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This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Galleys (ship).|
This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total.
1. Galley – A galley is a type of ship that is propelled mainly by rowing. The galley is characterized by its long, slender hull, shallow draft, virtually all types of galleys had sails that could be used in favorable winds, but human strength was always the primary method of propulsion. This allowed galleys to navigate independently of winds and currents, Galleys were the warships used by the early Mediterranean naval powers, including the Greeks, Phoenicians and Romans. They remained the dominant types of vessels used for war and piracy in the Mediterranean Sea until the last decades of the 16th century and they were the first ships to effectively use heavy cannons as anti-ship weapons. As highly efficient gun platforms they forced changes in the design of medieval seaside fortresses as well as refinement of sailing warships. The zenith of galley usage in warfare came in the late 16th century with battles like that at Lepanto in 1571, by the 17th century, however, sailing ships and hybrid ships like the xebec displaced galleys in naval warfare. From the mid-16th century galleys were in intermittent use in the Baltic Sea, with its short distances, there was a minor revival of galley warfare in the 18th century in the wars between Russia, Sweden and Denmark. The term galley derives from the medieval Greek galea, a version of the dromon. The origin of the Greek word is unclear but could possibly be related to galeos, the word galley has been attested in English from c. It was only from the 16th century that a unified galley concept came in use, before that, particularly in antiquity, there was a wide variety of terms used for different types of galleys. Ancient galleys were named according to the number of oars, the number of banks of oars or lines of rowers, the terms are based on contemporary language use combined with more recent compounds of Greek and Latin words. The earliest Greek single-banked galleys are called triaconters and penteconters, for later galleys with more than one row of oars, the terminology is based on Latin numerals with the suffix -reme from rēmus, oar. A monoreme has one bank of oars, a two and a trireme three. Since the maximum banks of oars was three, any expansion above that did not refer to additional banks of oars, but of additional rowers for every oar. Quinquereme was literally a five-oar, but actually meant that there were several rowers to certain banks of oars which made up five lines of oar handlers, for simplicity, they have by many modern scholars been referred to as fives, sixes, eights, elevens, etc. Anything above six or seven rows of rowers was not common, any galley with more than three or four lines of rowers is often referred to as a polyreme. Oared military vessels built on the British Isles in the 11th to 13th centuries were based on Scandinavian designs, many of them were similar to birlinns, close relatives of longship types like the snekkja. By the 14th century, they were replaced with balingers in southern Britain while longship-type Irish galleys remained in use throughout the Middle Ages in northern Britain, Medieval and early modern galleys used a different terminology than their ancient predecessors
2. Hellenistic-era warships – From the 4th century BC on, new types of oared warships appeared in the Mediterranean Sea, superseding the trireme and transforming naval warfare. Ships became increasingly larger and heavier, including some of the largest wooden ships ever constructed, while the wealthy Successor kingdoms in the East built huge warships, Carthage and Rome, in the intense naval antagonism during the Punic Wars, relied mostly on medium-sized vessels. At the same time, smaller naval powers employed an array of small and fast craft, following the establishment of complete Roman hegemony in the Mediterranean after the battle of Actium, the nascent Roman Empire faced no major naval threats. Most of the warships of the era were distinguished by their names, which were compounds of a number, thus the English term quinquereme derives from Latin quinque-rēmis and has the Greek equivalent πεντ-ήρης. Both are compounds featuring a prefix meaning five, Latin quinque, the Roman suffix is from rēmus, oar, five-oar. As the vessel cannot have had only five oars, the word must be a figure of speech meaning something else, there are a number of possibilities. The -ηρης occurs only in form, deriving from ἐρέσσειν. As rower is eretēs and oar is eretmon, -ērēs does not mean either of those but, being based on the verb and this meaning is no clearer than the Latin. Whatever the five-oar or the five-row originally meant was lost with knowledge of the construction, and is, from the 5th century on, for the history of the interpretation efforts and current scholarly consensus, see below. In the great wars of the 5th century BC, such as the Persian Wars and the Peloponnesian War, the trireme was propelled by three banks of oars, with one oarsman each. Far less is known with certainty about the construction and appearance of these ships than about the trireme, literary evidence is fragmentary and highly selective, and pictorial evidence unclear. e. that the quadrireme would have four rows of oars, the quinquereme five, etc. However, the appearance of bigger polyremes, made this theory implausible. 20th-century scholarship disproved that theory, and established that the ancient warships were rowed at different levels, with three providing the maximum practical limit. The higher numbers of the fours, fives, etc. were therefore interpreted as reflecting the number of files of oarsmen on each side of the ship, the most common theory on the arrangement of oarsmen in the new ship types is that of double-banking, i. e. Other interpretations of the include a bireme warship with three and two oarsmen on the upper and lower oar banks, or even a monoreme with five oarsmen. The reasons for the evolution of the polyremes are not very clear and this system was also in use in Renaissance galleys, but jars with the evidence of ancient crews continuing to be thoroughly trained by their commanders. The decks of ships were also higher above the waterline, while their increased beam afforded them extra stability. This was an important fact in an age where naval engagements were increasingly decided not by ramming, there were two chief design traditions in the Mediterranean, the Greek and the Punic one, which was later copied by the Romans
3. Ivlia (ship) – Ivlia is a modern reconstruction of an ancient Greek rowing warship with oars at two levels and an important example of experimental archaeology. Between 1989 and 1994, this vessel undertook six comprehensive international historical and geographical expeditions in the footsteps of the ancient seafarers, the main sponsor of construction of the ship was the Black Sea Shipping Company. The ship was constructed in 1989 at the Sochi Naval Shipyard, by a team under shipwright Damir S. Shkhalakhov, ivlia was built from Durmast oak and Siberian larch, the oars are of beech. Technical design of the project was carried out by specialists of the Nikolayev University of Shipbuilding, after processing the available scientific data members of the Odessa Archaeological Museum, under the leadership of prof. PhD Vladimir N. Stanko, proposed the building of a bireme since in antiquity it had been the most widely used vessel in the northern Black Sea region, the expeditions progress was widely covered by the international media. During the time of the voyage, hundreds of articles were published, along with dozens of TV, the ship was regularly visited by official delegations and thousands of tourists. Ivlia also took part in international festivals, «Colombo92», «Brest’92», «Cancal’93». The radio constantly broadcast the call sign. Over six seasons the crew members included more than 200 people – citizens of Russia, Ukraine, Moldova, France, Greece and it is worth noting the high seaworthiness of the bireme, even with tailwinds of up to 7 on the Beaufort scale. The geographical discoveries of antiquity were made on these vessels, suited as they were to long ocean voyages, the data obtained during the six years of voyages are summarized in the articles and books subsequently published by the authors of the project. On the whole, Ivlia’s journey around Europe was a page in the study of Hellenic shipbuilding and seafaring. Schifffahrt und Schiffbau in der Antike, p. 52-64, lAlbum Souvenir de la Fete Brest92, p.7,111,236,257. Historical Maritime Sailing in Models & Reconstruktions, p. 46-49, the Athenian Trireme, p.28 n.2. ISBN 0-521-56419-0 Il Secolo XIX,23.05.1992, in porto, dopo 3 anni dodissea, una triremi russa, Giorgio Carrozi. Eapprodata a Sanremo la triremi dellantica Grecia, et vogue la galere p. 64-65. Ivlia se prepare pour une transatlantique, Severine Le Bourhis, p.15, la galere antique a la conquete de l’Atlantique, Noel Pochet. La Presse de la Manche,14.08.1993, et vogue la galere ukrainienne, Th. Sous le vent de la galere, Cristhine Le Portal, ivlia ou lOdyssee suspendue, Patrick Le Roux, p. 28-29
4. Trireme – A trireme was an ancient vessel and a type of galley that was used by the ancient maritime civilizations of the Mediterranean, especially the Phoenicians, ancient Greeks and Romans. The trireme derives its name from its three rows of oars, manned with one man per oar. The early trireme was a development of the penteconter, an ancient warship with a row of 25 oars on each side, and of the bireme. The word dieres does not appear until the Roman period and it must be assumed the term pentekontor covered the two-level type. Triremes played a role in the Persian Wars, the creation of the Athenian maritime empire. The term is also used to refer to medieval and early modern galleys with three files of oarsmen per side as triremes. Fragments from an 8th-century relief at the Assyrian capital of Nineveh depicting the fleets of Tyre and Sidon show ships with rams and they have been interpreted as two-decked warships, and also as triremes. Modern scholarship is divided on the provenance of the trireme, Greece or Phoenicia, clement of Alexandria in the 2nd century, drawing on earlier works, explicitly attributes the invention of the trireme to the Sidonians. According to Thucydides, the trireme was introduced to Greece by the Corinthians in the late 8th century BC, and the Corinthian Ameinocles built four such ships for the Samians. This was interpreted by later writers, Pliny and Diodorus, to mean that triremes were invented in Corinth, Thucydides meanwhile clearly states that in the time of the Persian Wars, the majority of the Greek navies consisted of penteconters and ploia makrá. Athens was at that time embroiled in a conflict with the island of Aegina. The first clash with the Persian navy was at the Battle of Artemisium, however, the decisive naval clash occurred at Salamis, where Xerxes invasion fleet was decisively defeated. After Salamis and another Greek victory over the Persian fleet at Mycale, the Ionian cities were freed, gradually, the predominance of Athens turned the League effectively into an Athenian Empire. The source and foundation of Athens power was her strong fleet, in addition, as it provided permanent employment for the citys poorer citizens, the fleet played an important role in maintaining and promoting the radical Athenian form of democracy. Athenian maritime power is the first example of thalassocracy in world history, aside from Athens, other major naval powers of the era included Syracuse, Corfu and Corinth. In the subsequent Peloponnesian War, naval battles fought by triremes were crucial in the balance between Athens and Sparta. Based on all archeological evidence, the design of trireme surely pushed the limits of the ancient world. After gathering the proper timbers and materials it was time to consider the fundamentals of the trireme design and these fundamentals included accommodations, propulsion, weight and waterline, center of gravity and stability, strength, and feasibility
5. Liburna – Dated to the 5th or 6th century BC, the image possibly depicts an imaginary battle between Liburnian and Picene fleets. The liburnian was presented as light type of the ship with one row of oars, one mast, one sail, under the prow there was a rostrum made for striking the enemy ships under the sea. By its original form, the liburnian was similar to the penteconter and it had one bench with 25 oars on each side, while in the late Roman Republic, it was equipped with two banks of oars, remaining faster, lighter, and more agile than triremes. The liburnian design was adopted by the Romans and became a key part of Ancient Romes navy, liburnians played a key role in the battle of Actium in Greece, which saw the establishment of Augustus as the undisputed ruler of the Roman world. Liburnians were different from the battle triremes, quadriremes and quinqueremes not because of rowing and it was 109 ft long and 5 m wide with a 1 m draft. Two rows of oarsmen pulled 18 oars per side, the ship could make up to 14 knots under sail and more than 7 under oars. Once the Romans had adopted the liburnian, they proceeded to make a few adaptations to improve the use within the navy. The benefits gained from the addition of rams and protection from more than made-up for the slight loss of speed. Besides the construction, the ships required that the regular Roman military unit be simplified in order to function more smoothly, each ship operated as an individual entity, so the more complicated organization normally used was not necessary. Within the navy, there were probably liburnian of several varying sizes, gradually liburnians became a general name for the different types of the Roman ships, attached also to cargo ships in Late Antiquity. Tacitus and Suetonius were using it as a synonym for the battle ship, in inscriptions it was mentioned as the last in class of the battle ships, hexeres, penteres, quadrieres, trieres, liburna. The Liburna gave its name to a cove on the west coast of Tuscany. The coves name was transformed to Livorna and then to Livorno - the name of a significant port city which developed at that location long after this type of ship disappeared
6. Galleass – The galleass were ships developed from large merchant galleys. Converted for military use they were higher, larger and slower than regular galleys and they had up to 32 oars, each worked by up to 5 men. They usually had three masts and a forecastle and aftcastle, much effort was made in Venice to make these galleasses as fast as possible to compete with regular galleys. The gun-deck usually ran over the heads, but there are also pictures showing the opposite arrangement. Later, round ships and galleasses were replaced by galleons and ships of the line originated in Atlantic Europe. The first Venetian ship of the line was built in 1660, in the North Sea and western Baltic, the term refers to small commercial vessels similar to a flat-sterned herring Buss. Media related to Galleasses at Wikimedia Commons
7. Dromon – A dromon was a type of galley and the most important warship of the Byzantine navy from the 5th to 12th centuries AD, when they were succeeded by Italian-style galleys. It was developed from the ancient liburnian, which was the mainstay of the Roman navy during the Empire, Middle English dromond and Old French dromont are derived from the dromon, and described any particularly large medieval ship. The exact reasons for the abandonment of the ram are unclear, depictions of upward-pointing beaks in the 4th-century Vatican Vergil manuscript may well illustrate that the ram had already been replaced by a spur in late Roman galleys. Certainly by the early 7th century, the original function had been forgotten. As for the lateen sail, various authors have in the past suggested that it was introduced into the Mediterranean by the Arabs, not only the triangular, but also the quadrilateral version were known, used for centuries in parallel with square sails. These 6th-century dromons were single-banked ships of probably 50 oars, arranged with 25 oars on each side, again unlike Hellenistic vessels, which used an outrigger, these extended directly from the hull. The Greek scholar Christos Makrypoulias suggests an arrangement of 25 oarsmen beneath and 35 on the deck on either side for a dromon of 120 rowers, the overall length of these ships was probably about 32 meters. The ship was steered by means of two quarter rudders at the stern, which housed a tent that covered the captains berth. The prow featured an elevated forecastle, below which the siphon for the discharge of Greek fire projected, a pavesade, on which marines could hang their shields, ran around the sides of the ship, providing protection to the deck crew. Larger ships also had wooden castles on either side between the masts, similar to those attested for the Roman liburnians, providing archers with elevated firing platforms. The bow spur was intended to ride over an enemy ships oars, breaking them and rendering it helpless against missile fire, the four galeai ships uncovered in the Yenikapi excavations, dating to the 10th–11th centuries, are of uniform design and construction, suggesting a centralized manufacturing process. They have a length of about 30 metres, and are built of European Black Pine, a smaller, single-bank ship, the monērēs or galea, with ca.60 men as crew, was used for scouting missions but also in the wings of the battle line. Three-banked dromons are described in a 10th-century work dedicated to the parakoimōmenos Basil Lekapenos, for cargo transport, the Byzantines usually commandeered ordinary merchantmen as transport ships or supply ships. These appear to have been mostly sailing vessels, rather than oared, the Byzantines and Arabs also employed horse-transports, which were either sailing ships or galleys, the latter certainly modified to accommodate the horses. While the dromōn was developed exclusively as a war galley, the chelandion would have had to have a special compartment amidships to accommodate a row of horses, increasing its beam, ahrweiler, Hélène, Byzance et la mer. Tropis VI, 6th International Symposium on Ship Construction in Antiquity, Lamia 1996 proceedings, Athens, Hellenic Institute for the Preservation of Nautical Tradition, pp. 55–85 Campbell, I. C. 111–122, archived from the original on 2012-03-06 Delgado, James P, Ships on Land, in Catsambis, Alexis, Ford, Ben, Hamilton, the Oxford Handbook of Maritime Archaeology, Oxford University Press, pp. 182–191, ISBN 978-0-19-537517-6 Dolley, R. H. The Warships of the Later Roman Empire, The Journal of Roman Studies, Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies,38, 47–53, doi,10. 2307/298170, JSTOR298170 Gardiner, Robert, 900–1025 CE, in Hattendorf, John B
8. Navis lusoria – A navis lusoria is a type of a small military vessel of the late Roman Empire that served as a troop transport. It was powered by about thirty soldier-oarsmen and an auxiliary sail, nimble, graceful, and of shallow draft, such a vessel was used on northern rivers close to the Limes Germanicus, the Germanic border, and thus saw service on the Rhine and the Danube. The Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus mentioned the navis lusoria in his writings, in November 1981, during excavation in the course of a construction of a Hilton Hotel at Mainz, wooden remains were found and identified as parts of an old ship. Before construction resumed three months later, the site yielded remnants of five ships that were dated to the 4th century using dendrochronology. The wrecks were measured, taken apart, and, in 1992, brought to the Museum of Ancient Seafaring of the Romano-Germanic Central Museum for further preservation and study. Scientifically the wrecks were termed Mainz 1 through Mainz 5 and generally referred to as the Mainzer Römerschiffe and they were identified as military vessels that belonged to the Roman flotilla in Germania, the Classis Germanica. The vessels could be classified into two types, namely small troop transports termed navis lusoria and a patrol vessel, the lusoria is narrower than the navis actuaria, an earlier and wider type of Roman cargo vessel. A full-sized reconstructed vessel is on display at the Museum of Ancient Seafaring, Mainz, for the reconstruction of this vessel specifically Mainz 1 and 5 served as templates. The replica measures 21.0 by 2.8 m while the gunwale measures 0.96 m, the planks are 2 cm thick, generally 25 cm long and are carvel-built. The keel is only 5 cm thick and constructed of planks, the frames are placed 33.5 cm apart corresponding to the measuring unit of a pes Drusianus. The frames hold the ship together, the mastframe contains a hole to place the mast. While the ship could be sailed, the method of propulsion was rowing by one open row of oarsmen on each side. The gunwale displays an outside fender and is topped by a covering board, the covering board contains the support for the oars. The protective effect of the gunwales is further extended by the shields of the soldiers which were hung on the outside, boats were steered by a double rudder aft. Sails have not survived the centuries, so their reconstruction relies on ancient depictions, a navis lusoria was crewed by the steersman, two men to handle the sail, and about 30 soldiers who manned the oars. It has been calculated that the narrow and relatively long lusoria could attain a speed of 11 to 13 km/h. The latter museum has been in operation since 1994 and displays replicas of the lusoria and it specializes in Roman shipbuilding and ship transport, in the Germanic provinces and in the whole empire. After the establishment of the castrum of Mogontiacum in 13–12 BC
9. Penteconter – The penteconter, alt. spelling pentekonter and pentaconter, also transliterated as pentecontor or pentekontor, plural penteconters was an ancient Greek galley in use since the archaic period. In an alternative meaning, the term was used for a military commander of fifty men in ancient Greece. The penteconters emerged in an era when there was no distinction between merchant and war ships and they were versatile, long-range ships used for sea trade, piracy and warfare, capable of transporting freight or troops. A penteconter was rowed by fifty oarsmen, arranged in two rows of twenty-five on each side of the ship, a midship mast with sail could also propel the ship under favourable wind. Penteconters were long and sharp-keeled ships, hence described as long vessels and they typically lacked a full deck, and thus were also called unfenced vessels. According to some calculations, penteconters are believed to have been between 28 and 33 m long, approximately 4 m wide, and capable of reaching a top speed of 9 knots. Ancient Greeks also used the triaconter or triacontor, a version of the penteconter with thirty oars. There is an agreement that the trireme, the primary warship of classical antiquity. The penteconter remained in use until the Hellenistic period, when it became complemented and eventually replaced by other designs, such as the lembos, the hemiolia and the liburnians