Category:Georgian words and phrases
Pages in category "Georgian words and phrases"
The following 68 pages are in this category, out of 68 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 68 pages are in this category, out of 68 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Borjgali – Borjgali is a Georgian symbol of the Sun with seven rotating wings over the Christian Tree of Life and is related to the Mesopotamian symbols of eternity. It is also related to the Triskelion, another symbol of eternity. It is usually depicted within the circle symbolizes the Universe. The roots of the Tree go into the past and its branches are for the future. The Tree itself symbolizes the continuity between past, present and the future, the Borjgali is usually placed above the tree and symbolizes the Sun, eternal movement and life. The term Borjgali is believed to derive from Megrelian word ბარჩხალი, some other scholars believe that it has different origins. In old Megrelian borj means time and gal means pass or flow, so the whole phrase would mean the flow of time. Nowadays, the symbol is used in Georgian IDs and passports, as well as on currency, Georgian rugby team players are called ბორჯღალოსნები, which means Men bearing Borjgali
2. Tetri – Tetri is a fractional currency used in the country of Georgia. It was put into circulation in 1995, the name tetri was adopted from the term describing golden, silver or copper coins known in ancient and medieval Georgia. The plural of the term tetri is tetrebi, however, the Georgian language uses the singular form when the quantity is specified, so in practice the plural of tetri is just tetri. Modern coins minted in the Republic of Georgia
3. Chicken tabaka – Chicken tabaka or chicken tapaka is a traditional Georgian dish of a pan-fried chicken which is also popular in other Caucasian cuisines. It also became a restaurant dish in the Soviet cuisine and is found nowadays in many restaurants throughout Eastern Europe. The chicken is fried in a frying pan called tapa. For frying thoroughly, the chicken is flattened out on the pan, in modern cookery, special pan sets with a heavy cover or with a screw press are often used. Chicken tabaka is often seasoned with garlic or dressed with traditional Georgian sauces, such as bazhe, satsivi or tkemali
4. Mdivani – The Mdivani is a Georgian aristocratic family. In the West, the best known bearers of this name were the children of General Zakhari Mdivani and his wife Elizabeth. The five siblings fled to Paris after the Soviet invasion of Georgia in 1921 and he then married his former sister-in-law, Louise Astor Van Alen Mdivani, in 1936, but died later that year in a polo accident. He is buried in the cemetery of St. Columbas Chapel in Middletown, David Mdivani, who married actress Mae Murray, and had a son, Koran David, with her. After he bankrupted her, she divorced him in 1933 and they involved in a fierce custody battle over their child. He was involved with French actress Arletty, David then married Sinclair Oil heiress Virginia Sinclair in 1944, and they had a son, Michael. Alexis Mdivani, who married Louise Astor Van Alen in 1931 and he died in an automobile accident. Isabelle Roussadana Mdivani, aka Roussie or Roussy, a sculptor, she married the Spanish painter Jose Maria Sert in 1928. Nina Mdivani, who was married to Charles Henry Huberich, a Stanford professor and lawyer, on 18 August 1936 she married Denis Conan Doyle, a son of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, the creator of Sherlock Holmes. After Deniss death on 9 March 1955, she married Anthony Harwood, the word Mdivani in Georgian means Secretary. Polikarp Mdivani Marina Mdivani How an Early Hollywood Family Became the Original Kardashians
5. Satsivi – Satsivi is a food paste in Georgian cuisine made primarily from walnuts and is used in various recipes. The term satsivi is also used as a name for a variety of poultry, fish. The varieties of sauce are numerous, and Georgian cuisine alone boasts of dozens of them. Bazhe is the most versatile of Georgian walnut sauces, made either red wine vinegar or pomegranate juice. As is typical of the Georgian palette, this sauce is slightly tart, satsivi is a Georgian sauce made of walnuts and served cold, either as a dipping sauce for bread or sauce for boiled or fried game or fish. Traditionally, satsivi is made of walnuts, water, garlic, a combination of dried herbs, vinegar, cayenne pepper, boiled turkey or chicken pieces submerged in satsivi is a staple of winter holiday feasts. The dish as a whole is also referred to as satsivi. There are also varieties of this dish made with eggplants or cauliflower. A similar dish of boiled chicken with walnut paste is known as Circassian chicken in Turkish, Levantine, and Egyptian cuisine
6. Tamada – A tamada is a Georgian toastmaster at a Georgian supra or at a wedding, corresponding to the symposiarch at the Greek symposion or the thyle at the Anglo-Saxon sumbel. At all supras regardless of size, there is a tamada, or toastmaster, Georgians like to say that the tamada is dictator of the table, but it would be more appropriate to compare him to a leader or even a teacher. At the Georgian table, a tamada is considered to help bridge the gap between past, present and future, toasting ancestors and descendants as well as the guests at the table. A toast can be proposed only by a tamada, the rest are to develop the idea, some toasts take a traditional form, for example, for some toasts all men have to stand up and drink wine in silence. In many cases, however, the guests vie to say something more original and emotional than the speaker. Historically the tamada had more control over the table than he does today, for example, members of the supra were supposed to ask permission before leaving the table and the party. If they got the permission they could be toasted by the tamada, if the first toast is to the tamada, it is proposed by someone else, generally by the host, who proposes the nomination of the tamada. If the supra is very small, in home with only a few guests, the role of tamada wont be specially assigned. At very large occasions, such as wedding or funeral banquets, the tamada is chosen in advance by the family, at mid-size occasions, however, the people of the table themselves choose the tamada. The choice depends on several factors, there may be a senior person at the table to whom the role naturally falls. In some groups there will be one man who regularly is the tamada because he enjoys it and is good at it, sometimes groups of friends who gather frequently will rotate the responsibility of being tamada. Others express agreement and, if Kote raises no serious objections, the supra participants do the same. The newly toasted tamada initiates new toasts from then on and it might be the case, however, that Kote doesnt want to be tamada. Perhaps he feels that the person is suggesting his name ought to be the tamada. Maybe he was tamada last night and has a hangover, or is driving and cant drink, or would like to leave the gathering early and he would refuse the job, perhaps pleading some excuse. Following the proposal of this first toast, each member of the supra toasts the tamada with a phrase or two and drinks his glass. On this toast people drink quite quickly, almost in unison, some frequently heard phrases on this first toast include “Kotes Gaumarjos”, where Kote is the name of the person who will be tamada, or “Kargad chaatarebinos es supra”. There is only one common circumstance where the first toast is not to the tamada, in that case, the host simply assumes the role, as noted above, and proposes the first toast to a particular theme
7. Chichilaki – The chichilaki is a Georgian traditional Christmas tree made from dried hazelnut or walnut branches that are shaved to form a small coniferous tree. These pale-colored ornaments differ in height from 20 cm to 3 meters, chichilakis are most common in the Guria and Samegrelo regions near the Black Sea, but they can also be found in some stores around the capital of Tbilisi. The traditional making of chichilakis is an important part of the Georgian Orthodox Christmas, the Georgians believe that the shaved tree resembles the famous beard of St. Basil the Great, who is thought to visit people during Christmas similar to the Santa Claus tradition. It is also believed that the chichilakis represent the tree of life, every year, people flock to stalls to buy chichilakis and decorate them with small fruits and berries. Apples, pomegranates, and madder are attached to the tree as offerings to heaven for a bountiful harvest, the chichilakis are then ceremoniously burned on the day before the Georgian Orthodox Epiphany on 19 January to symbolize the passing of the previous years troubles. Some families in Samegrelo purchase chichilakis for relatives who have recently died, during the Soviet occupation of Georgia in 1921, the sale of chichilakis was banned because the Soviets viewed it as a religious symbol. While they allowed the Georgians to keep aspects of their culture. This decree stayed in effect until the fall of Soviet rule in Georgia in 1990, since then, the popularity of chichilakis has risen. The use of the chichilaki as a Christmas decoration is believed by the Georgians to be more environment-friendly than the cutting of pine trees. Since they are made from pruned branches, it is considered beneficial to the health of the trees, the Georgian government has taken steps to support the preservation of the environment by placing a costly fine on anyone found harvesting and transporting pine trees outside of the registered farms. The fine is set at about US$1,200, three times the monthly salary. They have also improved their forest ranger patrols around the country, in the aftermath of the war with Russia in 2008, the woodlands near the disputed region of South Ossetia were decimated, prompting national mourning by the people of Georgia. Inau “Traditional hazelnut ‘Chichilaki’ popular in Tbilisi”
8. Eristavi – Eristavi was a Georgian feudal office, roughly equivalent to the Byzantine strategos and normally translated into English as duke. In the Georgian aristocratic hierarchy, it was the title of the rank of prince. Holders of the title were ex-officio commanders of a banner, wore a distinctive dress, ring, belt and spear. Some high-ranking eristavis were also titled as eristavt-eristavi, i. e. duke of dukes, erismtavari was a similar title chiefly endowed upon the pre-Bagratid rulers of Iberia and later used interchangeably with the eristavi. These families were known simply as Princes Eristov in Russia. List of Georgian dukes Eristoff, Vodka House of Sidamoni Djavakhishvili, GSE, volume 4, page 192, Tbilisi
9. Kvevri – Kvevri are large earthenware vessels used for the fermentation, storage and ageing of traditional Georgian wine. Resembling large, egg-shaped amphorae without handles, they are buried below ground or set into the floors of large wine cellars. Kvevris vary in size, volumes range from 20 litres to around 10,000,800 is typical, archaeological excavations in the southern Georgian region of Kvemo Kartli uncovered evidence of grape pips and kvevris dating back to the 6th millennium B. C. The villages of Atsana in Guria, Makatubani, Shrosha, Tqemlovana and Chkhiroula in Imereti, artisanal families have passed down the knowledge of this ancient handicraft through the generations. The clay used to manufacture a kvevri must be carefully chosen, the process of making wine in kvevris involves pressing the grapes and then pouring the juice, grape skins, stalks and pips into the kvevri, which is then sealed. The juice is left to ferment into wine for at least five to six months before being decanted and bottled. The pomace which remains is called cacha in Georgian and it is distilled into brandy which is also called chacha. The empty kvevri is then washed, sterilized with lime and re-coated with beeswax, traditional Georgian wines do not represent a uniform style. A common feature is that their vinification is carried in kvevri completely buried in the ground, the most unusual and archaic, out of the traditional Georgian wines are white Kakhetian wine, macerated for several months with the skins, seeds and stems of grapes in buried kvevri. “Kakhetian method is a current of Georgian wine making tradition. From “Kakhetian method, it differs in amount and quality of the chacha used, the Imeretian method uses only part of the chacha, roughly one-tenth, and stems are not used at all. The rest of the process proceeds in basically the same. The result is a much closer to European standards, not as tannic as the traditional Kakhetian wine. Intermediate place between the Kakhetian style and Imeretian style represents the white wine from province Kartli, where the one third of chacha with stems is added to kvevri. In the past, kvevris were also used for storing brandy, grain, butter, cheese, large ceramic storage vessels such as these are made in many countries, but only Georgia, Spain and Portugal use them for wine-making. Wine-makers who use kvevris claim that their wine is stable by nature, rich in tannins, the tannins found in kvevri wine limit protein content and prevent turbidity. Since the Russian market for Georgian wine has dwindled to a trickle, various commercial wineries in Georgia export kvevri wines abroad, and some wine-makers in Europe and America have taken to making their wine in kvevris. In 2013, UNESCO added the traditional Georgian method of making wine in kvevris to its list of cultural heritage
10. Rkatsiteli – Rkatsiteli is a kind of grape used to produce white wine. This ancient vinifera originates in Georgia and is one of the oldest grape varieties, in Georgia, clay vessels were found with seeds of Rkatsiteli grapes which date back to 3000 BC. Rkatsiteli was popular in the Soviet Union prior to its fall, there it was used to make everything from table wine to liqueurs to Sherry-like fortified wine. Prior to President Gorbachevs vine pull scheme, it was possibly the worlds most widely planted white wine grape, in Kakheti it was particularly known for its sweet dessert wines fashioned in the same manner as port wine. There were many attempts to create a wine from the grape. It is still preferred in Russia and it is also planted, in small amounts, in Australia and the eastern United States, mainly in the Finger Lakes region of New York state, New Jersey and in Virginia. There have also some experimental plantings in California, The Grand Valley AVA of Colorado. The high acidity of the grape is prone to make the wines excessively tart so winemakers try to pick the grapes as late as possible in order to maximize the sugar balance to offset the acidity, in most regions of Eastern Europe harvest is typically in mid October. Rkatsiteli makes noticeably acidic, balanced white wine with spicy and floral notes in the aroma. and Sweet white, luscious, with honey and fantastic nuts, caramel and burnt sugar complexity on the finish – it’s like Sauternes versus PX
11. Saperavi – Saperavi is an acidic, teinturier-type grape variety native to Georgia, where it is used to make many of the regions distinctive wines, along with the Alexandreuli and Rkatsiteli varieties. It is also grown in quantities in the Niagara and Finger Lakes regions of New York State. Leaves are 3-lobed, large, and roundish, berries are medium to large, elliptic, dark bluish, and thin-skinned, with a maturation period of approximately 5 months and moderate productivity. Saperavi is also the name for a red wine made from the Saperavi grape variety grown in areas of Kakheti. It is a wine with a characteristic bouquet, a harmonious taste. Its strength is 10. 5-12. 5% and titrated acidity 5-7%, at the international wine competitions this wine received one gold and one silver medal. It has been produced since 1886, Saperavi grapes produce substantial deep red wines that are suitable for extended aging. It has the potential to high alcohol levels, and is used extensively for blending with other lesser varieties. It is the most important grape variety used to make Georgian red wines, Saperavi is a hardy variety, known for its ability to handle extremely cold weather, and is popular for growing in high altitude and inland regions. It is a grape, containing the red anthrocyanin within the grape pulp as well as the skin. The Saperavi grape originated in the Kakheti region of Eastern Georgia, Georgia is known as one of the oldest winemaking regions of the world, with archeological research showing evidence of cultivation dating to 6000-5000 BC. The Saperavi variety is one of the oldest cultivars from the region, Saperavi grapes are used predominantly in Georgia, but have spread to other regions of Eastern Europe more recently. Saperavi cultivars are also being grown in New World wine regions, notably in Finger Lakes and it has shown promising results for a few growers in Australia, where it was pioneered in the King Valley Region of North East Victoria. Notable Georgian wines made exclusively or predominately with Saperavi grapes, Saperavi, one of the most common wines made from this grape, not specific to any region. Kindzmarauli, a wine, aged for 2 years, produced in the Kvareli region. Grapes are harvested later than for most other wines made from Saperavi, akhasheni, a semi-sweet wine similar to Kindzmarauli, produced in the Gurdzhaani region. Mukuzani, a dry wine, aged for 3 years, produced in the Mukuzani region and it is sourced from the best of the local vintages, and is considered as one of the best of the Georgian wines. Napareuli, a dry wine, aged for 3 years, produced in the Napareuli microzone and it is sourced from the best of the local vintages, and is considered as one of the best of the Georgian wines