Pages in category "French humanitarians"
The following 26 pages are in this category, out of 26 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 26 pages are in this category, out of 26 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. France – France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established. The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural, political, and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is also a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
2. Catherine Deneuve – Catherine Deneuve is a French actress as well as an occasional singer, model and producer. She gained recognition for her portrayal of aloof, mysterious beauties for various directors, including Luis Buñuel, Francois Truffaut, in 1985, she succeeded Mireille Mathieu as the official face of Marianne, Frances national symbol of liberty. A 14-time César Award nominee, she won for her performances in Truffauts The Last Metro and she is also noted for her support for a variety of liberal causes. She was nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best Actress for Belle de Jour, and she also won the 1998 Volpi Cup for Best Actress at the Venice Film Festival for Place Vendôme. Other films include Scene of the Crime, My Favourite Season,8 Women and her English-language films include The April Fools, Hustle, The Hunger and Dancer in the Dark. In 2015, she starred in The Brand New Testament and Standing Tall, Deneuve was born Catherine Fabienne Dorléac in Paris, France, the daughter of French stage actors Maurice Dorléac and Renée Simonot. Deneuve was her mothers name, which she chose for her stage name. Her work for Buñuel would be her most famous, further prominent films from this early time in her career included Jean-Paul Rappeneaus A Matter of Resistance, and Demys musical Les Demoiselles de Rochefort. Her starring roles at the time were featured in films as A Slightly Pregnant Man with Marcello Mastroianni. She made her film as a producer in 1988, Drôle dendroit pour une rencontre. In 1997, Deneuve was the protagonist in the video for the song NOubliez Jamais sung by Joe Cocker. In 1998 she won acclaim and the Volpi Cup at the Venice Film Festival for her performance in Place Vendôme. In the late 1990s, Deneuve continued to appear in a number of films such as 1999s five films Est-Ouest, Le temps retrouvé, Pola X, Belle maman. In 2000, Deneuves part in Lars von Triers musical drama Dancer in the Dark alongside Icelandic singer Björk was subject to critical scrutiny. The film was selected for the Palme dOr at the Cannes Film Festival and she made another foray into Hollywood the following year, starring in The Musketeer for Peter Hyams. In 2002, she shared the Silver Bear Award for Best Ensemble Cast at the Berlin International Film Festival for her performance in 8 Women. In 2005, Deneuve published her diary A lombre de moi-meme, in it she writes about her experiences shooting the films Indochine and she also provided the voice role of Marjane Satrapis mother in Satrapis animated autobiographical film Persepolis, based on the graphic novel of the same name. In 2008, she appeared in her 100th film, Un conte de Noël, during an interview at the Cannes Film Festival with Ali Naderzad, Deneuve was asked which was her own favorite film
3. Louis Pasteur – Louis Pasteur was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization. He is remembered for his breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of diseases. He reduced mortality from puerperal fever, and created the first vaccines for rabies and his medical discoveries provided direct support for the germ theory of disease and its application in clinical medicine. He is best known to the public for his invention of the technique of treating milk and wine to stop bacterial contamination. He is regarded as one of the three founders of bacteriology, together with Ferdinand Cohn and Robert Koch, and is popularly known as the father of microbiology. Pasteur was responsible for disproving the doctrine of spontaneous generation and he performed experiments that showed that without contamination, microorganisms could not develop. Under the auspices of the French Academy of Sciences, he demonstrated that in sterilized and sealed flasks nothing ever developed, although Pasteur was not the first to propose the germ theory, his experiments indicated its correctness and convinced most of Europe that it was true. Today, he is regarded as one of the fathers of germ theory. Pasteur also made significant discoveries in chemistry, most notably on the basis for the asymmetry of certain crystals. Early in his career, his investigation of tartaric acid resulted in the first resolution of what is now called optical isomers and his work led the way to the current understanding of a fundamental principle in the structure of organic compounds. He was the director of the Pasteur Institute, established in 1887, till his death, although Pasteur made groundbreaking experiments, his reputation became associated with various controversies. Historical reassessment of his notebook revealed that he practiced deception to overcome his rivals, Louis Pasteur was born on December 27,1822, in Dole, Jura, France, to a Catholic family of a poor tanner. He was the child of Jean-Joseph Pasteur and Jeanne-Etiennette Roqui. The family moved to Marnoz in 1826 and then to Arbois in 1827, Pasteur entered primary school in 1831. He was a student in his early years, and not particularly academic. He drew many pastels and portraits of his parents, friends, Pasteur attended secondary school at the Collège dArbois. In October 1838, he left for Paris to join the Pension Barbet, in 1839, he entered the Collège Royal de Besançon to study philosophy and earned his Bachelor of Letters degree in 1840. He was appointed a tutor at the Besançon college while continuing a degree course with special mathematics
4. Albert Schweitzer – Albert Schweitzer, OM was a French-German theologian, organist, philosopher, and physician. Schweitzer, a Lutheran, challenged both the view of Jesus as depicted by historical-critical methodology current at this time, as well as the traditional Christian view. His contributions to the interpretation of Pauline Christianity concern the role of Pauls mysticism of “being in Christ” as primary, as a music scholar and organist, he studied the music of German composer Johann Sebastian Bach and influenced the Organ Reform Movement. Schweitzer was born in Kaysersberg, the son of Ludwig Schweitzer and he spent his childhood in the Alsatian village of Gunsbach, where his father, the local Lutheran-Evangelical pastor of the EPCAAL, taught him how to play music. The tiny village is home to the Association Internationale Albert Schweitzer, the medieval parish church of Gunsbach was shared by the Protestant and Catholic congregations, which held their prayers in different areas at different times on Sundays. This compromise arose after the Protestant Reformation and the Thirty Years War, Schweitzer, the pastors son, grew up in this exceptional environment of religious tolerance, and developed the belief that true Christianity should always work towards a unity of Faith and Purpose. Schweitzers first language was the Alsatian dialect of German, at the Mulhouse Gymnasium he received his Abitur in 1893. In 1893 he played for the French organist Charles-Marie Widor, for whom Johann Sebastian Bachs organ-music contained a mystic sense of the eternal, Widor, deeply impressed, agreed to teach Schweitzer without fee, and a great and influential friendship thus began. From 1893 Schweitzer studied Protestant theology at the Kaiser Wilhelm University in Strasbourg. S, Schweitzer served his one-year compulsory military service in 1894. Schweitzer saw many operas of Richard Wagner in Strasbourg and in 1896 he managed to afford a visit to the Bayreuth to see Wagners Der Ring des Nibelungen and Parsifal which deeply impressed him. In 1898 he went back to Paris to write a PhD dissertation on The Religious Philosophy of Kant at the Sorbonne, here he often met with the elderly Aristide Cavaillé-Coll. He also studied piano at that time with Marie Jaëll and he completed his theology degree in 1899 and published his PhD thesis at the University of Tübingen in 1899. Schweitzer rapidly gained prominence as a scholar and organist, dedicated also to the rescue, restoration. With theological insight, he interpreted the use of pictorial and symbolical representation in J. S. Bachs religious music and they were works of devotional contemplation in which the musical design corresponded to literary ideas, conceived visually. Widor had not grown up with knowledge of the old Lutheran hymns. The exposition of ideas, encouraged by Widor and Munch, became Schweitzers last task. There was great demand for a German edition, but, instead of translating it, the result was two volumes, which were published in 1908 and translated into English by Ernest Newman in 1911. Schweitzers interpretative approach greatly influenced the understanding of Bachs music
5. Marie Louise Trichet – She is also referred to as the First Daughter of Wisdom. She was beatified by Pope John Paul II and she was born in Poitiers, on the Clain River in west central France on 7 May 1684 and baptized at the church of St. Etienne. Her father Julien was a magistrate in Poitiers and her mother Françoise Lecocq was deeply religious. She was the child and third daughter, and had seven siblings. The eldest, Jeanne, struck with paralysis at the age of thirteen, was cured three years later during a visit to Notre Dame des Ardilliers at Saumur. Her younger brother Alexis, born just one year earlier, was ordained a priest in 1710, the youngest of her sisters later joined the Daughters of Wisdom. The area of western France where she grew up had a strong Christian tradition, Poitiers is home to Baptistère Saint-Jean, reportedly the oldest extant Christian building in France. And the historic Battle of Tours was fought just 20 km north of Poitiers in the 8th century, Poitiers was also important in that in the 15th century the French royal parliament in exile moved from Paris to Poitiers. In the 16th century, Poitiers impressed visitors because of its large size, royal courts, university, prolific printing shops, religious institutions, cathedral. Yet the apparent affluence of Poitiers in the 17th century, prior to the French Revolution, had a less than royal side, France was plagued by corruption, and rampant poverty. At Poitiers, beggars, cripples and drunks were forcibly sent to a building called the General Hospital. The hospital inmates were offered a common room, one bed for two or three, black bread and a stew of unknown origin - and had to wear a rough gray uniform. In 1701, Father Louis de Montfort arrived in Poitiers, having ordained an priest in June 1700, young. He had a devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary and the Holy Angels. Thus apart from offering mass and hearing confessions, Montfort used to spend time with the poor of the Poitiers General Hospital. He tried to introduce rules and rights for the inmates, at seventeen, she met for the first time Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort who had just been appointed chaplain of the hospital of Poitiers. Marie-Louise offered her services to the hospital, devoting most of her time to the poor, when she was nineteen, Montfort asked her to come and live there. Given that there was no position for a governor at the hospital, despite her family background and education
6. Zinedine Zidane – Zinedine Yazid Zidane, nicknamed Zizou, is a retired French footballer and current manager of Real Madrid. He played as an midfielder for the France national team, Cannes, Bordeaux, Juventus. An elite playmaker, renowned for his elegance, vision, ball control and technique and he is widely regarded as one of the greatest players in the history of the game. His 2001 transfer from Juventus to Real Madrid set a record fee of an equivalent €75 million. His left-foot volleyed winner in the 2002 UEFA Champions League Final is considered to be one of the greatest goals in the competitions history. On the international stage with France, Zidane won the 1998 FIFA World Cup, scoring twice in the final, the World Cup triumph made him a national hero in France, and he received the Légion dhonneur in 1998. Zidane was named the FIFA World Player of the Year three times, in 1998,2000 and 2003, and won the 1998 Ballon dOr. He was Ligue 1 Player of the Year in 1996, Serie A Footballer of the Year in 2001, in 2004 he was named in the FIFA100, a list of the worlds greatest living players compiled by Pelé. Zidane received the Golden Ball for player of the tournament at the 2006 World Cup, prior to the World Cup, he announced he would retire at the end of the tournament. After retirement, Zidane became assistant coach at Real Madrid under Carlo Ancelotti for the 2013–14 season, after a successful year in which the club won the UEFA Champions League and Copa del Rey, Zidane became the coach of Real Madrids B team, Real Madrid Castilla. In 2010, Zidane was an ambassador for Qatars successful bid to stage the 2022 FIFA World Cup, Zidane is currently the manager of Real Madrid, taking over the position in January 2016. In his first season as manager, Zidane won the UEFA Champions League title, Zinedine Yazid Zidane was born on 23 June 1972 in La Castellane, Marseille, in Southern France. Zidane is of Algerian Kabyle descent and his parents, Smaïl and Malika, emigrated to Paris from the village of Aguemoune in the Berber-speaking region of Kabylie in northern Algeria in 1953 before the start of the Algerian War. In 1972, Zidane was born there as the youngest of five siblings and his father worked as a warehouseman and nightwatchman at a department store, often on the night shift, while his mother was a housewife. The family lived a comfortable life by the standards of the neighbourhood. In July 2011, Zidane named former Marseille players Blaž Slišković, Enzo Francescoli, at the age of ten, Zidane got his first players licence after joining the junior team of a local club from Castellane by the name of US Saint-Henri. After spending a year and a half at US Saint-Henri, Zidane joined SO Septèmes-les-Vallons when the Septèmes coach Robert Centenero convinced the clubs Director to get Zidane. It was here that Zidane was spotted by AS Cannes scout and former player Jean Varraud, Zidane went to AS Cannes for a six-week stay, but ended up remaining at the club for four years to play at the professional level
7. Augustin-Jean Fresnel – Augustin-Jean Fresnel, was a French engineer and physicist who contributed significantly to the establishment of the theory of wave optics. Fresnel studied the behaviour of light both theoretically and experimentally and he is perhaps best known as the inventor of the Fresnel lens, first adopted in lighthouses while he was a French commissioner of lighthouses, and found in many applications today. His Fresnel equations on waves and reflectivity also form the basis for many applications in computer graphics today — for instance, Fresnel was the son of an architect, born at Broglie. His early progress in learning was slow, and he still could not read when he was eight years old, at thirteen he entered the École Centrale in Caen, and at sixteen and a half the École Polytechnique, where he acquitted himself with distinction. From there he went to the École des Ponts et Chaussées and he received only scant public recognition during his lifetime for his labours in the cause of optical science. Some of his papers were not printed by the Académie des Sciences until many years after his death, but as he wrote to Young in 1824, in himself that sensibility, or that vanity, which people call love of glory had been blunted. Fresnel has been described as a man with interest in religious questions, as a form of consolation, he took religion very seriously especially during his illness. He spent much of his life in Paris, and died of tuberculosis at Ville-dAvray and his is one of the 72 names inscribed on the Eiffel Tower. The writer Prosper Mérimée was his first cousin and he served as an engineer successively in the departments of Vendée, Drôme and Ille-et-Vilaine, but having supported the Bourbons in 1814 he lost his appointment on Napoleons return to power. He appears to have begun his research in optics around 1814, in 1815, on the second restoration of the monarchy, he obtained a post as engineer in Paris. In 1818 he wrote a memoir on diffraction, for which he received the prize of the Académie des Sciences at Paris the following year and he was the first to construct a special type of lens, now called a Fresnel lens, as a substitute for mirrors in lighthouses. In 1819, he was nominated to be a commissioner of lighthouses, in 1823 he was unanimously elected a member of the academy. In 1825 he became a Fellow of the Royal Society of London, in 1827, the time of his last illness, the Royal Society of London awarded him the Rumford Medal. In 1818 he published his Memoir on the Diffraction of Light, in 1817, Young had proposed a small transverse component to light, while yet retaining a far larger longitudinal component. Fresnel, by the year 1821, was able to show by mathematical methods that polarization could be explained if light was entirely transverse. He proposed the aether drag hypothesis to explain a lack of variation in astronomical observations. His use of two plane mirrors of metal, forming with other a angle of nearly 180°, allowed him to avoid the diffraction effects caused in the experiment of F. M. Grimaldi on interference. This allowed him to account for the phenomenon of interference in accordance with the wave theory
8. Humanitarianism – Humanitarianism is a moral of kindness, benevolence, and sympathy extended to all human beings. Humanitarianism has been an evolving concept historically, but universality is a theme in its evolution. No distinction is to be made on the grounds of gender, sexual orientation, race, caste, age, religion, ability, the historian G. M. Trevelyan viewed humanitarianism as the product of rationalism upon Puritanism. The idea that mankind could be improved by deliberate social change distinct from the conferring of charity was relatively new, reform distinguished the humanitarian movement from philanthropy. Christian philanthropy tended to reform as political. In contrast, the movement thought reform essential to remove abuses. European individualism can be traced to the Greeks and it was the stoics, who like Aristotle, attributed significance to the human soul, but who, unlike Aristotle, considered all human beings equal in that significance. Natural law, as the stoics conceived it, was based upon this principle of spiritual equality, positive law was subject to the law of nature and, hence, uniquely to the ancient world, the stoics opposed slavery. In 18th century Enlightenment Europe, the idea of the equal moral significance of the individual in this world re-emerged grounded upon reason. Prevention of cruelty to animals involved extension of the principle to non-humans, the stoics had grounded moral significance on capacity to reason. In the 18th century, conflicting religious belief became tolerated to a degree unthinkable a century earlier, in England, pressure on Parliament led to regulation of working hours and amelioration of working conditions. An international dimension was added to humanitarian reform with the founding of the International Red Cross, finally, cruelty to animals became punishable. In contrast, social action in the 19th century was influenced by feeling and, in some instances. The initiative remained with small groups of reformers, which set about influencing public opinion, one reason for the change was the advent of democracy - limited though it was until well into the 19th century. The industrial proletariat crowding into cities made it feasible to hold mass meetings, Political pamphlets had first circulated in England during the civil war. In fiction, novels like Uncle Toms Cabin and those of Charles Dickens drew attention to social wrongs and this led to a change in approach which became less philosophical and more emotive, fastening on the inhumanity to which social action was directed. In 1503, the Spanish Governor in the Indies, Nicolás de Ovando, las Casas, who accompanied him, observed the toll of the work, and suggested the Indians be replaced by Negroes, thus beginning the transatlantic slave trade. Some 900,000 slaves were landed in the Americas by 1600, from the 17th century, demand for African labour expanded greatly with the increased importation of sugar into Europe
9. Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan – He was also a proponent of greater collaboration between non-governmental organizations and UN agencies. The Princes interest in ecological issues led him to establish the Bellerive Foundation in the late 1970s, born in Paris, France, he was the son of Sir Sultan Mahomed Shah Aga Khan and Princess Andrée Aga Khan. He married twice, but had no children of his own, Prince Sadruddin died of cancer at the age of 70, and was buried in Switzerland. Born in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, he was the child of Sir Sultan Mahomed Shah Aga Khan III and his French-born second wife. He received his education in Lausanne, Switzerland, before graduating Phi Beta Kappa in 1954 from Harvard College. Along with Plimpton, he was an editor for the Harvard Lampoon, after three years of post-graduate research at the Harvard Center for Middle Eastern Studies, Prince Sadruddin began a lifelong career of international service. Although he was raised in Europe by his French mother, his father and he recalled that his father insisted that I learnt the Koran and encouraged me to understand the basic traditions and beliefs of Islam but without imposing any particular views. He was an overwhelming personality but open-minded and liberal, together with his father Prince Sadruddin traveled widely in Muslim countries, coming into contact with his Islamic roots from a young age. He described Iran as the cradle of his family, though he never lived there, when he was a child, his paternal grandmother used to recite to him the great epic poems of Persian history. He held French, Iranian, and Swiss citizenship, and was fluent in French, English, German and Italian, while also speaking some Persian and this initiative brought together archaeologists from Eastern Europe and the West at the height of the Cold War. The construction of the Aswan Dam threatened ancient Egyptian treasures including Abu Simbel, the temples of Philae and Kalabsha, Prince Sadruddin began as a Special Envoy to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in 1959 with a focus on World Refugee Year. The initiative became known for its Stamp Plan, a programme that raised funds through United Nations member countries. At the time, the UNHCRs resources were focused on supporting refugees crossing from Eastern Europe. In January 1966, Prince Sadruddin was appointed United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees after serving for three years as Deputy High Commissioner, at the age of 33 he became the youngest person ever to lead the UNHCR. In 1972, Prince Sadruddin played a key role in finding new homes for tens of thousands of South Asians expelled from Uganda by Idi Amin. Prince Sadruddins determination not to discriminate between European and Third World refugees helped prepare the UNHCR for a change in the landscape of internationally displaced persons, during the 1950s, between 200,000 and 300,000 refugees of European origin required assistance. By the 1970s the European refugee problems were solved, but had been replaced by millions of displaced persons in the Third World. He had widened the UNHCR mandate well beyond its original focus on Eastern Europe, extending the reach to refugees from the Palestinian territory, Vietnam, Angola
10. Rony Brauman – Rony Brauman, born June 19,1950, in Jerusalem, is a French physician specializing in tropical diseases. He was one of the members of Médecins sans frontières. He was a professor at the Institut détudes politiques de Paris from 1994 to 1997 and is now scientific advisor in the school of international affairs of Sciences po. With Israeli director Eyal Sivan, his cousin, he co-directed a documentary on the trial of Adolf Eichmann based on Hannah Arendts 1963 book Eichmann in Jerusalem, Brauman is also Director of the Humanitarian and Conflict Response Institute at the University of Manchester. Fondation Prix Henry Dunant -1997 - Rony Brauman