Category:French military personnel of the Algerian War
Pages in category "French military personnel of the Algerian War"
The following 79 pages are in this category, out of 79 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 79 pages are in this category, out of 79 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Algerian War – An important decolonization war, it was a complex conflict characterized by guerrilla warfare, maquis fighting, and the use of torture by both sides. The conflict also became a war between loyalist Algerians supporting a French Algeria and their Algerian nationalist counterparts. A referendum took place on 8 April 1962 and the French electorate approved the Évian Accords, the planned French withdrawal led to a state crisis, to various assassination attempts on de Gaulle, and to some attempts at military coups. Upon independence, in 1962,900,000 European-Algerians fled to France, in fear of the FLNs revenge, the French government was totally unprepared for the vast number of refugees, which caused turmoil in France. On the pretext of a slight to their consul, the French invaded Algiers in 1830, in 1834, Algeria became a French military colony and was subsequently declared by the constitution of 1848 to be an integral part of France and divided into three departments. Many French and other Europeans later settled in Algeria, under the Second Empire, the Code de lindigénat was implemented by the Sénatus-consulte of July 14,1865. Its first article stipulated, The indigenous Muslim is French, however and he may be admitted to serve in the army and the navy. He may be called to functions and civil employment in Algeria and he may, on his demand, be admitted to enjoy the rights of a French citizen, in this case, he is subjected to the political and civil laws of France. However, prior to 1870, fewer than 200 demands were registered by Muslims and 152 by Jewish Algerians, the 1865 decree was then modified by the 1870 Crémieux decrees, which granted French nationality to Jews living in one of the three Algerian departments. In 1881, the Code de lIndigénat made the official by creating specific penalties for indigènes. The Law of September 20,1947, granted French citizenship to all Algerian subjects, Algeria was unique to France because, unlike all other overseas possessions acquired by France during the 19th century, only Algeria was considered and legally classified an integral part of France. Both Muslim and European Algerians took part in World War I, Algerian Muslims served as tirailleurs and spahis, and French settlers as Zouaves or Chasseurs dAfrique. Within this context, a grandson of Abd el-Kadir spearheaded the resistance against the French in the first half of the 20th century and he was a member of the directing committee of the French Communist Party. The North African Star broke from the PCF in 1928, before being dissolved in 1929 at Pariss demand, the pieds-noirs violently demonstrated against it and the North African Party opposed it, leading to the projects abandonment. This new party was dissolved in 1939, under Vichy, the French state attempted to abrogate the Crémieux decree in order to suppress the Jews French citizenship, but the measure was never implemented. On the other hand, nationalist leader Ferhat Abbas founded the Algerian Popular Union in 1938, in 1943 Abbas wrote the Algerian Peoples Manifesto. In the early morning hours of November 1,1954, FLN maquisards attacked military and he declared in the National Assembly, One does not compromise when it comes to defending the internal peace of the nation, the unity and integrity of the Republic. The Algerian departments are part of the French Republic and they have been French for a long time, and they are irrevocably French
2. Alphonse Alley – Alphonse Amadou Alley was a Beninese army officer and political figure. He was most active when his country was known as Dahomey and he was born in Bassila, central Dahomey, and enrolled in schools in Togo, Cote dIvoire, and Senegal before enlisting in the French army in 1950. He saw combat in Indochina from 1950 to 1953, in Morocco from 1955 to 1956, after the coup in 1965, President Christophe Soglo promoted Alley Chief of Staff of the Army. Young army officer Maurice Kouandété was appointed Alleys chef de cabinet in 1967, Kouandété launched another coup against Soglo on December 17, but he was forced to hand power to Alley two days later. His administration oversaw the creation of a new constitution and a presidential election, the results were annulled because of a boycott that prevented almost three-quarters of the country from voting. Alley lost popularity with the suggestion that the military should retreat back to the barracks, on July 17,1968, Alley was forced to hand power to Emile Zinsou, a veteran politician. Alleys retirement was marked by a series of discharges from the military, trials, at one trial, Zinsous conduct sparked another coup led by Kouandété. On October 26,1972, Mathieu Kérékou seized power in a coup and he ended Alleys military career, as well as that of every other senior officer, and named Alley commissioner of the National Oil Wells, a role with very little responsibility. Kérékou accused Alley of plotting against him on February 28,1973 and he died on March 28,1987. Alley was born on April 9,1930, in Bassila and he was a member of the small Widji ethnic group, based in the north. His father was also a commander, who served the French in Syria during 1942. Alphonse enrolled in schools in Togo, Cote dIvoire, and Senegal until he enlisted in the French army in 1950 and his first combat operation later that year was at the Indochinese Peninsula for the First Indochina War. Alley withdrew in late 1953, shortly before Operation Castor was launched at Dien Bien Phu, after this wartime experience, he went the Saint Maxient Non-Commissioned Officer School in France. He saw combat in Morocco from 1955 to 1956 and in Algeria from 1959 to 1961, after Dahomey gained independence in 1960, Alley travelled back to his homeland and led a paratrooper unit. At first, he was a lieutenant, but he was promoted to captain in 1962, later that year he led several soldiers to the Dahomey-Niger border during a border dispute. Historian Samuel Decalo described Alley as a jovial, dashing, easygoing and well-liked figure and was known by diplomats as the wine, women, in Dahomeyan coups in 1963 and 1965, Alley urged General Christophe Soglo to seize power. After the 1965 coup, Soglo promoted Alley Chief of Staff of the Army, Alley made known his disagreements with Soglo on several occasions, though he remained loyal nonetheless. Young army officer Maurice Kouandété was appointed Alleys chef de cabinet in 1967, Kouandété had aspirations of his own
3. Antoine Argoud – Antoine Argoud was a French Army officer specializing in counter-insurgency during the Algerian War of Independence. Argouds opposition to Algerian independence from France resulted in his joining of the Organisation armée secrète, Argoud was twice placed on trial and convicted of attempting to assassinate French President Charles de Gaulle. Following the second trial Argoud was sentenced to imprisonment. His revelation allowed the service to arrest Bastien-Thiry and other assassins. Argoud charged over de Gaulle plot Obituary of Antoine Argoud
4. Paul Aussaresses – Paul Aussaresses was a French Army general, who fought during World War II, the First Indochina War and Algerian War. His actions during the Algerian War, and later defense of those actions, Aussaresses was a career Army intelligence officer with an excellent military record when he joined the Free French Forces in North Africa during the Second World War. Aussaresses provoked controversy in 2000 when, in an interview with the French newspaper Le Monde, in the aftermath of the controversy, he was stripped of his rank, the right to wear his army uniform and his Légion dHonneur. Aussaresses remained defiant and dismissed the latter act as hypocritical, Aussaresses, recognizable by his eye patch, lost his left eye due to a botched cataract operation. Aussaresses was born on 7 November 1918, just four days before the end of World War I, in Saint-Paul-Cap-de-Joux, Tarn department and his father, Paul Aussaresses senior, was serving in the French military at the time of his sons birth because of the war. In 1941, Aussaresses served a year as a cadet in Cherchell. The next year, in 1942, he volunteered for the special unit in France. He a member of a Jedburgh team and member of Team CHRYSLER which parachuted into France behind the German lines in August 1944, the Jedburghs worked clandestinely behind enemy lines to harness the local resistance and coordinate their activities with the wishes of the Allied Commanders. CHRYSLER deployed from Algeria via an American aircraft to work with the local French Resistance in Ariège, on 1 September 1946 he joined the 11th Choc Battalion and commanded the battalion from 1947 until 1948, when he was replaced by Yves Godard. Later, he served in the First Indochina War with the 1st Parachute Chasseur Regiment, in 1955 he was transferred to Philippeville, Algeria to be part of the 41st Parachute Demi-Brigade as an intelligence officer. He restarted his demi-brigades intelligence unit, which had disbanded during peacetime but was deemed necessary by the French Army who wanted to quell the insurgency of the Algerian rebels. On 20 August 1955 the FLN staged an attack against the police of Philippeville, Aussaresses states that he had information about this attack well beforehand and therefore he was able to prevent much of the possible bloodshed. The members of the FLN had also forced many of the men, women and children of the countryside to march in front of them, without weapons, Aussaresses reports that his battalion killed 134 of these men, women and children, and that hundreds more had been wounded. He reports that two men from his own side also died, and that one hundred others had been wounded. In the spring of 1956, he attended a training camp in Salisbury. He returned to Bône, Algeria in May 1956 to continue exercises with paratroopers on their way to the Suez Canal, on 1 June 1956 he received a spinal fracture from a parachuting exercise, which prevented him from participating in the Suez operation. General Jacques Massu, who had noted Aussaresses work against the insurrections in Philippeville, Aussaresses reported for duty in Algiers on 8 January 1957. He was the executioner and intelligence collector under Jacques Massu during the Battle of Algiers
5. Marcel Bigeard – Marcel Bruno Bigeard was a French military officer who fought in World War II, Indochina and Algeria. He was one of the commanders in the Battle of Dien Bien Phu and is thought by many to have been an influence on French unconventional warfare thinking from that time onwards. A former resistant, he is associated mainly with the war of Indochina, Marcel Bigeard was born in Toul, Meurthe-et-Moselle on 14 February 1916, the son of Charles Bigeard, a railway worker, and Sophie Bigeard, a domineering housewife. He also had a sister, Charlotte Bigeard, fours years his senior. Lorraine instilled a strong patriotism in him and his mother a will to win, at fourteen, Bigeard quit school to help his parents financially by taking a position in the local Société Générale bank, where he did well. Following a 6-year career in Société générale, Marcel Bigeard conducted his military service in France at Haguenau at the corps of the 23rd Fortress Infantry Regiment. Incorporated in the regiment as a soldat de deuxième classe in September 1936, caporal-chef, he was relieved of duty, volunteer for the franc corps, he led a combat group at Trimbach in Alsace and became quickly a sergent-chef then adjudant at the age of 24. On June 25,1940, he was captured and made prisoner of war spending 18 months in captivity in a stalag. Following his third attempt to escape on November 11,1941, he managed to make his way to the zone in France. Volunteering for the French Occidental Africa, he was assigned in February 1942 to a camp in Senegal, promoted to sous-lieutenant in October 1943, he was directed with his regiment to Morocco. One of these audacious ambushes against superior German forces gained him a British decoration and his nickname of Bruno has its origins in his radio call sign. Decorated with the Légion dhonneur and the British Distinguished Service Order for his actions in Ariège, Bigeard was first sent to Indo-China in October 1945 to assist with French efforts to reassert their influence over the former French colonies. He commanded the 23rd Colonial Infantry and then volunteered to train Thai auxiliaries in their interdiction of Viet Minh incursions around the Laos border along the road R. C. In the middle of 1945, captain Bigeard was entrusted with the command of the 6th company of the 23rd Colonial Infantry Regiment. Designated to participate to the corps in Indochina, the regiment dismebarked in Saigon on October 25,1945. During this epoque, the Bruno surname started to circulate, on March 8,1946, a detachment of the 2nd Armored Brigade 2e DB and 9th Colonial Infantry Division, which the 23rd Colonial Infantry Regiment 23e RIC was part of, disembarked in Tonkin. On July 1,1946, Bigeard left the 23e RIC and formed south-east of Dien Bien Phu, at the return of his men in metropole, mid-October 1946, he assumed command of the 3rd company, constituted of almost 40 men. He then left Indochina on September 17,1947 and reached France three days later, volunteer for another séjour in Indochina, Bigeard was assigned on February 1,1948 to the 3rd Colonial Parachute Commando Battalion 3e BCCP
6. Pierre Bourdieu – Pierre Bourdieu was a French sociologist, anthropologist, philosopher, and renowned public intellectual. Another notable influence on Bourdieu was Blaise Pascal, after whom Bourdieu titled his Pascalian Meditations, Bourdieus best known book is Distinction, A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste. The book was judged the sixth most important sociological work of the century by the International Sociological Association. In it, Bourdieu argues that judgments of taste are related to social position, in the process, he tried to reconcile the influences of both external social structures and subjective experience on the individual. Pierre Felix Bourdieu was born in Denguin, in southern France on 1 August 1930, to a postal worker, the household spoke Béarnese, a Gascon dialect. Bourdieu married Marie-Claire Brizard in 1962, the couple had three sons, Jérôme, Emmanuel, and Laurent, Bourdieu was educated at the lycée in Pau before moving to the Lycée Louis-le-Grand in Paris. From there he gained entrance to the École Normale Supérieure, also in Paris, after getting his agrégation, Bourdieu worked as a lycée teacher at Moulins for a year before his being conscription into the French Army in 1955. His biographers write that he not to enter the Reserve Officers College like many of his fellow ENS graduates as he wished to stay with people from his own modest social background. Deployed to Algeria in October 1955 during its war of independence from France, after his year-long military service, Bourdieu stayed on as a lecturer in Algiers. The result was his first book, Sociologie de lAlgérie, which became a success in France and was published in America in 1962. He later drew heavily on this fieldwork in his 1972 book Outline of a Theory of Practice, in 1960 Bourdieu returned to the University of Paris before gaining a teaching position at the University of Lille, where he remained until 1964. From 1964 onwards Bourdieu held the position of Professor in the VIe section of the École Pratique des Hautes Études, in 1968, Bourdieu took over the Centre de Sociologie Européenne, founded by Aron, which he directed until his death. In 1993 he was honored with the Médaille dor du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, in 1996 he received the Goffman Prize from the University of California, Berkeley and in 2001 the Huxley Medal of the Royal Anthropological Institute. Bourdieu died of cancer at the age of 71, Bourdieus work is influenced by much of traditional anthropology and sociology which he undertook to synthesize into his own theory. And of the need to develop social theory from social practice. The class-based nature of artistic taste had already firmly established by Arnold Hauser in The Social History of Art. However, Bourdieu critically diverged from Durkheim in emphasizing the role of the agent in enacting, through the embodiment of social structures. He furthermore emphasized that the reproduction of social structures does not operate according to a functionalist logic, maurice Merleau-Ponty and, through him, the phenomenology of Edmund Husserl played an essential part in the formulation of Bourdieus focus on the body, action, and practical dispositions
7. Pierre Brice – Pierre-Louis Baron de Bris, known as Pierre Brice, was a French actor, best known as fictional Apache-chief Winnetou in German Karl May films. Brice was born in Brest, Britanny, France, when he was 19, Brice enlisted in the French Army and fought in the First Indochina War. While patrolling in Indochina, one of his team triggered a mine and its explosion sent Brice whirling through the air, later he served as a paratrooper during the Algerian War. Besides theatre productions, he was seen in TV-series, including Ein Schloß am Wörthersee. In 1979 Brice again played Winnetou in a 14-part TV series called Mein Freund Winnetou, again, this did not originate from writings by Karl May. Brice tried to escape the Winnetou character in a 1976 TV series, Star Maidens and he also worked with Terence Hill in Schüsse im Dreivierteltakt, with Lex Barker in a non-Karl May film Die Hölle von Manitoba and in the anthology Gern hab ich die Frauen gekillt. Pierre Brice died of pneumonia on 6 June 2015 in a Paris hospital, like Lex Barker, Brice tried to sing with the help of German composer Martin Boettcher, and even managed to issue several singles and CDs. Most of the songs were in German and, as Brice did not understand the language at the time of recording, Pierre Brice biography on Search my Trash Pierre Brice at the Internet Movie Database Homepage of Pierre Brice Profile, Almissa. com
8. Cabu – Jean Cabut, known by the pen-name Cabu, was a French comic strip artist and caricaturist. He died in the January 2015 shooting attack on the Charlie Hebdo newspaper offices, Cabut was a staff cartoonist and shareholder at Charlie Hebdo. Cabu started out studying art at the École Estienne in Paris and his drawings were first published by 1954 in a local newspaper. The Algerian War forced him to be conscripted in the army for two years, where his talent was used in the army magazine Bled and in Paris Match. His time in the army caused him to become a strident anti-militarist, in 1960, after he left the Army, he became one of the founders of Hara-Kiri magazine. In the 1970s and 80s, he became a popular artist and he continued working in political caricature for Charlie Hebdo and Le Canard enchaîné. His popular characters include Le Grand Duduche and adjudant Kronenbourg, so spot-on was this caricature of an average, racist, sexist, vulgar, ordinary Frenchman that the word beauf has slipped into ordinary use. In February 2006, a Cabu cartoon which appeared on the cover of Charlie Hebdo in response to the Danish cartoons affair caused more controversy and it depicted the Muslim prophet Muhammad under the caption Muhammad overwhelmed by fundamentalists, crying Cest dur dêtre aimé par des cons. From September 2006 to January 2007, an exhibition entitled Cabu, Cabu was killed, along with seven of his colleagues, two police officers, and two others, on 7 January 2015 in the Charlie Hebdo shooting when armed gunmen stormed the newspapers offices in Paris. Cabu was the father of the French singer/songwriter Mano Solo, Le grand Duduche series, Le grand Duduche Dargaud Il lui faudrait une bonne guerre. Dargaud Les aventures de madame Pompidou Square Lennemi intérieur éd. du Square et Dargaud Le grand Duduche en vacances éd. du Square Passe ton bac, éd. du Rond Point Maraboudficelle, scénario de William Leymergie Dargaud À bas la mode. Albin Michel Cabu au Canard Enchaîné Albin Michel Tonton la-terreur Albin Michel Adieu Tonton Albin Michel Les Abrutis sont parmi nous Albin Michel Responsables mais pas coupables, Albin Michel Secrets dÉtat Albin Michel Les Aventure épatantes de Jacques Chirac Albin Michel Vas-y Jospin
9. Maurice Challe – Maurice Challe was a French general during the Algerian War, one of four generals who took part in the Algiers putsch. A native of Le Pontet, Vaucluse, and a veteran of the Second World War, Challe transmitted the Luftwaffe order of battle to the British prior to D-Day and backed De Gaulles return to power. In July 1956, Egyptian leader Gamal Abdel Nasser took control of the Suez Canal, in violation of agreements he had signed with the British, on 14 October 1956, Challe visited British Prime Minister Anthony Eden at his home, accompanied by French Minister of Labor Albert Gazier. Eden backed the plan with UK resources including military forces, directly leading to the Suez Crisis, Challe was a French Air Force general whose greatest military success was in the realm of counter-insurgency operations during the Algerian War. His offensive, begun in March 1959, succeeded in weakening the ALN. Through the use of speed and concentration of force, Challe kept the ALN insurgents in constant retreat and his innovative tactics would be studied and emulated by others - notably Syrian government forces in the Syrian Civil War seeking to keep insurgency at bay and off balance. The Challe Plan was only partially completed before he was reassigned to France, a line of electrified wire, minefields and other military barriers, the Challe Line, was named after him. It doubled another defence work, the Morice Line, which fortified the border and separated Algeria from Morocco and he was Commander-in-Chief Allied Forces Central Europe from May 1960 to his deliberate resignation in February 1961. Challe was one of the heads of the Algiers putsch of 1961, along with Raoul Salan, Edmond Jouhaud, and André Zeller. A prime reason for Challes involvement was his concern that the Muslim harkis who had served with the French Army against the FLN would be subject to reprisals in the event of Algerian independence. In the event large numbers of loyalists were massacred in 1962 After the putsch failed, he. Challe was sentenced to 15 years imprisonment and he was freed in December 1966 and received amnesty from President de Gaulle in 1968. Challe died on 18 January 1979, a Savage War of Peace, Algeria 1954–1962. New York, New York Review of Books, 1960–1966, Algeria, The Generals Plot Against de Gaulle, by William Blum, Press for Conversion. Issue #51, May 2003, article claiming that the CIA encouraged Challe to start the Algiers putsch
10. Jacques Chirac – Jacques René Chirac is a French politician, who served as the President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 1995 to 2007. Chirac served as Prime Minister of France from 1974 to 1976, from 1986 to 1988, Chirac occupied various senior positions, including Minister of Agriculture, Minister of the Interior, Prime Minister, Mayor of Paris, and President of the French Republic. Chiracs internal policies initially included lower tax rates, the removal of controls, strong punishment for crime and terrorism. After pursuing these policies as Prime Minister, Chirac changed his method, Jacques Chirac has emerged as an improbable icon of retro taste and a figure of public affection. On 15 December 2011, the Paris court declared him guilty of diverting public funds and abusing public confidence, and gave Chirac a two-year suspended prison sentence. Chirac, born in the Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire clinic, is the son of Abel François Marie Chirac, an executive for an aircraft company, and Marie-Louise Valette. His great grandparents on both sides were peasants, but his two grandfathers were teachers from Sainte-Féréole in Corrèze, according to Chirac, his name originates from the langue doc, that of the troubadours, therefore that of poetry. He was educated in Paris at the Cours Hattemer, a private school and he then attended the Lycée Carnot and at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand. After his baccalauréat, he served for three months as a sailor on a coal-transporter, Chirac played rugby union for Brives youth team, and also played at university level. He played no.8 and second row, in 1956, he married Bernadette Chodron de Courcel, with whom he had two daughters, Laurence and Claude. Chirac is the grandfather of Martin Rey-Chirac by the relationship of Claude with French judoka Thierry Rey, Jacques and Bernadette Chirac also have a foster daughter, Anh Dao Traxel. Inspired by General Charles de Gaulle, Chirac started to pursue a civil career in the 1950s. During this period, he joined the French Communist Party, sold copies of LHumanité, in 1950, he signed the Soviet-inspired Stockholm Appeal for the abolition of nuclear weapons – which led him to be questioned when he applied for his first visa to the United States. Chirac trained as a military officer in armoured cavalry at Saumur. He then volunteered to fight in the Algerian War, using connections to be sent despite the reservations of his superiors. His superiors did not want to make him an officer because they suspected he had communist leanings, after leaving the ENA in 1959, he became a civil servant in the Court of Auditors. In April 1962, Chirac was appointed head of the staff of Prime Minister Georges Pompidou. This appointment launched Chiracs political career, Pompidou considered Chirac his protégé, and referred to him as my bulldozer for his skill at getting things done
11. Jean Cruguet – Jean Cruguet is a French-American thoroughbred horse racing jockey who won the United States Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing. At age five, Cruguet was placed in an orphanage after his father abandoned the family, from age ten to sixteen, he lived at a secondary school run by Roman Catholic priests where he says he was physically abused. At age sixteen, a friend of his offered the diminutive Cruguet work at a Thoroughbred race track. His fledgling career as a jockey was interrupted by military service. After being discharged from the army, Cruguet returned to thoroughbred flat racing and he replaced army-bound jockey Yves Saint-Martin at the stable run by trainer Francois Mathet. Once Saint-Martin was discharged from the army, Cruguet had to find new rides, after meeting his future wife Denyse, a trainer and one of the pioneering woman in French racing, in 1965, they decided to emigrate to the United States. In Florida, Cruguet was hired to ride for Horatio Luro at Hialeah Park Race Track, in 2004, Jean Cruguet said Hoist The Flag was the best horse he ever rode. The career-ending injury denied the colt a chance to try for the Triple Crown, after finishing second in Frances jockey standings for 1972, Cruguet and his wife returned to the United States. In 1976, Cruguet rode the two-year-old colt Seattle Slew to victory in the Champagne Stakes. C, International at Laurel Park Racecourse in Laurel, Maryland. Mac Diarmida was voted the 1978 Eclipse Award for American Champion Male Turf Horse, Jean Cruguet retired from riding at age 41 in July 1980 to join his wife as a full-time trainer in their own small stable, but he returned to riding two years later. His last major Grade I Stakes victory came aboard Hodges Bay in the 1989 Canadian International Stakes at Woodbine Racetrack. For a time, he almost completely disappeared from the eye because he was the sole caregiver for his wife Denyse. She died at their home in Kentucky in September 2010, Cruguet planned a one-race comeback at the Keeneland Racecourse Spring Meet in April 2011 at age 72
12. Bruno Durieux – Bruno Durieux, born October 23,1944 in Montigny, Sarthe is a French politician. Durieux is a graduate of the École polytechnique and ENSAE and he served in Algeria under the command of Marcel Bigeard before embarking upon an administrative career. Entering politics, Durieux served in the cabinet of Raymond Barre from 1976 to 1981, in 1990 he became a member of the Michel Rocard administration. With the change in government in 1995, he was named by defense minister Charles Millon to represent the defense department overseas and he was elected mayor of Grignan in the Drôme in 1995 and was reelected in 2001 and 2008. He is the current mayor. De lIVG à la peine de mort, article polémique de lHumanité sur les prises de position de Bruno Durieux
13. Philippe Erulin – Philippe Louis Edmé Marie François Erulin was a French Army officer. He gained notoriety in Algeria for allegedly taking part in the torture of Henri Alleg, Erulin graduated from the ESMIA on 29 September 1952. He was attached to a Military Police regiment, on 1 February 1953, he was promoted to corporal, and to sergeant on 1 April. On 1 October 1954, Erulin was promoted to sous-lieutenant, and attended course at the École dapplication de linfanterie, on 20 January 1955, he was transferred to the 1st Parachute Chasseur Regiment, and rose to full lieutenant on 1 October 1956. On 10 June 1957, he took part in the arrest of Maurice Audin, on 1 April 1961, Erulin was promoted to Captain. On 1 June 1962, he was put at the head of the 6th company of the 153rd motorised infantry regiment, on July 1968, he rose to major, and to lieutenant-colonel on 1 October 1973. On 1 July 1976, Erulin was promoted to full colonel, in this capacity, he led the regiment during the Battle of Kolwezi. During this period, he had Ante Gotovina as his personal driver
14. Jean Gilles (French Army officer) – Jean Marcellin Joseph Calixte Gilles was a French Army General. He was born in Perpignan, France on 14 October 1904 and his father, Joseph Gilles, was killed in the First World War. At age 12, Jean enrolled in a school and at age 18, entered the renowned Saint-Cyr Military Academy. He served as a Camel Corps officer until leaving Morocco with the rank of captain in 1938 and he was assigned to the 7e division dinfanterie coloniale from 1939 to 1940. Demobilized in France in 1942, he tried to reach North Africa to join the French resistance but was captured and imprisoned in Spain, finally released for medical reasons, he enlisted in the 9e division dinfanterie coloniale and took command of 2e bataillon du 13e régiment de tirailleurs sénégalais. As deputy commanding officer of the 23e régiment dinfanterie coloniale, he was sent to Indochina in October 1945 with the rank of lieutenant colonel, following the landing at Haiphong March 6,1946, he was promoted to colonel and named to the staff of General Philippe Leclerc. Gilles earned his parachutist wings in 1949, in 1951, he returned to Indochina and took a prominent role in the Battle of Nà Sản. He was promoted to brigadier general December 23,1952 and became commander of TAPI and he took part in Operation Castor, the early phase of the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in November 1953. Gilles returned to France in March 1954 and was given command of the 25e division infanterie parachutiste, during the Suez Canal crisis of late 1956, he commanded the elite 11e régiment parachutiste de choc in the Suez Crisis. In 1958 he became commander of the Army Corps of Constantine, on his return from Algeria, Gilles took command of the 5th Military Region in Toulouse. His son, Michel Gilles, was killed in action in Algeria on 2 February 1961, Jean died of a heart attack in August that same year. Hell in a Very Small Place, the Battle of Dien Bien Phu. Dien Bien Phu, The Epic Battle America Forgot
15. Jean Giraud – Jean Henri Gaston Giraud was a French artist, cartoonist and writer who worked in the Franco-Belgian bandes dessinées tradition. Giraud garnered worldwide acclaim predominantly under the pseudonym Mœbius and to a lesser extent Gir, esteemed by Federico Fellini, Stan Lee and Hayao Miyazaki among others, he has been described as the most influential bandes dessinées artist after Hergé. His most famous include the series Blueberry, created with writer Jean-Michel Charlier. As Mœbius he created a range of science fiction and fantasy comics in a highly imaginative, surreal. These works include Arzach and the Airtight Garage of Jerry Cornelius and he also collaborated with avant-garde filmmaker Alejandro Jodorowsky for an unproduced adaptation of Dune and the comic book series The Incal. Mœbius also contributed storyboards and concept designs to numerous science fiction and fantasy films, such as Alien, Tron, The Fifth Element, in 2004, Moebius and Jodorowsky sued Luc Besson for using The Incal as inspiration for Fifth Element, a lawsuit which they lost. Blueberry was adapted for the screen in 2004 by French director Jan Kounen, when he was three years old, his parents divorced and he was raised mainly by his grandparents, who were living in the neighboring municipality of Fontenay-sous-Bois. The rupture between mother and father created a lasting trauma that he explained lay at the heart of his choice of pen names. He became close friends with comic artist, Jean-Claude Mézières, in no small part due to their shared passion for Westerns. In 1956 he left art school without graduating to visit his mother, who had married a Mexican in Mexico, after his return to France, he started to work as a full-time artist. At 18, Giraud was drawing his own comic Western strip, Frank et Jeremie, for the magazine Far West and it was for Fleurus that Giraud also illustrated his first three books. Already in this period his style was influenced by his later mentor. In 1961, returning from service in Germany, Giraud became an apprentice of Jijé. For Jijé, Giraud created several shorts and illustrations for the short-lived magazine Bonux-Boy, his first work after military service. In this period, Jijé used Giraud as his assistant on an album of his Western series Jerry Spring, The Road to Coronado, in 1962, Giraud and writer Jean-Michel Charlier started the comic strip Fort Navajo for Pilote Magazine #210. At this time the affinity between the styles of Giraud and Jijé was so close that Jijé penciled several pages for the series when Giraud went AWOL. The Lieutenant Blueberry character, whose features were based on those of the actor Jean-Paul Belmondo, was created in 1963 by Charlier. While the Fort Navajo series had had originally intended as an ensemble narrative
16. Henri, Count of Paris (born 1933) – Henri dOrléans, Count of Paris, Duke of France, is a member of the former French ruling dynasty of the House of Bourbon, and one of the current pretenders to the defunct French crown as Henry VII. A descendant of King Louis-Philippe, he is the current head of the Orléans line of the Bourbon dynasty, Henri of Orléans is a former military officer as well as an author and painter. Henri dOrléans is protector of the Orléans obedience of the Order of Saint Lazarus and this law was abrogated in 1950, but Henri had already been allowed to enter France by special favour of President Vincent Auriol in 1948. On 25 August 1940, Henris grandfather, Jean of Orléans, Duke of Guise and his father was recognised by most French royalists as head of the French royal house, and Henri became their dauphin. He studied at the Institut dÉtudes Politiques de Paris and then served in the military, for his military service, he was decorated with several French distinctions. On 5 July 1957, he married Duchess Marie Therese of Württemberg and he received the title Count of Clermont. Five children were born from this union, princess Blanche Elisabeth Rose Marie of Orléans. Her godparents were Duchess Elisabeth of Wurtemberg, and Monsieur Michel Coulages, Prince Jean Charles Pierre Marie of Orléans, Duke of Vendôme and Dauphin de Viennois, married civilly in Paris on 19 March 2009 with Philomena de Tornos y Steinhart. The religious ceremony took place at the Senlis Cathedral on 2 May 2009, princess Thérèse Isabelle Marie Éléonore of Orléans Prince Pierre Jean Marie dOrléans. In 1984, Henri and Marie-Thérèse received a civil divorce, as a civil marriage, this was not a valid marriage in the Catholic Church, it was not recognised by a number of French royalists. Henris father, too, was furious, he disinherited Henri, stripped him of his titles, Henri, though, refused all mail addressed to him as Count of Mortain. Meanwhile, Marie-Thérèse, the former Countess of Clermont, was granted the title Duchesse de Montpensier by her father-in-law, tensions lessened after several years, and Henris father reinstated him as heir apparent and gave Micaela the title Princesse de Joinville. Relations between Henri and his wife, the Duchesse de Montpensier also improved and became cordial. Although Henri adopted the title of Count of Paris upon the death of his father, upon the death of Henris mother, his new wife Micaëla assumed that title. The Count of Paris was then able to remarry his wife, Micaëla Countess of Paris and Duchess of France in a valid marriage in the Catholic Church. The French courts denied that they had jurisdiction over the dispute, after his fathers death, a court-appointed lawyer searched through the late counts effects on behalf of his nine children, to reclaim what remained of the familys dissipated fortune. Jewels, art-work, and a medieval illustrated manuscript were found. These were auctioned off, raising approximately US$14 million, soon after, in 2000 however, bailiffs pursued Henri for US$143,000 back rent after he fled the Villa Boileau, a 17th-century Paris house he had occupied
17. Henrik, Prince Consort of Denmark – Prince Henrik of Denmark, is the husband of Queen Margrethe II. Henrik married Margrethe at the Naval Church of Copenhagen on 10 June 1967 and became her consort when she succeeded her father, King Frederick IX, the couple have two sons, Crown Prince Frederik and Prince Joachim. On 14 April 2016 Prince Henrik renounced the title of Prince Consort, Henrik was born in Talence, Gironde, France. He spent his first five years in Hanoi, where his father looked after business interests. He returned to Hanoi in 1950, graduating from the French secondary school there in 1952, between 1952 and 1957 he simultaneously studied law and political science at the Sorbonne, Paris, and Chinese and Vietnamese at the École Nationale des Langues Orientales. He also studied in Hong Kong in 1957 and Saigon in 1958, on 10 June 1967 he married Princess Margrethe, the heir presumptive to the Danish throne, at the Naval Church of Copenhagen. At the time of the wedding his name was Danicised to Henrik, before the wedding, the Prince converted to Lutheranism. Princess Josephine, born on 8 January 2011 at Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen Prince Joachim, Princess Athena, born on 24 January 2012 at Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen. Prince Henriks native language is French, and his language is Danish. He also speaks fluent English, Chinese, and Vietnamese, although he quickly learned Danish after marrying Margrethe, Danes still joke about his grasp of Danish and his thick French accent. In 2002, Henrik left Denmark and went to stay at the couples Château de Caïx in Cahors in southern France. The cause of his departure from Denmark was a New Years Day reception in which his son, Henrik felt pushed aside, degraded and humiliated by being relegated to third place in the royal hierarchy. For many years I have been Denmarks number two, he said, ive been satisfied with that role, but I dont want to be relegated to number three after so many years. Henrik fled Denmark to reflect on his status in the Danish Royal Family, Queen Margrethe flew to France to meet her husband. Henrik stressed that neither his wife nor son were to blame for the incident, the Prince Consort spent three weeks in Caix, and did not appear with his wife as expected at the wedding of Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange, and Máxima Zorreguieta. After three weeks, Henrik returned to Denmark, the Queens private secretary Henning Fode commented, The Queen and the Prince Consort have considered this for quite some time, and it has led to the belief that it was the right thing to do. It is a joy for me that his French roots will also be remembered. Although no announcement was made at time, Prince Christian does now include this part of his French grandfathers surnames among his hereditary titles
18. Roger Holeindre – Roger Holeindre is a French Army veteran, politician and author. He served in the First Indochina War and the Algerian War and he was a member of the National Assembly from 1986 to 1988. He is the former vice-president of the National Front and he represents the “national-conservative” tendency, opposed to the “nationalist revolutionaries”. Holeindre is the president of the Cercle national des combattants, Roger Holeindre was born on 21 March 1929 in Corrano, Corse-du-Sud. He grew up in Vosges and then Seine-Saint-Denis, in 1989, he wrote À tous ceux qui nont rien compris in which he claims to have stolen two machine guns from the Germans in August 1944 and that the operation got a friend killed. After working as a worker, he volunteered for the Indochina War in 1948. After being almost fatally wounded in the head, he was demobilized and lived in the city of Tebessa in the East of Algeria and he created there a youth center for education of Muslim locals. He joined the Organisation armée secrète, a right-wing terrorist movement opposed to the 1962 Évian Accords which granted independence to Algeria and he met with Bruno Gollnisch in this period. After being given a sentence for his involvement with the OAS, he worked as a reporter for Paris-Match. In January 1968, Holeindre founded the Front uni de soutien au Sud-Viêt-Nam, Occident actively participated to this Front. Holeindre also maintained contacts with the direction of the WACL, supported by the Taiwanese authorities, Holeindre became a member of the political bureau of the National Front, created in 1972 by Jean-Marie Le Pen, along with François Brigneau. Thus, Jean-Marie Le Pen, Roger Holeindre and Pierre Durand sieged at the side of the “nationalists” François Brigneau, Alain Robert, Pierre Bousquet, Jean Vallette dOsia, and Rolande Birgy. After the first split, at the end of 1973, François Duprat continued to represent the “nationalist” tendency inside the FN, Holeindre served as a member of the National Assembly for the Seine Saint Denis region from 1986 to 1988. He subsequently served as the vice-president of the FN and he also presides the Cercle national des combattants, a veteran association close to the FN. He supported Le Pen against Bruno Mégrets attempt to control of the FN. Médaille militaire Croix de guerre des théâtres dopérations extérieures Croix de la Valeur Militaire Croix du combattant volontaire Holeindre, À tous ceux qui nont rien compris. Des Pavillons noirs à Diên Biên Phu, des enfants de Goebbels et du KGB. Arnaud, Gilles, Holeindre, Roger, Weber, Nicolas, la Guerre psychologique ou les nouveaux collabos
19. Pierre Jeanpierre – Pierre Paul Jeanpierre was a Frenchman, a soldier of legend in the French Foreign Legion who initially served in the French Army. He fought during World War II, the First Indochina War, the Suez Crisis and the Algerian War, uncomparable prestigious commander, colonel Jeanpierre will always remain the symbol of the 1st Foreign Parachute Regiment. Pierre advanced and placed his foreign regiment within the best assault troops amongst the French Armed Forces elite, in French Algeria, the name Jeanpierre surpassed the reputation that of Bigeard, with this nuance however, Pierre never did anything to showcase nor claim the later. Pierre was born in 1912 at Belfort in a French family, Pierre was raised by the paternal sight of his mother and enlisted in the infantry at barely 18 years of age. Pierre endured the Phoney War Drôle de Guerre and was put at disposition and he was also deeply marked by the defeat of 1940. Pierre joined instead the French Resistance under the alias Jardin and integrated the ranks of the movement Ceux de la Libération, recruiting and arming over 60 volunteers. Pierre was arrested at Orléans on January 19,1944 and was deported to as a prisoner interred in the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp after passing by the camp of de Compiègne. With forced labor, Pierre would be among only 2 survivors out 45 in his stalag when the camp was liberated by the Allies on May 5,1945, liberated and healed, Pierre was nominated as a Captain at the center of recruitment of the Legion in Kehl. In July 1948, learning that in Algeria would be created a foreign parachute battalion,3 month later, the battalion was in the high region of Indochina. 1er Bataillon Etranger de Parachutiste, 1er BEP - I, II, III Formations - Pierre sailed to Indochina as second-in-command to Pierre Segrétain in the of the 1st Foreign Parachute Battalion in 1948. During the evacuation of RC4, route de sang, he, on October 1950, tasked with taking Dong Khé during the disaster of Cao Bang, the mission was to save column Charton which was unfolding. From the hundreds of legionnaires that constituted the 1st Foreign Parachute Battalion, commandant Segrétain was killed during combat at arms and Lieutenant Faulque fell pierced with projectiles, none of which were mortal. Seriously wounded, he was made prisoner and liberated 4 years later, the 1st Foreign Parachute Battalion with the 3rd Foreign Infantry Regiment were annihilated in Coxa. Following, Pierre rejoined the Legion in Mascara where he retook his passion, the 1er BEP was recreated, however, the last combats in Indochina would take place without his leadership. A Para legionnaires legionnaire, Pierre returned to Indochina to command the of the reconstituted 1st Foreign Parachute Battalion after its second annihilation at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu. Reconstituted in a on May 19,1954, Pierre took command of the 3rd reconstituted 1e BEP on November 1,1954, the 1er BEP left Indochina on February 8,1955. The 1er BEP totaled 5 citations at the orders of the armed forces, the 1er BEP became the 1st Foreign Parachute Regiment in Algeria on September 1,1955. This beautiful instrument of combat became a regiment didnt serve any worthy cause
20. Edmond Jouhaud – Edmond Jouhaud was one of four French generals who briefly staged a putsch in Algeria in April 1961. Edmond Jouhaud was born on 2 April 1905 in French Algeria and he was a descendant of early Algerian pioneers of Corsican descent. As Army General he had been the Inspector General of the Air Force in French North Africa, after the failure of the putsch, he became the deputy of Raoul Salan in the Organisation armée secrète. While Salan fled to Spain, Jouhaud remained out of loyalty to his birthplace, Jouhaud was captured in March 1962 and rapidly sentenced to death by a military court. However, after his OAS superior Salan was given only a sentence in a civilian court. He called for the activists of OAS to end their militant campaign. He was rehabilitated by a law passed in 1982 under the presidency of François Mitterrand, Jouhaud was one of the most decorated officers in the French military prior to participating in the putsch. Jouhaud died on 4 September 1995