cancer. Honecker was born in Neunkirchen, in what is now Saarland, as the son of Wilhelm Honecker, a miner and political activist. The couple had six children together, Katharina, Wilhelm, Frieda, Erich, Gertrud, after World War I, the Territory of the Saar Basin was occupied by France. After his tenth birthday in 1922, Erich Honecker became a member of the Spartacus Leagues childrens group in Wiebelskirchen, aged 14 he entered the KJVD, the Young Communist League of Germany, for whom he later served the organisations leader of Saarland from 1931. Honecker did not find an apprenticeship immediately after leaving school, there, sharing a room with Anton Ackermann, he studied under the cover name Fritz Malter. In 1930, aged 18, Honecker entered the KPD, the Communist Party of Germany and his political mentor was Otto Niebergall, who later represented the KPD in the Reichstag. After returning from Moscow in 1931 following his studies at the International Lenin School, Honecker was arrested in Essen, Germany but soon released. Following this he fled to the Netherlands and from there oversaw KJVDs activities in Pfalz, Hesse and he returned to the Saar in 1934 and worked alongside Johannes Hoffmann on the campaign against the region’s re-incorporation into Germany. A referendum on the future in January 1935 however saw 90. 73% vote in favour of reunifying with Germany. Like 4,000 to 8,000 others, Honecker then fled the region, on 28 August 1935 he illegally travelled to Berlin under the alias Marten Tjaden, with a printing press in his luggage. From there he worked together with the KPD official Herbert Wehner – later to become an SPD member - in opposition/resistance to the Nazi state. On 4 December 1935 Honecker was detained by the Gestapo and until 1937 remanded in Berlin’s Moabit detention centre, on 3 July 1937 he was sentenced to ten years imprisonment for the preparation of high treason alongside the severe falsification of documents. Honecker spent the majority of his incarceration in the Brandenburg-Görden Prison, in early 1945 he was moved to the Barnimstraße Women’s Prison in Berlin due to good behaviour and, as a trained roofer, in order to be put to work repairing the bomb-damaged building. During an Allied bombing raid on 6 March 1945 he managed to escape and hid himself at the apartment of Lotte Grund, after several days she persuaded him to hand himself back in and the escape was then covered up by the guard
9. Erich Mielke – A native of Berlin and a second-generation member of the Communist Party of Germany, Mielke was one of two triggermen in the 1931 murders of Berlin Police Captains Paul Anlauf and Franz Lenck. After learning that a witness had survived, Mielke escaped prosecution by fleeing to the Soviet Union and he was one of the perpetrators of the Great Purge as well as the Stalinist decimation of the International Brigade during the Spanish Civil War. The Stasi under Mielke has been called the most pervasive police state apparatus ever to exist on German soil, during the 1950s and 60s, Mielke masterminded the forced collectivization of East Germanys family-owned farms, which sent a flood of refugees to West Germany. In response, Mielke oversaw the construction of the Berlin Wall and he also oversaw the creation of pro-Soviet secret police and terrorist insurgencies in Western Europe, Latin America, Africa, and the Middle East. In addition to his role as head of the Stasi, Mielke was also a General in the East German Army, dubbed The Master of Fear by the West German press, Mielke was one of the most powerful and most hated men in East Germany. After German reunification, Mielke was prosecuted, convicted, and incarcerated for the 1931 murders of Captains Anlauf and he was released early due to ill health, and died in a Berlin nursing home in 2000. Erich Mielke was born in a tenement in Berlin-Wedding, Kingdom of Prussia, German Empire, during the First World War, the neighborhood was known as Red Wedding due to many residents Marxist militancy. In a handwritten biography written for the Soviet secret police, Mielke described his father as a poor, uneducated woodworker, both were, he said, members of the Social Democratic Party of Germany. His son Erich claimed My younger brother Kurt and two sisters were Communist sympathisers, while attending the Gymnasium, Mielke joined the Communist Party of Germany in 1925, and worked as a reporter for the communist newspaper Rote Fahne from 1928 to 1931. He then joined the KPDs paramilitary wing, or Parteiselbstschutz, at the time, the Parteiselbstschutz was overseen by KPD Reichstag Representatives Hans Kippenberger and Heinz Neumann. According to John Koehler, Mielke was a protege of Kippenbergers having taken to his paramilitary training with the enthusiasm of a Prussian Junker. World War I veterans taught the novices how to handle pistols, rifles, machine guns and this clandestine training was conducted in the sparsely populated, pastoral countryside surrounding Berlin. According to John Koehler, members of the Parteiselbstschutz served as bouncers at Party meetings, besides the Berlin Police, their arch-enemies were street-fighters affiliated with the Nazi Party, the Monarchist German National Peoples Party, and radical nationalist parties. The SPD, which dominated German politics from 1918–1931 and which the KPD accused of Social fascism, was their most detested foe. According to Koehler, the KPDs Selbstschutz men always carried a Stahlrute, two springs that telescoped into a tube seven inches long, which when extended became a deadly. Not to be outdone by the Nazis, these street-fighters were often armed with pistols as well, the last work, which was accomplished by a Comrade and myself, was the Bülowplatz Affair. On 2 August 1931, Neumann and Kippenberger received a dressing down from Walter Ulbricht, enraged by police interference, Ulbricht snarled, At home in Saxony we would have done something about the police a long time ago. Here in Berlin we will not fool around much longer, soon we will hit the police in the head
10. Abdul Ahad Mohmand – Abdul Ahad Mohmand is a former Afghan Air Force aviator who became the first Afghan and fourth Muslim to journey to outer space. He became one of Soyuz TM-6 crew members and spent nine days aboard the Mir space station in 1988 as an Intercosmos Research Cosmonaut and he became the fourth Muslim to visit outer spaces, after Sultan bin Salman Al Saud, Muhammed Faris, and Musa Manarov. During this mission Abdul Ahad Mohmand was the first cosmonaut to use Pushto after he made a call to Afghanistan. Mohmand is also believed to be the first Muslim who took the Quran to space, Mohmand was born on 1 January 1959 in Sardah, in the Ghazni Province of Afghanistan. He belongs to the Mohmand tribe of the Pushtun ethnic group, Mohmand graduated from the Polytechnical University of Kabul and then from the Air Force Academy. He served in the Afghan Air Force and later trained in the Soviet Union as a pilot, along with Commander Vladimir Lyakhov and Flight Engineer Valery Polyakov, Mohmand was part of the Soyuz TM-6 three-man crew, which launched at 04,23 GMT August 29,1988. Momands inclusion in the mission was a significant symbol during the Soviet war in Afghanistan, during his nine days stay on the Mir space station, Momand took photographs of his country, participated in astrophysical, medical and biological experiments. He also spoke to Afghanistan’s president, Mohammed Najibullah, and brewed Afghan tea for the crew, Lyakhov and Mohmand returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TM-5. The September 6 planned landing of Soyuz TM-5 was delayed because of complications on the Mir. Radio Moscow reassured listeners that Lyakhov and Mohmand were fine and in touch with Mission Control, a recording was played of them laughing. A day later, the retro-fire was successful, and at 00,50 GMT Soyuz TM-5 landed near Dzhezkazgan, during touchdown there was no live radio coverage, only live television pictures of Mission Control. Mohmand was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union on September 7,1988, during his flight to space, his mother was extremely distraught over the safety of her son. Afghan President Mohammad Najibullah called Momands mother into the Presidents office, by this event, Pushto became the 5th language spoken in space. On his return he was made Deputy Civil Aviation Minister, but was a short posting due to the failure of Soviet forces against the Mujahideen take over. Following the withdrawal of Soviet forces from Afghanistan, Mohmand decided to emigrate to Germany in 1992 and applied for asylum there and he worked in printing services and now as an accountant residing in Ostfildern near Stuttgart. Timeline of astronauts by nationality List of Muslim astronauts Article of Dr. ” ISIM review 22,39
11. Gamal Abdel Nasser – Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death. Nasser led the 1952 overthrow of the monarchy and introduced far-reaching land reforms the following year, Nassers popularity in Egypt and the Arab world skyrocketed after his nationalization of the Suez Canal and his political victory in the subsequent Suez Crisis. Calls for pan-Arab unity under his leadership increased, culminating with the formation of the United Arab Republic with Syria, in 1962, Nasser began a series of major socialist measures and modernization reforms in Egypt. Despite setbacks to his pan-Arabist cause, by 1963 Nassers supporters gained power in several Arab countries and he began his second presidential term in March 1965 after his political opponents were banned from running. Following Egypts defeat by Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War, Nasser resigned, after the conclusion of the 1970 Arab League summit, Nasser suffered a heart attack and died. His funeral in Cairo drew five million mourners and an outpouring of grief across the Arab world, Nasser remains an iconic figure in the Arab world, particularly for his strides towards social justice and Arab unity, modernization policies, and anti-imperialist efforts. His presidency also encouraged and coincided with an Egyptian cultural boom, Gamal Abdel Nasser was born on 15 January 1918 in Bakos, Alexandria, the first son of Fahima and Abdel Nasser Hussein. Nassers father was a postal worker born in Beni Mur in Upper Egypt and raised in Alexandria and his parents married in 1917, and later had two more boys, Izz al-Arab and al-Leithi. Nassers family traveled frequently due to his fathers work, in 1921, they moved to Asyut and, in 1923, to Khatatba, where Nassers father ran a post office. Nasser attended a school for the children of railway employees until 1924, when he was sent to live with his paternal uncle in Cairo. Nasser exchanged letters with his mother and visited her on holidays and he stopped receiving messages at the end of April 1926. Upon returning to Khatatba, he learned that his mother had died giving birth to his third brother, Shawki. Nasser later stated that losing her this way was a shock so deep that time failed to remedy and he adored his mother and the injury of her death deepened when his father remarried before the years end. In 1928, Nasser went to Alexandria to live with his maternal grandfather and it was in Alexandria that Nasser became involved in political activism. After witnessing clashes between protesters and police in Manshia Square, he joined the demonstration without being aware of its purpose. The protest, organized by the ultranationalist Young Egypt Society, called for the end of colonialism in Egypt in the wake of the 1923 Egyptian constitutions annulment by Prime Minister Ismail Sidqi, Nasser was arrested and detained for a night before his father bailed him out. When his father was transferred to Cairo in 1933, Nasser joined him and he took up acting in school plays for a brief period and wrote articles for the schools paper, including a piece on French philosopher Voltaire titled Voltaire, the Man of Freedom. Two protesters were killed and Nasser received a graze to the head from a policemans bullet, the incident garnered his first mention in the press, the nationalist newspaper Al Gihad reported that Nasser led the protest and was among the wounded
12. Rakesh Sharma – Rakesh Sharma, AC, Hero of the Soviet Union, is a former Indian Air Force pilot who flew aboard Soyuz T-11, launched April 2,1984, as part of the Intercosmos programme. Sharma was the first Indian to travel in space, Rakesh Sharma was born on 13 January 1949 in Patiala, Punjab, India. He attended St. Georges Grammar School, Hyderabad and he joined the Air Force as a cadet in 1966 at the age of 18. Thereafter, he was admitted to the National Defence Academy as an Air Force plebe in July 1966, Rakesh proved to be a focused and dedicated student and by 1970, he was commissioned into the Indian Air Force to become a pilot. An alumnus of the 35th National Defence Academy, Rakesh Sharma joined as a test pilot in the Indian Air Force in 1970 and he flew various Mikoyan-Gurevich aircraft starting from 1971. Rakesh Sharma swiftly progressed through many levels and in 1984 he was appointed as the Squadron Leader, Sharma spent 7 days 21 hours and 40 minutes aboard the Salyut 7 during which his team conducted scientific and technical studies which included 43 experimental sessions. His work was mainly in the fields of bio-medicine and remote sensing, the crew held a joint television news conference with officials in Moscow and then Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. When Indira Gandhi asked Sharma how India looked from outer space and this is the title of a patriotic poem by Iqbal that had been written when India was under British colonial rule, that continues to be popular today. India became the 14th nation to send a man to outer space and he retired with the rank of Wing Commander. He joined the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited in 1987 and served as Chief Test Pilot in the HAL Nashik Division until 1992 and he was also associated with the Light Combat Aircraft Tejas. He was conferred with the honour of the Hero of the Soviet Union upon his return from space, the Republic of India conferred its highest peacetime gallantry award, the Ashoka Chakra on him and the other two Soviet members of his mission, Malyshev and Strekalov. He and his wife Madhu learned Russian during their stay in Russia in 1982 and his son Kapil is a film director and his daughter Kritika is a media artist. Kalpana Chawla Sunita Williams Ravish Malhotra Interview with Rakesh Sharma in August 2013 Biography of Rakesh Sharma
13. Walter Ulbricht – Walter Ernst Paul Ulbricht was a German Communist politician. Ulbricht played a role in the creation of the Weimar-era Communist Party of Germany. As the First Secretary of the Socialist Unity Party 1950 to 1971, from President Wilhelm Piecks death in 1960, he was also the East German head of state until his own death in 1973. He followed Stalins guidelines very closely, and made sure everyone else in East Germany did so as well. Ulbricht was born in Leipzig, Saxony, to Pauline Ida and Ernst August Ulbricht and he spent eight years in primary school. After leaving school, he trained to be a joiner, both his parents worked actively for the Social Democratic Party, which Walter joined in 1912. Ulbricht served in World War I from 1915 to 1917 in Galicia on the Eastern Front and he deserted in 1918, as he had opposed the war from the beginning. Imprisoned in Charleroi, in 1918 he was released as part of the collapse of Imperial Germany, in 1917 he became a member of the Independent Social Democratic Party after it split off from the Social Democratic Party over support of Germanys participation in World War I. During the German Revolution, he became a member of the soviet of his army corps. Along with the bulk of the USPD, he joined the KPD in 1920 and he rose fast in the ranks of the KPD, becoming a member of the Central Committee in 1923. Ulbricht attended the International Lenin School of the Comintern in Moscow in 1924/1925, the electors subsequently voted him into the regional parliament of Saxony in 1926. He became a Member of the Reichstag for South Westphalia from 1928 to 1933 and served as KPD chairman in Berlin, in the years before the 1933 Nazi election to power, paramilitary wings of Marxist and extreme nationalist parties provoked massive riots connected with demonstrations. Besides the Berlin Police, the KPDs arch-enemies were street-fighters affiliated with the Nazi Party, the Monarchist German National Peoples Party, and radical nationalist parties. The Social Democratic Party of Germany, which dominated local and national politics from 1918-1931, for this reason, the Comintern ordered the KPD to cooperate with the Nazis against the SPD. At an event arranged by the Nazi Party in January 1931, Ulbricht was allowed by Joseph Goebbels, subsequently, Goebbels delivered his own speech. The attempt at a friendly discussion turned hostile, and a struggle between Nazis and Communists began, police officers divided them, both sides had tried to use this event for their election propaganda. The Nazi Party attained power in Germany in January 1933, and very quickly began a purge of Communist, following the arrest of the KPDs leader, Ernst Thälmann, Ulbricht campaigned to be Thälmanns replacement as head of the Party. Many competitors for the leadership were killed in the Soviet Union because of Ulbricht, Ulbricht lived in exile in Paris and Prague from 1933 to 1937
14. Vladimir Zaimov – Vladimir Stoyanov Zaimov was a Bulgarian general who acted as a Soviet spy in the Kingdom of Bulgaria. He was made Hero of the Soviet Union for his actions against the Bulgarian Axis government, vladimir Zaimov was born on December 8,1888 in Kyustendil to Stoyan Zaimov, an April Uprising participant. In 1907 he graduated from Royal Officers’ College and from 1912 to 1913 served in the Balkan Wars, in 1927 he helped built artillery in his native country and by 1934 he was in charge of Military League. A year later, he was relocated to a reserve in which later on he was imprisoned, on October 16 of the same year he became major general and became Military alliance secretary as well. From 1935 to 1936 he was charged with an attempt on General Damyan Velchev. On June 3,1942 he asked for a pardon from Boris III, but was declined, in May 1945 he was rehabilitated by the Sofia Court House at the Peoples Tribunal of the Fatherland Front. The colonel general rank wasnt given to him until his death and only by 1972 he was awarded with the Hero of the Soviet Union badge
15. Todor Zhivkov – Todor Hristov Zhivkov, was the Communist leader of the Peoples Republic of Bulgaria from 4 March 1954 until 10 November 1989. He resigned on 10 November 1989, under pressure by senior BCP members due to his refusal to recognize problems, within a month of Zhivkovs ouster, Communist rule in Bulgaria had effectively ended, and within another month the Peoples Republic of Bulgaria had formally ceased to exist. Zhivkov was born in the Bulgarian village of Pravets into a peasant family, in 1928, he joined the Bulgarian Communist Youth Union, an organisation closely linked with the Bulgarian Workers Party – later the Bulgarian Communist Party. The following year he obtained a post at the Darzhavna pechatnitsa, in 1932, he joined the BWP proper, later serving as secretary of its Second Borough Committee and as a member of its Sofia County Committee. During World War II, Zhivkov participated in Bulgarias resistance movement against the countrys alignment with Nazi Germany and was sympathetic to the countrys 50,000 Jews. In 1943, he was involved in organising the Chavdar partisan detachment in and around his place of birth, under his rule, many fellow former combatants with Chavdar were to rise to positions of prominence in Bulgarian affairs. He is said to have coordinated partisan movements with those of pro-Soviet army units during the 9 September 1944 uprising, after 9 September 1944, Zhivkov became head of the Sofia police force, restyled as the Narodna Militsiya. He was elected to the BCP Central Committee as a member in 1945. In the run-up to the 1949 treason trial against Traicho Kostov, Zhivkov criticised the Party and this placed him in the Stalinist hardline wing of the Party. In 1950, Zhivkov became a member of the BCP Politburo, then led by Vulko Chervenkov. In the years followed, he was involved in countering countryside resistance to forced farm collectivisation in northwestern Bulgaria. After Joseph Stalins death, an emphasis on shared leadership emerged, the hardline Stalinist Chervenkov was removed as General Secretary of the BCP in 1954 under Soviet pressure. Zhivkov took his place, but Chervenkov retained some of his powers as prime minister, Bulgarian opinion at the time interpreted this as a self-preservation move by Chervenkov, since Zhivkov was a less well known figure in the party. It was at point that he became the de facto leader of Bulgaria. Subsequently Zhivkov was associated with the April Line, which had anti-Stalinist credentials, at the BCP 8th Congress in late 1962, Zhivkov accused Yugov of anti-Party activity, expelled him from the BCP and had him placed under house arrest. Their plan was to establish a leadership in the country. The coup was exposed and between 28 March and 12 April 1965 and most of the plotters were arrested, the post, equivalent to that of president, confirmed his position as the countrys top leader. Following the Chinese model, all of Bulgarian society was to be propagandized and mobilized to meet the planning goals, amalgamation of collective farms cut their number by 70 percent, after which average farm acreage was second only to the Soviet Union among countries in Eastern Europe