Pages in category "Gila"
The following 21 pages are in this category, out of 21 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 21 pages are in this category, out of 21 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Humpback chub – The humpback chub Gila cypha, is a federally protected fish that lived originally in fast waters of the Colorado River system in the United States. The body is almost entirely scaleless, retaining only about 80 mid-lateral scales along the lateral line, the fish is very streamlined, with a thin caudal peduncle and a deeply forked tail. The back is a light gray, the sides silver. The dorsal fin usually has nine rays, and the anal fin 10 or more, maximum recorded length is 38 cm. The humpback chub mostly consumes invertebrates and, to a lesser extent and they feed at all levels from the bottom to the surface. The species spawns from April through June, at temperatures of 19-21 °C. The males develop nuptial tubercles on the head and paired fins, the fish spawn in slower-moving backwaters, typically over a substrate of cobbles or boulders. Young fish stay near shore and in areas, preferring slightly more turbid water. The humpback chubs population in the Colorado has been reduced dramatically, primarily due to habitat loss, the fishs status as an endangered species has inspired a number of costly and controversial management measures, such as altering the operation of Glen Canyon Dam and removal of non-native predators. The humpback chub has a body, with a concave skull on its dorsum. The caudal peduncle is thin and somewhat pencil-like but not greatly elongated, the head length divided by the caudal peduncle is less than 5.0. The scales are embedded deeply across the surface of the fish, the fins are large and curved, and the origin of the dorsal are about equidistant between the snout and caudal fin base. The mouth is inferior, and overhung by the snout, the pharyngeal arch is small, with a short lower ramus. The Humpback Chub is found in Arizona at and around Coconino County, Colorado, in general, species persists only in turbulent, high gradient, canyon-bound reaches of large rivers in the Colorado River Basin. The young prefer shallow, low-velocity nearshore pools in the Little Colorado River, in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, young-of-year are found in backwater and other near-shore, slow-velocity sites, with similar ontogenetic tendencies. Adults in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon and in the Upper Basin are associated with large eddy complexes, Humpback chub appear to be more active at night. The population in the Grand Canyon has been infested with the parasitic copepod Lernaea cyprinacea. Kaeding and Zimmermann also reported 13 species of bacteria, six protozoans, the historic range of the humpback chub is uncertain, but the distribution was presumably more contiguous than in the present
2. Bonytail chub – It is now the rarest of the endemic big-river fishes of the Colorado River. There are 20 species in the genus Gila, seven of which are found in Arizona, a bonytail chub can grow to 62 cm long. Like many other fishes, its coloring tends to be darker above and lighter below. Breeding males have red fin bases and they have a streamlined body and a terminal mouth. Bonytail chubs have bodies that sometimes arch into a smooth, predorsal hump, while their skull is quite concave, their caudal peduncle is thin, and almost looks like a pencil. The coloration of bonytail chubs is usually dark dorsally and lighter ventrally, however, in clear waters. During breeding season, males and females have distinct coloration as well, mature males have bright red-orange lateral bands between their paired fins, while females have a more subdued coloration that is described with the males. The bonytail chub was once found in the Colorado River basin in many U. S. states, including Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming. It also occurred in the part of the basin in Mexico and this fish species experienced the most abrupt decline of any of the long-lived fishes native to the main-stems of the Colorado River system. No remaining wild population is self-sustaining and it is functionally extinct and its survival currently relies on release of hatchery-produced fish, several hatcheries maintain this species. They may still be found in the Green River of Utah, Gila elegans was added to the US list of endangered species on April 23,1980 and was first recognized as Endangered in 1986 by IUCN. In 2013, its IUCN status was upgraded to Critically Endangered, there is contention about the reintroduction of the bonytail chub. Some are concerned about the amount of used to increase stream flows that are required for adequate bonytail chub habitat. Bass fishermen are concerned about facilitating the recovery of the bonytail chub by the removal of smallmouth bass, bonytail chub prefer backwaters with rocky or muddy bottoms and flowing pools, although they have been reported in swiftly moving water. They are mostly restricted to rocky canyons today, but were historically abundant in the downstream sections of rivers. Young bonytail chubs typically eat aquatic plants, while adults feed mostly on fish, algae, plant debris. Bonytail chubs are long-lived and may reach an age of up to 50 years, little is known about their reproductive habits, but they are thought to spawn in mid-summer and perhaps hybridize with both roundtail and humpback chubs. Spawning in Lake Mohave has been observed during May, while in the upper Green River, it occurs in the months of June, eggs are laid randomly over the bottom, and no parental care occurs
3. Arroyo chub – The arroyo chub is a cyprinid fish found only in the coastal streams of southern California, United States. The shape of the arroyo chub is somewhat chunky, with a deep body, the eyes are larger than average for cyprinids. Coloration ranges from silver to gray to green above, shading to white below. The dorsal fin has 8 rays, while the anal fin has 7. Males have larger fins than females, and, during the breeding season and this is a small fish, with most adults in the 7–10 cm length range, and a maximum of 12 cm. Omnivorous, their diet includes algae, insects, and crustaceans, studies of fish from warmwater streams shows a preponderance of algae in the stomach, and they are also known to feed on the roots of Azolla. In cooler streams, molluscs and caddisfly larvae predominate in the diet, Arroyo chub habitat is primarily the warm streams of the Los Angeles Plain, which are typically muddy torrents during the winter, and clear quiet brooks in the summer, possibly drying up in places. They are found both in slow-moving and fast-moving sections, but generally deeper than 40 cm. They are native to Los Angeles, Santa Margarita, San Gabriel, San Luis Rey, many of the original populations have been extirpated, but it has recently been reestablished in the Arroyo Seco, a tributary of the Los Angeles River. It has been found in the Los Angeles River as recently as 1978, the Mojave and Cuyama River populations extend into the ranges of related fishes, and hybridize with Mojave chub and California roach, respectively. The species epithet was chosen in honor of C. R. Orcutt and it is often misspelled as orcutti, although this is still considered a valid synonym, and is for instance used by Moyle in his book. Moyle, Inland Fishes of California, pp. 130–131 Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, central Arroyo Stream Restoration Program cf, Chub in the Arroyo Seco
4. Chihuahua chub – The Chihuahua chub, or charalito Chihuahua is a species of ray-finned fish in the Cyprinidae family. It is found in Chihuahua, Mexico and in New Mexico, IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. International Union for Conservation of Nature, froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds
5. Gila (genus) – Gila is a genus of fish belonging to the family Cyprinidae, native to the United States and Mexico. Species of Gila are collectively referred to as western chubs, the chiselmouth is a close relative. Several members of the genus are endangered or extinct due to loss of habitat causing by diversion or overuse of water resources, particularly in the western United States. Simons, Andrew M. & Mayden, Richard L. Phylogenetic Relationships of the Creek Chubs and the Spine-Fins, an Enigmatic Group of North American Cyprinid Fishes
6. Headwater chub – The Headwater Chub is a species of fish in the Cyprinidae family. It is found in Arizona and New Mexico, the body of the Headwater Chub is thick and chunky to streamlined but not markedly attenuate. The maximum size of the fish is about 50 cm females are about 10–18 cm total length. The coloration of the fish is dark olive-gray or brown above, with a silver side, the longitudinal stripes are often diffuse, and are rarely with dark dorsal-lateral blotches. Scales are developed and cover the body, with the basal radii variable. There are 73-83 lateral scales, with usually 8 dorsal and anal fin rays, similar species include the Humpback Chub and Bonytail Chub, however, these fish have extremely slender caudal peduncles, smaller eyes, angle along anal fin base continuing above the caudal fin. Large individuals have a hump on their nape, and a head which is absent on the Headwater Chub. Gila Nigra are somewhat trout-like in appearance, except they lack an adipose fin, not surprisingly, they are morphologically intermediate between the Roundtail chub and the Gila chub. Headwater Chubs are endemic to the Gila River basin of Arizona and New Mexico where they occupy the middle and headwater reaches of middle-sized streams. Populations have been recognized from the mainstream Gila River in New Mexico and they are also identified from Ash Creek, Tonto Creek, and Spring Creek. In the Verde River system, they inhabit Upper Fossil Creek, East Verde River, adult Headwater Chub occupy cool to warm water in mid- to headwater stretches of mid-sized streams of the Gila River basin. They are associated with deep, near shore pools adjacent to swift riffles and runs, cover consists of root wads, boulders, undercut banks, submerged organic debris, or deep water. In Fossil Creek, they were found in more than 1.8 m deep with velocities under 0.10 meters per second. Substrates they are associated with include gravel, small boulders, preferred water temperature ranges of 20-27 °C with a minimum temperature around 7 °C. Juveniles are associated with shallow, low velocity habitat with overhead cover, in Fossil Creek, Headwater Chub seem to select depths between 0. 9-1.5 m and velocities of 0.15 meters per second and are found over sand substrate. The Headwater Chub are associated with substrates including gravel, small boulders, the preferred water temperature ranges of the Headwater Chub are 20-27 °C with a minimum temperature around 7 °C. Juvenile Headwater Chub are associated with shallow, low velocity habitat with overhead cover, in Fossil Creek, they seem to select depths between 0. 9-1.5 m and velocities of 0.15 mps and are found over sand substrate. The Headwater Chub life span is 8–10 years, the Headwater Chub grow rapidly but growth is dependent on water temperature
7. Roundtail chub – The roundtail chub, Gila robusta, is a cyprinid fish in the Gila genus, of southwestern North America. It is native to the Colorado River drainage basin, including the Gila River and other tributaries and it is part of the “robusta complex”, which includes the Gila robusta robusta, G. r. grahami, and G. r. seminuda. The body of Gila robusta is significantly larger forward of the dorsal fin, the mouth is largish, but does not reach as far as the pupil of the eye, and is overhung by the snout. Color is a grayish brown above, and a lighter shade below, mature males sometimes acquire red-orange lower cheeks and paired fins during breeding season. Roundtail chub can reach almost 49 cm, but usually grow to about 25–30 cm. Recently, it has recorded at up to 43 cm in length. Roundtail chub are also described to be “trout-like” because they possess a large mouth with the lower lip outlined in black, however, they lack the adipose fins found on trout species. This species is variable, and formerly accounted as several species. It is also found in the Gila River and the Rio Yaqui Roundtail chub is very prolific in nature, Roundtail chub is a voracious predator, consuming large amounts of fish, crayfish, frogs, and insects. Roundtail chub adults primarily consume aquatic and terrestrial insects, other fishes, Roundtail chub juveniles eat smaller insects, crustaceans, and algae. The decreasing population of the roundtail chub is primarily the result of loss as well as predation and competition by non-native fish. Although the populations in the Salt and Verde Rivers were stable ten years ago, recent conservation efforts include more research to determine the mechanisms of their sudden disappearance, and population surveys conducted by the Arizona Game and Fish and US Forest Service. Arizona Game and Fish Department considers roundtail chub a sport fish and they put up a strong fight for anglers, and the meat is described as firm, white and very mild tasting. Intermuscular bones or floating bones are present, which can be cut out prior to cooking, Gila robusta is a candidate endangered species of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, under the Endangered Species Act criteria. Ira La Rivers, Fishes and Fisheries of Nevada, pp. 388–390 Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds
8. Thicktail chub – The thicktail chub was a type of minnow that inhabited the lowlands and weedy backwaters of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers in the Central Valley of California. It was once abundant in lakes, marshes, ponds, slow-moving stretches of river, and, during years of heavy run-off. The thicktail chub was one of the most common fish in California, within Native American middens it represents 40% of the fish. The chub was a food of the native Indian peoples of Clear Lake. A heavy-bodied fish with a tail and a small, cone-shaped head. It could reach a length of ten inches. Although little is known about its behavior, it was carnivorous, feeding on small fish. The primary cause of the thicktailed chub’s extinction was the conversion of much of the Central Valley to agricultural use, most of its habitat was destroyed by the drainage of sloughs and marshes, dam-building, and water diversion for irrigation. All this resulted in the loss of the water the species preferred. Competition from exotic species also contributed to its extinction, the last known example was caught on April 13,1957
9. Yaqui chub – The Yaqui chub is a species of freshwater fish in the Cyprinidae family. It is found in northern Mexico and the United States, the Yaqui chub is a medium-sized minnow fish that historically occurred in streams of Rios Matape, Sonora, and the Yaqui systems of Sonora, Mexico. It is one of the five species of the Gila genus in Arizona, the Yaqui chub has a short and rounded snout, which causes the mouth to be small and slightly subterminal. It has large eyes placed on a head, placed on a deep body. This is different from the portion of the body, which is much thinner. The Yaqui chub has enlarged scales that are roughly imbricated, coloration is usually dark overall, but sometimes has a lighter underside. The Yaqui chubs lateral bands are underdeveloped, making them difficult to observe. However, a vertically placed, triangle-shaped spot is present on the caudal fin. Very few Yaqui chub can grow to about 17.8 cm long and this fish can also be found in the San Bernardino and Leslie Canyon National Wildlife Refuges of Cochise County in Arizona. Specifically in the SBNWR, the current distribution of the Yaqui chub ranges from Leslie Creek, to the House, Twin, North, and Mesquite Ponds, the Yaqui Chub heavily rely on the artesian wells and springs of the SBNWR. Habitat, Deep, vegetated pools of creeks and spring runs, when available, Yaqui chub are known to eat aquatic insects and small fish, however, Yaqui chub consume algae, terrestrial insects, and arachnids more often. Although Yaqui chub breed sporadically in the summer, young usually spawn around March, Fish have a distinct coloration during the breeding season, males turn into a “steely-blue” color, while the females become a drearier, yellowish-brown color. The U. S. population of the Yaqui chub is low, however, there are still several threats present, including, increased aquifer pumping, reduction of flows in streams, predation of nonnative fishes, overgrazing, and successive erosion. Protection of the San Bernardino aquifers, and observation of nonnative fishes near the stream must be taken into account in order for this species to continue to exist. However, some measures have been taken in an attempt for Yaqui chub conservation. In 1980, the Nature Conservancy purchased the San Bernardino Ranch and these places bought by the conservancy were then sold to the U. S. Fish & Wildlife service, to be established as National Wildlife Refuges. Soon after, a “Recovery Plan for the Endangered and Threatened fishes of the Rio Yaqui” was organized, the plan’s main goal was to keep the habitats that the Yaqui Chub are currently occupying stable, which includes the habitats in Mexico and Arizona. The plan also involved conducting extensive research on the biology and habitat requirements for the Yaqui chub, contreras-Balderas, S. & Almada-Villela, P.1996