Category:Former provincial capitals of New Zealand
Pages in category "Former provincial capitals of New Zealand"
The following 11 pages are in this category, out of 11 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 11 pages are in this category, out of 11 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Auckland – Auckland is a city in the North Island of New Zealand. It is the most populous area in the country. Auckland has a population of 1,495,000, which constitutes 32 percent of New Zealands population, a diverse and multicultural city, Auckland is home to the largest Polynesian population in the world. It has also been called Ākarana, the Māori pronunciation of Auckland, the Auckland urban area ranges to Waiwera in the north, Kumeu in the northwest, and Runciman in the south. It is not contiguous, the section from Waiwera to Whangaparāoa Peninsula is separate from its nearest neighbouring suburb of Long Bay, the surrounding hills are covered in rainforest and the landscape is dotted with dozens of dormant volcanic cones. The central part of the area occupies a narrow isthmus between the Manukau Harbour on the Tasman Sea and the Waitemata Harbour on the Pacific Ocean. It is one of the few cities in the world to have harbours on two major bodies of water. The isthmus on which Auckland resides was first settled around 1350 and was valued for its rich, Māori population in the area is estimated to have peaked at 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans. After a British colony was established in 1840, the new Governor of New Zealand, William Hobson and he named the area Auckland for George Eden, Earl of Auckland, British First Lord of the Admiralty. It was replaced as the capital in 1865, but immigration to the new city stayed strong, today, Aucklands Central Business District is the major financial centre of New Zealand. Auckland is classified as a Beta World City because of its importance in finance, commerce, media, entertainment, arts, education and tourism. Aucklands landmarks such as the Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tāmaki, the Harbour Bridge, the Sky Tower, the isthmus was settled by Māori around 1350, and was valued for its rich and fertile land. Many pā were created, mainly on the volcanic peaks, Māori population in the area is estimated to have been about 20,000 people before the arrival of Europeans. As a result, the region had relatively low numbers of Māori when European settlement of New Zealand began, there is, however, nothing to suggest that this was the result of a deliberate European policy. Auckland was officially declared New Zealands capital in 1841 and the transfer of the administration from Russell in the Bay of Islands was completed in 1842. However, even in 1840 Port Nicholson was seen as a choice for an administrative capital because of its proximity to the South Island. After losing its status as capital, Auckland remained the city of the Auckland Province until the provincial system was abolished in 1876. Each of the four settlements had about 800 settlers, the men being fully armed in case of emergency but spent nearly all their time breaking in the land and establishing roads
2. Blenheim, New Zealand – Blenheim is the most populous town in the region of Marlborough, in the north east of the South Island of New Zealand. It has an population of 30,700. The surrounding area is known as a centre of New Zealands wine industry. It enjoys one of New Zealands sunniest climates, with hot, relatively dry summers, the relaxed lifestyle and the flourishing wine and gourmet food industry in Marlborough are enjoyed by both locals and visitors alike. Blenheim is named after the Battle of Blenheim, where led by John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough defeated a combined French. The sheltered coastal bays of Marlborough supported a small Māori population possibly as early as the 12th century, Māori in the Marlborough Region cultivated crops, including kumara and exploited marine resources. Although the early history of Marlborough was closely associated with the Nelson settlement, nineteen years after the original Nelson settlement the request of Marlborough settlers was granted, and Marlborough became a separate province in 1859. Marlborough squatters developed huge sheep runs that dominated the countryside, rivalling Canterburys sheep stations in size, on the Wairau Plain, the town is mostly flat with surrounding hills, which do not give as much protection from prevailing winds as might be expected. Open areas in and around Blenheim are hit quite hard by winds blowing from Cook Strait, Blenheim sits at the confluence of the Taylor and Ōpaoa rivers. It is in an active zone and experiences several earthquakes each year. The boundary between the Pacific plate and the Indo-Australian plate passes just north of Blenheim, summers are typically warm and dry while winters are normally cool and frosty with clear sunny days that follow. Snowfall is rare as it is sheltered from cold weather by the mountain ranges to the south. Thunderstorms are an uncommon occurrence due to the sheltered climate, there is a higher likelihood in summer, when afternoon heating can generate a buildup of clouds above the ranges. The highest recorded temperature is 37. 8C, Recorded on 23 February 1973, at the 2006 census, Blenheim had a population of 28,700, a change of 7. 0% since the 2001 census. The June 2016 estimate puts Blenheims population at 30,700, following the 2013 census, Blenheim became the countrys 17th main urban area, after Statistics New Zealand promoted the town from a secondary urban area. 21. 3% of people were under 15, compared with 22. 7% for New Zealand,16. 7% of people were 65 and over, compared with 12. 1% for New Zealand. 28. 7% of people 15 and over had a post-secondary-school qualification, most residents are of European origin, predominantly of British, Irish, German and Dutch descent. Small Māori, Pacific Island and Asian communities exist, ethnic diversity has increased in recent years with the arrival of large numbers of South Americans and Asians, who work in the expanding viticulture sector
3. Christchurch – Christchurch is the largest city in the South Island of New Zealand and the seat of the Canterbury Region. The Christchurch urban area lies on the South Islands east coast, just north of Banks Peninsula and it is home to 389,700 residents, making it New Zealands third most-populous urban area behind Auckland and Wellington. The city was named by the Canterbury Association, which settled the province of Canterbury. The name of Christchurch was agreed on at the first meeting of the association on 27 March 1848 and it was suggested by John Robert Godley, who had attended Christ Church, Oxford. Some early writers called the town Christ Church, but it was recorded as Christchurch in the minutes of the management committee of the association, Christchurch became a city by Royal Charter on 31 July 1856, making it officially the oldest established city in New Zealand. The Avon River flows through the centre of the city, with a park located along its banks. At the request of the Deans brothers, the river was named after the River Avon in Scotland, the usual Māori name for Christchurch is Ōtautahi. This was originally the name of a site by the Avon River near present-day Kilmore Street. The site was a dwelling of Ngāi Tahu chief Te Potiki Tautahi. The Ōtautahi name was adopted in the 1930s, prior to that the Ngāi Tahu generally referred to the Christchurch area as Karaitiana, a transliteration of the English word Christian. The citys name is abbreviated by New Zealanders to Chch. In New Zealand Sign Language, the name is the fingerspelled letter C signed twice, with the second to the right of the first. Archaeological evidence found in a cave at Redcliffs in 1876 has indicated that the Christchurch area was first settled by moa-hunting tribes about 1250 CE. These first inhabitants were thought to have followed by the Waitaha tribe. Following tribal warfare, the Waitaha were dispossessed by the Ngati Mamoe tribe and they were in turn subjugated by the Ngāi Tahu tribe, who remained in control until the arrival of European settlers. Their abandoned holdings were taken over by the Deans brothers in 1843 who stayed, the First Four Ships were chartered by the Canterbury Association and brought the first 792 of the Canterbury Pilgrims to Lyttelton Harbour. These sailing vessels were the Randolph, Charlotte Jane, Sir George Seymour, the Charlotte Jane was the first to arrive on 16 December 1850. The Canterbury Pilgrims had aspirations of building a city around a cathedral and college, the name Christ Church was decided prior to the ships arrival, at the Associations first meeting, on 27 March 1848
4. Dunedin – Dunedin is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, and the principal city of the Otago region. It is named for the capital of Scotland, generally Anglicised as Edinburgh, Dunedin was the largest New Zealand city by territorial land area until superseded by Auckland on the creation of the Auckland Council in November 2010. Dunedin was the largest city in New Zealand by population from the 1860s until about 1900, the city population at 5 March 2013 was 120,246. The Dunedin urban area lies on the central-eastern coast of Otago, the harbour and hills around Dunedin represent the remnants of an extinct volcano. The city suburbs extend out into the valleys and hills, onto the isthmus of the Otago Peninsula, and along the shores of the Otago Harbour. The citys most important activity in economic terms centres around tertiary education – Dunedin is home to the University of Otago, New Zealands first university, and the Otago Polytechnic. Students account for a proportion of the population,21.6 percent of the citys population was aged between 15 and 24 at the 2006 census, compared to the New Zealand average of 14.2 percent. In 2014 Dunedin was designated as a UNESCO Creative City of Literature, archaeological evidence shows the first human occupation of New Zealand occurred between AD 1250–1300, with population concentrated along the southeast coast. A camp site at Kaikai Beach, near Long Beach, has dated from about that time. There are numerous sites in what is now Dunedin, several of them large and permanently occupied. The population contracted but expanded again with the evolution of the Classic culture which saw the building of several pā, fortified settlements, notably Pukekura at, there was a settlement in what is now central Dunedin occupied as late as about 1785 but abandoned by 1826. Maori tradition tells first of a people called Kahui Tipua living in the area, then Te Rapuwai, semi-legendary, the next arrivals were Waitaha followed by Kāti Mamoe late in the 16th century and then Kai Tahu who arrived in the mid 17th century. These migration waves have often represented as invasions in European accounts. They were probably migrations like those of the European which incidentally resulted in bloodshed, the sealer John Boultbee recorded in the 1820s that the Kaika Otargo were the oldest and largest in the south. Lieutenant James Cook stood off what is now the coast of Dunedin between 25 February 1770 and 5 March 1770, naming Cape Saunders and Saddle Hill and he reported penguins and seals in the vicinity, which led sealers to visit from the beginning of the 19th century. Permanent European occupation dates from 1831, when the Weller brothers founded their whaling station at Otago, modern Otakou, epidemics badly reduced the Maori population. By the late 1830s the Harbour had become an international whaling port, johnny Jones established a farming settlement and a mission station, the South Islands first, at Waikouaiti in 1840. After inspecting several areas around the eastern coast of the south island, the name comes from Dùn Èideann, the Scottish Gaelic name for Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland
5. Hokitika – Hokitika is a township in the West Coast region of New Zealands South Island,40 kilometres south of Greymouth, and close to the mouth of the Hokitika River. According to the 2013 census, the usually-resident population of the Hokitika urban area was 2,967, there are 876 people living in rural Hokitika, an increase of 48 people since the 2006 Census. On a clear day Aoraki / Mount Cook can clearly be seen from Hokitikas main street, founded on gold mining in 1864, it was a centre of the West Coast Gold Rush. By late 1866, it was one of New Zealands most populous centres, on 16 September 1867, there were 41 vessels alongside the wharf at Hokitika, in some places three and four deep. In 1867, the port of Hokitika ranked first in New Zealand in both the number of vessels entered inwards and in the value of exports, principally gold. On 8 March 1868 a mock funeral was held in protest about the conviction, the funeral was led by Roman Catholic Father William Larkin and a Celtic Cross was erected in the cemetery. Larkin was later arrested, charged, and convicted of riot, in 1873 Hokitika became the capital of the short-lived Westland Province which lasted from 1873 until the abolition of provinces in 1876. On 20 October, after being spotted by two constables and a local civilian carrying his rifle and ammunition belts, Graham was fatally wounded by a police constable. The population has declined greatly since that time but the population of the Westland District is now on the thanks to lifestyle inhabitants. Almost 30% of the districts rate-payers live outside of Hokitika, Eleanor Cattons Man Booker Prize-winning novel The Luminaries is set in gold rush-era Hokitika. It has become a major tourist stop on the West Coasts main highway route and it is also gaining a reputation for its annual wild food festival which has been running since 1990. Seaview Asylum was once the towns biggest employer, another important industry is dairying, with Westland Milk Products being based in the town. The vast majority of its production is exported, the Hokitika Sock Machine Museum in town has on display a collection of antique sock-knitting machines and invites visitors to knit their own socks. The Art Deco theatre narrowly avoided being demolished, thanks to a coup in the management committee. State Highway 6 passes through the town, Air New Zealand Link provides two flights a day to Christchurch operated by Air Nelson. The Hokitika Airport is adjacent to the town, immediately to the north-east in the suburb of Seaview, a branch line railway known as the Hokitika Branch runs to the town from Greymouth, it opened in 1893 and an extension to Ross was open from 1909 to 1980. In the early 1940s, the Vulcan railcars were introduced and they provided a service between Ross and Christchurch via Hokitika. The mixed trains continued to operate until 1967, and all services to Hokitika ceased when the Vulcan railcars stopped running past Greymouth in 1972
6. Invercargill – Invercargill is the southernmost and westernmost city in New Zealand, and one of the southernmost cities in the world. It is the centre of the Southland region. It lies in the heart of the expanse of the Southland Plains on the Oreti or New River some 18 km north of Bluff. Many streets in the city, especially in the centre and main shopping district, are named after rivers in Great Britain, mainly Scotland. These include the main streets Dee and Tay, as well as named after the Forth, Tyne, Esk, Don, Thames, Mersey, Ness, Yarrow, Spey. The 2013 census showed the population was 51,696, up 2. 7% on the 2006 census number, Southland was a scene of early extended contact between Europeans and Maori, notably whalers and missionaries – Wohlers at Ruapuke. In 1853, Walter Mantell purchased Murihiku from local Maori iwi, Otago, of which Southland was itself part, was the subject of planned settlement by the Free Church, an offshoot of the Presbyterian Church of Scotland. Settlement broadened with the discovery of gold in Central Otago in the 1860s, today, traces of Scottish speech persist in Southland voices, with R often pronounced with a rolling burr. This is more noticeable among country people, in 1856, a petition was put forward to Thomas Gore Browne, the Governor of New Zealand, for a port at Bluff. Due to the Otago gold rush, the population grew during the 1860s with the settlement of Bluff. Browne agreed to the petition and gave the name Invercargill to the settlement north of the port, the settlements chief surveyor was John Turnbull Thomson, a British civil engineer. Under the influence of James Menzies, Southland Province seceded from Otago in 1861 following the escalation of political tensions, however, rising debt forced Southland to rejoin Otago in 1870 and the provincial system, and with it the province of Otago, was abolished entirely in 1876. This debt was caused by a population decline stemming from poor returns from pastoral farming, in 1874, Invercargills population was less than 2,500 which reflected the drift north to large centres. In the 1880s, the development of an industry based on butter. In December 1905, Invercargill voted in local prohibition of alcohol sales and this lasted for 40 years until voted out by returning servicemen in the Second World War. When prohibition ended, a committee of citizens persuaded the Government to give the monopoly on sales in Invercargill to the specially formed Invercargill Licensing Trust. Based on a scheme in Carlisle, England, it returns profits to city amenities, even today, alcohol is not sold in supermarkets. In recent years, publicity has been brought to the city by the election of Tim Shadbolt
7. Napier, New Zealand – Napier is a New Zealand city with a seaport, located in Hawkes Bay on the eastern coast of the North Island. The population of Napier is about 62,100 as of the June 2016, about 18 kilometres south of Napier is the inland city of Hastings. These two neighbouring cities are often called The Bay Cities or The Twin Cities of New Zealand, Napier is about 320 kilometres northeast of the capital city of Wellington. The City of Napier has an area of 106 square kilometres. Napier has also become an important grape and wine production area, with the grapes grown around Hastings, large amounts of sheeps wool, frozen meat, wood pulp, and timber also pass through Napier annually for export. Smaller amounts of materials are shipped via road and railway to the large metropolitan areas of New Zealand itself, such as Auckland. Napier is a popular tourist city, with a concentration of 1930s Art Deco architecture. It also has one of the most photographed tourist attractions in the country, thousands of people flock to Napier every February for the Tremains Art Deco Weekend event, a celebration of its Art Deco heritage and history. Other notable tourist events attracting many outsiders to the region annually include F. A. W. C, food and Wine Classic events, and the Mission Estate Concert at Mission Estate and Winery in the suburb of Taradale. Later, the Ngāti Kahungunu became the dominant force from Poverty Bay to Wellington and they were one of the first Māori tribes to come in contact with European settlers. The rivers were continually feeding freshwater into the area, captain James Cook was one of the first Europeans to see the future site of Napier when he sailed down the east coast in October 1769. He commented, On each side of this head is a low, narrow sand or stone beach. He said the harbour entrance was at the Westshore end of the shingle beach, the site was subsequently visited and later settled by European traders, whalers and missionaries. By the 1850s, farmers and hotel-keepers arrived, the Crown purchased the Ahuriri block in 1851. In 1854 Alfred Domett, a future Prime Minister of New Zealand, was appointed as the Commissioner of Crown Lands, Domett named many streets in Napier to commemorate the colonial era of the British Indian Empire. Napier was designated as a borough in 1874, but the development of the surrounding marshlands, development was generally confined to the hill and to the port area of Ahuriri. There was a swamp between the now Hastings Street and Wellesley Road and the sea extended to Clive Square, on 3 February 1931, most of Napier and nearby Hastings was levelled by an earthquake. The collapses of buildings and the fires killed 256 people
8. Nelson, New Zealand – Nelson is a city on the eastern shores of Tasman Bay, and is the economic and cultural centre of the Nelson Region. Nelson is the oldest city in the South Island and the second-oldest settled city in New Zealand, Nelson city is bordered to the west and south-west by the Tasman District Council and the north-east, east and south-east by the Marlborough District Council. The city does not include Richmond, the areas second-largest settlement, Nelson City has a population of around 50,000, making it New Zealands 12th most populous city and the geographical centre of New Zealand. When combined with the town of Richmond which has close to 14,000 residents, Nelson is well known for its thriving local arts and crafts scene, Each year, the city hosts events popular with locals and tourists alike, such as the Nelson Arts Festival. The annual Wearable Art Awards began near Nelson and a local museum, Nelson was named in honour of the Admiral Horatio Nelson who defeated both the French and Spanish fleets at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. Many roads and public areas around the city are named after people and ships associated with that battle, inhabitants of Nelson are referred to as Nelsonians. Nelsons Māori name, Whakatū, means build, raise, or establish, in an article to The Colonist newspaper on 16 July 1867, Francis Stevens described Nelson as The Naples of the Southern Hemisphere. Today, Nelson has the nicknames of Sunny Nelson due to its high sunshine hours per year or the Top of the South because of its geographic location, settlement of Nelson began about 700 years ago by Māori. There is evidence the earliest settlements in New Zealand are around the Nelson-Marlborough regions, the earliest recorded iwi in the Nelson district are the Ngāti Kuia, Ngāti Tumatakokiri, Ngāti Apa and Rangitane tribes. Raids from northern tribes in the 1820s, led by Te Rauparaha and his Ngāti Toa, soon decimated the local population, the New Zealand Company in London planned the settlement of Nelson. They intended to buy cheaply from the Māori some 200,000 acres which they planned to divide into one thousand lots, the Company earmarked future profits to finance the free passage of artisans and labourers and their families, and for the construction of public works. However, by September 1841 only about one third of the lots had sold, despite this the Colony pushed ahead, and land was surveyed by Frederick Tuckett. Three ships sailed from London under the command of Captain Arthur Wakefield, however, after some delay, Hobson allowed the Company to investigate the Tasman Bay area at the north end of the South Island. The Company selected the now occupied by Nelson City because it had the best harbour in the area. The Company secured a vague and undetermined area from the Māori for £800 that included Nelson, Waimea and this allowed the settlement to begin, but the lack of definition would prove the source of much future conflict. The three colony ships sailed into Nelson Haven during the first week of November 1841, within 18 months the Company had sent out 18 ships with 1052 men,872 women and 1384 children. However, fewer than ninety of the settlers had the capital to start as landowners, the early settlement of Nelson province included a proportion of German immigrants, who arrived on the ship Sankt Pauli and formed the nucleus of the villages of Sarau and Neudorf. These were mostly Lutheran Protestants with a number of Bavarian Catholics
9. New Plymouth – New Plymouth is the major city of the Taranaki Region on the west coast of the North Island of New Zealand. It is named after the British city of Plymouth from where the first English settlers migrated, the New Plymouth District includes New Plymouth City and several smaller towns. The New Plymouth District is the 10th largest district in New Zealand, the district has a population of 74,184 – about two-thirds of the total population of the Taranaki Region. This includes New Plymouth City, Waitara, Inglewood, Oakura, Okato, the city itself is a service centre for the regions principal economic activities including intensive pastoral activities as well as oil, natural gas and petrochemical exploration and production. It is also the financial centre as the home of the TSB Bank. As described under awards, New Plymouth won multiple awards in 2008, the city was in 2010 chosen as one of two walking & cycling Model Communities by the government. Based on New Plymouths already positive attitude towards cyclists and pedestrians and it is also noted for being a coastal city with a mountain within 30 minutes drive, where residents and visitors to New Plymouth can snowboard, ski, water ski and surf all in the same day. In 1828 Richard Dicky Barrett set up a trading post at Ngamotu after arriving on the trading vessel Adventure, Barrett traded with the local Māori and helped negotiate the purchase of land from them on behalf of the New Zealand Company. Settlers were selected by the Plymouth Company, which was set up to attract emigrants from the West Country of England, the first of the towns settlers arrived on the William Bryan, which anchored off the coast on 31 March 1841. The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 created the New Plymouth Province, with a Provincial Council given jurisdiction over an area of 400, five years later the name of the province changed to Taranaki Province. The province was abolished in 1876, a Town Board was formed in 1863 and in August 1876 the town was constituted as a borough. Its new status did little to overcome some outside perceptions, however, I find a great liking for this slow, old hole. It is a quiet, unassuming place and has not done so much to attract immigrants and settlers by exaggerating reports, as some districts have done. The Fitzroy Town District was merged with New Plymouth borough in August 1911, Vogeltown, Frankleigh Park and Westown were added a year later, by 1913 the town had a population of 7538. New Plymouth was declared a city in 1949, every three years the Mayor,14 councillors and 16 community board members are elected by the New Plymouth Districts enrolled voters. The full council, sub-committees and standing committees meet on a six-weekly cycle, the Policy and Monitoring standing committees have delegated authority from the council to make final decisions on certain matters, and they make recommendations to the council on all others. The four community boards–Clifton, Waitara, Inglewood and Kaitake–as well as the subcommittees, New Plymouth District Councils annual operating revenue for 2008/2009 is more than $188 million. The current Mayor of New Plymouth is Andrew Judd, in May 2016 Judd announced that he will not run for mayor again in the upcoming local government elections
10. Picton, New Zealand – Picton is a town in the Marlborough Region of New Zealands South Island. The town is located near the head of the Queen Charlotte Sound,25 km north of Blenheim and 65 km west of Wellington, Waikawa lies just north-east of Picton, and is often considered to be contiguous part of Picton. Picton is a hub in New Zealands transport network, connecting the South Island road and rail network with ferries across Cook Strait to Wellington. The town has a population of 4,340, making it the second-largest town in the Marlborough Region behind Blenheim and it is the easternmost town in the South Island with a population of at least 1,000 people. The town is named after Sir Thomas Picton, the Welsh military associate of the Duke of Wellington, the Main North railway line and State Highway 1 link Picton southwards to Blenheim, Kaikoura, Christchurch and beyond, while the scenic Queen Charlotte Drive winds westward to Havelock. Picton is the link between the South and North Islands, with scheduled ferry service over Cook Strait. There have been proposals in recent years to relocate the ferry terminals from Picton to Clifford Bay, south of Blenheim, however these plans never got past the design proposal, and were eventually dropped. The Coastal Pacific long-distance passenger/tourist train from Christchurch makes a return trip to Picton. The 1914 railway station has been listed NZHPT Category II since 1991 and it is a standard class B station, of weatherboard and tile. Picton Aerodrome at Koromiko 7.4 km to the south of the town has regular services to Wellington with Sounds Air, nearby settlements are at Anakiwa, Waikawa, and Ngakuta Bay. The Edwin Fox Maritime Centre features the remains of the Edwin Fox, the surviving ship that transported convicts to Australia. A new school opened in 1882, and part of the old school was moved to the new site, a Catholic Convent school opened in 1915, and was replaced by St Josephs in 1924. Queen Charlotte College is a school with a decile rating of 4. Picton School is a primary school with a decile rating of 3. St Josephs School is a state integrated contributing primary school with a rating of 5. Other primary schools in the area are at Linkwater and Waikawa, author Katherine Mansfield spent time in Picton where her grandparents, Arthur and Mary Beauchamp, and her father Harold, lived for some time when they came from Australia. She included a reference to the port in her short story The Voyage, the town is also the usual starting point for holidays to the Marlborough Sounds. Highlights include fishing, walking, the Queen Charlotte Sound Track, a popular dive trip is to the 177m long wreck of the former cruise liner MS Mikhail Lermontov, which now lies at Port Gore,37 metres underwater
11. Wellington – Wellington is the capital and second most populous urban area of New Zealand, with 405,000 residents. It is at the tip of the North Island, between Cook Strait and the Rimutaka Range. Wellington is the population centre of the southern North Island and is the administrative centre of the Wellington Region. It is the worlds windiest city, with a wind speed of over 26 km/h. Situated near the centre of the country, Wellington was well placed for trade. In 1839 it was chosen as the first major planned settlement for British immigrants coming to New Zealand, the settlement was named in honour of the Arthur Wellesley, the first Duke of Wellington and victor of the Battle of Waterloo. As the nations capital since 1865, the New Zealand Government and Parliament, Supreme Court, despite being much smaller than Auckland, Wellington is also referred to as New Zealands cultural capital. The city is home to the National Archives, the National Library, architectural sights include the Government Building—one of the largest wooden buildings in the world—as well as the iconic Beehive. Wellington plays host to artistic and cultural organisations, including the New Zealand Symphony Orchestra. It has an urban culture, with many cafés, restaurants. One of the worlds most liveable cities, the 2014 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranked Wellington 12th in the world, Wellingtons economy is primarily service-based, with an emphasis on finance, business services, and government. It is the centre of New Zealands film and special effects industries, Wellington ranks as one of New Zealands chief seaports and serves both domestic and international shipping. The city is served by Wellington International Airport, the third busiest airport in the country, Wellingtons transport network includes train and bus lines which reach as far as the Kapiti Coast and Wairarapa, and ferries connect the city to the South Island. Wellington takes its name from Arthur Wellesley, the first Duke of Wellington and victor of the Battle of Waterloo, his title comes from the town of Wellington in the English county of Somerset. One of the founders of the settlement, Edward Jerningham Wakefield, reported that the settlers took up the views of the directors with great cordiality, in Māori, Wellington has three names. In New Zealand Sign Language, the name is signed by raising the index, middle and ring fingers of one hand, palm forward, to form a W, and shaking it slightly from side to side twice. The citys location close to the mouth of the narrow Cook Strait leads to its vulnerability to strong gales, legends recount that Kupe discovered and explored the district in about the 10th century. The earliest date with hard evidence for Maori living in New Zealand is about 1280, European settlement began with the arrival of an advance party of the New Zealand Company on the ship Tory on 20 September 1839, followed by 150 settlers on the Aurora on 22 January 1840