Category:French military personnel of the Algerian War
Pages in category "French military personnel of the Algerian War"
The following 79 pages are in this category, out of 79 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 79 pages are in this category, out of 79 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Algerian War – An important decolonization war, it was a complex conflict characterized by guerrilla warfare, maquis fighting, and the use of torture by both sides. The conflict also became a war between loyalist Algerians supporting a French Algeria and their Algerian nationalist counterparts. A referendum took place on 8 April 1962 and the French electorate approved the Évian Accords, the planned French withdrawal led to a state crisis, to various assassination attempts on de Gaulle, and to some attempts at military coups. Upon independence, in 1962,900,000 European-Algerians fled to France, in fear of the FLNs revenge, the French government was totally unprepared for the vast number of refugees, which caused turmoil in France. On the pretext of a slight to their consul, the French invaded Algiers in 1830, in 1834, Algeria became a French military colony and was subsequently declared by the constitution of 1848 to be an integral part of France and divided into three departments. Many French and other Europeans later settled in Algeria, under the Second Empire, the Code de lindigénat was implemented by the Sénatus-consulte of July 14,1865. Its first article stipulated, The indigenous Muslim is French, however and he may be admitted to serve in the army and the navy. He may be called to functions and civil employment in Algeria and he may, on his demand, be admitted to enjoy the rights of a French citizen, in this case, he is subjected to the political and civil laws of France. However, prior to 1870, fewer than 200 demands were registered by Muslims and 152 by Jewish Algerians, the 1865 decree was then modified by the 1870 Crémieux decrees, which granted French nationality to Jews living in one of the three Algerian departments. In 1881, the Code de lIndigénat made the official by creating specific penalties for indigènes. The Law of September 20,1947, granted French citizenship to all Algerian subjects, Algeria was unique to France because, unlike all other overseas possessions acquired by France during the 19th century, only Algeria was considered and legally classified an integral part of France. Both Muslim and European Algerians took part in World War I, Algerian Muslims served as tirailleurs and spahis, and French settlers as Zouaves or Chasseurs dAfrique. Within this context, a grandson of Abd el-Kadir spearheaded the resistance against the French in the first half of the 20th century and he was a member of the directing committee of the French Communist Party. The North African Star broke from the PCF in 1928, before being dissolved in 1929 at Pariss demand, the pieds-noirs violently demonstrated against it and the North African Party opposed it, leading to the projects abandonment. This new party was dissolved in 1939, under Vichy, the French state attempted to abrogate the Crémieux decree in order to suppress the Jews French citizenship, but the measure was never implemented. On the other hand, nationalist leader Ferhat Abbas founded the Algerian Popular Union in 1938, in 1943 Abbas wrote the Algerian Peoples Manifesto. In the early morning hours of November 1,1954, FLN maquisards attacked military and he declared in the National Assembly, One does not compromise when it comes to defending the internal peace of the nation, the unity and integrity of the Republic. The Algerian departments are part of the French Republic and they have been French for a long time, and they are irrevocably French
2. Marcel Bigeard – Marcel Bruno Bigeard was a French military officer who fought in World War II, Indochina and Algeria. He was one of the commanders in the Battle of Dien Bien Phu and is thought by many to have been an influence on French unconventional warfare thinking from that time onwards. A former resistant, he is associated mainly with the war of Indochina, Marcel Bigeard was born in Toul, Meurthe-et-Moselle on 14 February 1916, the son of Charles Bigeard, a railway worker, and Sophie Bigeard, a domineering housewife. He also had a sister, Charlotte Bigeard, fours years his senior. Lorraine instilled a strong patriotism in him and his mother a will to win, at fourteen, Bigeard quit school to help his parents financially by taking a position in the local Société Générale bank, where he did well. Following a 6-year career in Société générale, Marcel Bigeard conducted his military service in France at Haguenau at the corps of the 23rd Fortress Infantry Regiment. Incorporated in the regiment as a soldat de deuxième classe in September 1936, caporal-chef, he was relieved of duty, volunteer for the franc corps, he led a combat group at Trimbach in Alsace and became quickly a sergent-chef then adjudant at the age of 24. On June 25,1940, he was captured and made prisoner of war spending 18 months in captivity in a stalag. Following his third attempt to escape on November 11,1941, he managed to make his way to the zone in France. Volunteering for the French Occidental Africa, he was assigned in February 1942 to a camp in Senegal, promoted to sous-lieutenant in October 1943, he was directed with his regiment to Morocco. One of these audacious ambushes against superior German forces gained him a British decoration and his nickname of Bruno has its origins in his radio call sign. Decorated with the Légion dhonneur and the British Distinguished Service Order for his actions in Ariège, Bigeard was first sent to Indo-China in October 1945 to assist with French efforts to reassert their influence over the former French colonies. He commanded the 23rd Colonial Infantry and then volunteered to train Thai auxiliaries in their interdiction of Viet Minh incursions around the Laos border along the road R. C. In the middle of 1945, captain Bigeard was entrusted with the command of the 6th company of the 23rd Colonial Infantry Regiment. Designated to participate to the corps in Indochina, the regiment dismebarked in Saigon on October 25,1945. During this epoque, the Bruno surname started to circulate, on March 8,1946, a detachment of the 2nd Armored Brigade 2e DB and 9th Colonial Infantry Division, which the 23rd Colonial Infantry Regiment 23e RIC was part of, disembarked in Tonkin. On July 1,1946, Bigeard left the 23e RIC and formed south-east of Dien Bien Phu, at the return of his men in metropole, mid-October 1946, he assumed command of the 3rd company, constituted of almost 40 men. He then left Indochina on September 17,1947 and reached France three days later, volunteer for another séjour in Indochina, Bigeard was assigned on February 1,1948 to the 3rd Colonial Parachute Commando Battalion 3e BCCP
3. Jacques Chirac – Jacques René Chirac is a French politician, who served as the President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 1995 to 2007. Chirac served as Prime Minister of France from 1974 to 1976, from 1986 to 1988, Chirac occupied various senior positions, including Minister of Agriculture, Minister of the Interior, Prime Minister, Mayor of Paris, and President of the French Republic. Chiracs internal policies initially included lower tax rates, the removal of controls, strong punishment for crime and terrorism. After pursuing these policies as Prime Minister, Chirac changed his method, Jacques Chirac has emerged as an improbable icon of retro taste and a figure of public affection. On 15 December 2011, the Paris court declared him guilty of diverting public funds and abusing public confidence, and gave Chirac a two-year suspended prison sentence. Chirac, born in the Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire clinic, is the son of Abel François Marie Chirac, an executive for an aircraft company, and Marie-Louise Valette. His great grandparents on both sides were peasants, but his two grandfathers were teachers from Sainte-Féréole in Corrèze, according to Chirac, his name originates from the langue doc, that of the troubadours, therefore that of poetry. He was educated in Paris at the Cours Hattemer, a private school and he then attended the Lycée Carnot and at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand. After his baccalauréat, he served for three months as a sailor on a coal-transporter, Chirac played rugby union for Brives youth team, and also played at university level. He played no.8 and second row, in 1956, he married Bernadette Chodron de Courcel, with whom he had two daughters, Laurence and Claude. Chirac is the grandfather of Martin Rey-Chirac by the relationship of Claude with French judoka Thierry Rey, Jacques and Bernadette Chirac also have a foster daughter, Anh Dao Traxel. Inspired by General Charles de Gaulle, Chirac started to pursue a civil career in the 1950s. During this period, he joined the French Communist Party, sold copies of LHumanité, in 1950, he signed the Soviet-inspired Stockholm Appeal for the abolition of nuclear weapons – which led him to be questioned when he applied for his first visa to the United States. Chirac trained as a military officer in armoured cavalry at Saumur. He then volunteered to fight in the Algerian War, using connections to be sent despite the reservations of his superiors. His superiors did not want to make him an officer because they suspected he had communist leanings, after leaving the ENA in 1959, he became a civil servant in the Court of Auditors. In April 1962, Chirac was appointed head of the staff of Prime Minister Georges Pompidou. This appointment launched Chiracs political career, Pompidou considered Chirac his protégé, and referred to him as my bulldozer for his skill at getting things done
4. Jean Giraud – Jean Henri Gaston Giraud was a French artist, cartoonist and writer who worked in the Franco-Belgian bandes dessinées tradition. Giraud garnered worldwide acclaim predominantly under the pseudonym Mœbius and to a lesser extent Gir, esteemed by Federico Fellini, Stan Lee and Hayao Miyazaki among others, he has been described as the most influential bandes dessinées artist after Hergé. His most famous include the series Blueberry, created with writer Jean-Michel Charlier. As Mœbius he created a range of science fiction and fantasy comics in a highly imaginative, surreal. These works include Arzach and the Airtight Garage of Jerry Cornelius and he also collaborated with avant-garde filmmaker Alejandro Jodorowsky for an unproduced adaptation of Dune and the comic book series The Incal. Mœbius also contributed storyboards and concept designs to numerous science fiction and fantasy films, such as Alien, Tron, The Fifth Element, in 2004, Moebius and Jodorowsky sued Luc Besson for using The Incal as inspiration for Fifth Element, a lawsuit which they lost. Blueberry was adapted for the screen in 2004 by French director Jan Kounen, when he was three years old, his parents divorced and he was raised mainly by his grandparents, who were living in the neighboring municipality of Fontenay-sous-Bois. The rupture between mother and father created a lasting trauma that he explained lay at the heart of his choice of pen names. He became close friends with comic artist, Jean-Claude Mézières, in no small part due to their shared passion for Westerns. In 1956 he left art school without graduating to visit his mother, who had married a Mexican in Mexico, after his return to France, he started to work as a full-time artist. At 18, Giraud was drawing his own comic Western strip, Frank et Jeremie, for the magazine Far West and it was for Fleurus that Giraud also illustrated his first three books. Already in this period his style was influenced by his later mentor. In 1961, returning from service in Germany, Giraud became an apprentice of Jijé. For Jijé, Giraud created several shorts and illustrations for the short-lived magazine Bonux-Boy, his first work after military service. In this period, Jijé used Giraud as his assistant on an album of his Western series Jerry Spring, The Road to Coronado, in 1962, Giraud and writer Jean-Michel Charlier started the comic strip Fort Navajo for Pilote Magazine #210. At this time the affinity between the styles of Giraud and Jijé was so close that Jijé penciled several pages for the series when Giraud went AWOL. The Lieutenant Blueberry character, whose features were based on those of the actor Jean-Paul Belmondo, was created in 1963 by Charlier. While the Fort Navajo series had had originally intended as an ensemble narrative
5. Henrik, Prince Consort of Denmark – Prince Henrik of Denmark, is the husband of Queen Margrethe II. Henrik married Margrethe at the Naval Church of Copenhagen on 10 June 1967 and became her consort when she succeeded her father, King Frederick IX, the couple have two sons, Crown Prince Frederik and Prince Joachim. On 14 April 2016 Prince Henrik renounced the title of Prince Consort, Henrik was born in Talence, Gironde, France. He spent his first five years in Hanoi, where his father looked after business interests. He returned to Hanoi in 1950, graduating from the French secondary school there in 1952, between 1952 and 1957 he simultaneously studied law and political science at the Sorbonne, Paris, and Chinese and Vietnamese at the École Nationale des Langues Orientales. He also studied in Hong Kong in 1957 and Saigon in 1958, on 10 June 1967 he married Princess Margrethe, the heir presumptive to the Danish throne, at the Naval Church of Copenhagen. At the time of the wedding his name was Danicised to Henrik, before the wedding, the Prince converted to Lutheranism. Princess Josephine, born on 8 January 2011 at Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen Prince Joachim, Princess Athena, born on 24 January 2012 at Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen. Prince Henriks native language is French, and his language is Danish. He also speaks fluent English, Chinese, and Vietnamese, although he quickly learned Danish after marrying Margrethe, Danes still joke about his grasp of Danish and his thick French accent. In 2002, Henrik left Denmark and went to stay at the couples Château de Caïx in Cahors in southern France. The cause of his departure from Denmark was a New Years Day reception in which his son, Henrik felt pushed aside, degraded and humiliated by being relegated to third place in the royal hierarchy. For many years I have been Denmarks number two, he said, ive been satisfied with that role, but I dont want to be relegated to number three after so many years. Henrik fled Denmark to reflect on his status in the Danish Royal Family, Queen Margrethe flew to France to meet her husband. Henrik stressed that neither his wife nor son were to blame for the incident, the Prince Consort spent three weeks in Caix, and did not appear with his wife as expected at the wedding of Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange, and Máxima Zorreguieta. After three weeks, Henrik returned to Denmark, the Queens private secretary Henning Fode commented, The Queen and the Prince Consort have considered this for quite some time, and it has led to the belief that it was the right thing to do. It is a joy for me that his French roots will also be remembered. Although no announcement was made at time, Prince Christian does now include this part of his French grandfathers surnames among his hereditary titles
6. Philippe Erulin – Philippe Louis Edmé Marie François Erulin was a French Army officer. He gained notoriety in Algeria for allegedly taking part in the torture of Henri Alleg, Erulin graduated from the ESMIA on 29 September 1952. He was attached to a Military Police regiment, on 1 February 1953, he was promoted to corporal, and to sergeant on 1 April. On 1 October 1954, Erulin was promoted to sous-lieutenant, and attended course at the École dapplication de linfanterie, on 20 January 1955, he was transferred to the 1st Parachute Chasseur Regiment, and rose to full lieutenant on 1 October 1956. On 10 June 1957, he took part in the arrest of Maurice Audin, on 1 April 1961, Erulin was promoted to Captain. On 1 June 1962, he was put at the head of the 6th company of the 153rd motorised infantry regiment, on July 1968, he rose to major, and to lieutenant-colonel on 1 October 1973. On 1 July 1976, Erulin was promoted to full colonel, in this capacity, he led the regiment during the Battle of Kolwezi. During this period, he had Ante Gotovina as his personal driver
7. Jean-Marie Le Pen – Jean-Marie Le Pen is a French politician who led the National Front party from its foundation in 1972 until 2011. His progression in the late 1980s is known as the Lepénisation des esprits or Le Pen-isation of spirits due to its effect on mainstream political opinion. Le Pen focuses on issues related to immigration to France, the European Union, traditional culture and values, law and order and he advocates immigration restrictions, the death penalty, raising incentives for homemakers, and euroscepticism. His progress to the round in the 21 April 2002 presidential election left its mark on French public life. His longevity in politics and his five attempts to become president of France have made him a figure in French political life. He was expelled from the party by his daughter Marine Le Pen on 20 August 2015 after new controversial statements and found himself marginalized in the French political landscape. Jean-Marie Le Pen was born on 20 June 1928 in La Trinité-sur-Mer, a seaside village in Brittany, the son of Anne Marie Hervé and Jean Le Pen. He was orphaned as an adolescent, when his fathers boat was blown up by a mine in 1942 and he was raised as a Roman Catholic and studied at the Jesuit high school François Xavier in Vannes, then at the lycée of Lorient. In November 1944, aged 16, he was turned down by Colonel Henri de La Vaissière when he attempted to join the French Forces of the Interior. He then entered the faculty of law in Paris, and started to sell the monarchist Action Françaises newspaper, Aspects de la France and he was repeatedly convicted of assault. Le Pen started his career as the head of the student union in Toulouse. He became president of the Association corporative des étudiants en droit and he was excluded from this organisation in 1951. After his time in the military, he studied political science and his graduate thesis, submitted in 1971 by him and Jean-Loup Vincent, was titled Le courant anarchiste en France depuis 1945 or The anarchist movement in France since 1945. After receiving his law diploma, he enlisted in the army in the Foreign Legion. He arrived in Indochina after the 1954 battle of Dien Bien Phu, which had been lost by France, Le Pen was then sent to Suez in 1956, but arrived only after the cease-fire. In 1953, a year before the beginning of the Algerian War, he contacted President Vincent Auriol, within two days, there were 40 volunteers from his university, a group that would later help victims of an earthquake in Italy. In Paris in 1956, he was elected to the National Assembly as a member of Pierre Poujades UDCA populist party, Le Pen,28 years old, was the youngest member of the Assembly. The next year, following his break with Poujade, Le Pen was reelected to the National Assembly as a member of the Centre National des Indépendants et Paysans party, Le Pen claimed that he had lost his left eye when he was savagely beaten during the 1958 election campaign
8. Jean Gilles (French Army officer) – Jean Marcellin Joseph Calixte Gilles was a French Army General. He was born in Perpignan, France on 14 October 1904 and his father, Joseph Gilles, was killed in the First World War. At age 12, Jean enrolled in a school and at age 18, entered the renowned Saint-Cyr Military Academy. He served as a Camel Corps officer until leaving Morocco with the rank of captain in 1938 and he was assigned to the 7e division dinfanterie coloniale from 1939 to 1940. Demobilized in France in 1942, he tried to reach North Africa to join the French resistance but was captured and imprisoned in Spain, finally released for medical reasons, he enlisted in the 9e division dinfanterie coloniale and took command of 2e bataillon du 13e régiment de tirailleurs sénégalais. As deputy commanding officer of the 23e régiment dinfanterie coloniale, he was sent to Indochina in October 1945 with the rank of lieutenant colonel, following the landing at Haiphong March 6,1946, he was promoted to colonel and named to the staff of General Philippe Leclerc. Gilles earned his parachutist wings in 1949, in 1951, he returned to Indochina and took a prominent role in the Battle of Nà Sản. He was promoted to brigadier general December 23,1952 and became commander of TAPI and he took part in Operation Castor, the early phase of the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in November 1953. Gilles returned to France in March 1954 and was given command of the 25e division infanterie parachutiste, during the Suez Canal crisis of late 1956, he commanded the elite 11e régiment parachutiste de choc in the Suez Crisis. In 1958 he became commander of the Army Corps of Constantine, on his return from Algeria, Gilles took command of the 5th Military Region in Toulouse. His son, Michel Gilles, was killed in action in Algeria on 2 February 1961, Jean died of a heart attack in August that same year. Hell in a Very Small Place, the Battle of Dien Bien Phu. Dien Bien Phu, The Epic Battle America Forgot
9. Pierre Jeanpierre – Pierre Paul Jeanpierre was a Frenchman, a soldier of legend in the French Foreign Legion who initially served in the French Army. He fought during World War II, the First Indochina War, the Suez Crisis and the Algerian War, uncomparable prestigious commander, colonel Jeanpierre will always remain the symbol of the 1st Foreign Parachute Regiment. Pierre advanced and placed his foreign regiment within the best assault troops amongst the French Armed Forces elite, in French Algeria, the name Jeanpierre surpassed the reputation that of Bigeard, with this nuance however, Pierre never did anything to showcase nor claim the later. Pierre was born in 1912 at Belfort in a French family, Pierre was raised by the paternal sight of his mother and enlisted in the infantry at barely 18 years of age. Pierre endured the Phoney War Drôle de Guerre and was put at disposition and he was also deeply marked by the defeat of 1940. Pierre joined instead the French Resistance under the alias Jardin and integrated the ranks of the movement Ceux de la Libération, recruiting and arming over 60 volunteers. Pierre was arrested at Orléans on January 19,1944 and was deported to as a prisoner interred in the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp after passing by the camp of de Compiègne. With forced labor, Pierre would be among only 2 survivors out 45 in his stalag when the camp was liberated by the Allies on May 5,1945, liberated and healed, Pierre was nominated as a Captain at the center of recruitment of the Legion in Kehl. In July 1948, learning that in Algeria would be created a foreign parachute battalion,3 month later, the battalion was in the high region of Indochina. 1er Bataillon Etranger de Parachutiste, 1er BEP - I, II, III Formations - Pierre sailed to Indochina as second-in-command to Pierre Segrétain in the of the 1st Foreign Parachute Battalion in 1948. During the evacuation of RC4, route de sang, he, on October 1950, tasked with taking Dong Khé during the disaster of Cao Bang, the mission was to save column Charton which was unfolding. From the hundreds of legionnaires that constituted the 1st Foreign Parachute Battalion, commandant Segrétain was killed during combat at arms and Lieutenant Faulque fell pierced with projectiles, none of which were mortal. Seriously wounded, he was made prisoner and liberated 4 years later, the 1st Foreign Parachute Battalion with the 3rd Foreign Infantry Regiment were annihilated in Coxa. Following, Pierre rejoined the Legion in Mascara where he retook his passion, the 1er BEP was recreated, however, the last combats in Indochina would take place without his leadership. A Para legionnaires legionnaire, Pierre returned to Indochina to command the of the reconstituted 1st Foreign Parachute Battalion after its second annihilation at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu. Reconstituted in a on May 19,1954, Pierre took command of the 3rd reconstituted 1e BEP on November 1,1954, the 1er BEP left Indochina on February 8,1955. The 1er BEP totaled 5 citations at the orders of the armed forces, the 1er BEP became the 1st Foreign Parachute Regiment in Algeria on September 1,1955. This beautiful instrument of combat became a regiment didnt serve any worthy cause