Castle of Evoramonte
The Castle of Evoramonte, alternately spelled Évora Monte or Évoramonte, is a Portuguese castle in the civil parish of Evoramonte, municipality of Estremoz in the former district of Évora. Initiated in 1160, in the Gothic period, it was enlarged in centuries in the Manueline style, since 1910, it has been listed as a Portuguese National monument. Sometime during the 12th century, the region of Évora Monte was conquered from the Moors by the forces of Geraldo Sem Pavor, by 1248, a foral was issued to the region to provide incentives for settlement, which was reaffirmed in 1271. Around 1306, King Denis ordered the fortification of the town, it was at time that construction of the castle began. After the rise of John I of Portugal to the Portuguese throne, the castle and associated lands were given to the constable Nuno Álvares Pereira, a new foral was issued in 1516, by King Manuel. The reconstruction campaign during Manuels reign, beginning in 1516, resulted in the fortification with four cylindrical towers defining the perimeter by Francisco de Arruda.
The 1531 Lisbon earthquake destroyed the tower of the medieval castle. This structure was rebuilt by Teodósio I, Duke of Braganza. On 26 May 1834, the Concession of Evoramonte was signed between Miguel of Portugal and his brother Peter VI of Portugal, in the name of his daughter Maria da Glória, ending the Liberal Wars. In 1855 the municipality of Evoramonte was extinguished, and its historical administration divided into the municipalities of Estremoz, Évora, Arraiolos. Between 1930 and 1940, were the first public works to recuperate and renovate the grounds and castle of Evoramonte and these actions, which primarily occurred in 1937, included the restoration of the towers and the consolidation of the parapets. Finally in 1987, electricity was installed on the grounds, on 1 June 1992, under Decree 106F/92, this building was transferred into the stewardship of the Instituto Português do Património Arquitectónico, in order to rehabilitate and monetize the structure. February 2006, marked the beginning of commemorations to celebrate the castles 700 years of existence, the castle crowns the escarpment of Serra d Ossa, with a commanding view of the local and distant routes, dominating one of the largest squares in Portugal, the municipality of Estremoz.
An unusual rectangular building, the castle includes circular towers molded into the structure, providing the castle with an aggressive, the building is much larger at the base, and is chamfered to the height of its three storeys, and crowned by large merlons. The three floors are clearly delineated by a cornice at each level, typical of the Manueline style. At various places along the towers are canon emplacements, narrower to the interior. On each storey there is a window, except on the ground floor exposed to the north. In the large salon on the first floor, the vaulted ceiling is supported by four columns
Hospital Real de Todos os Santos
The Hospital Real de Todos os Santos was a major hospital in Lisbon, Portugal. The hospital was built between 1492 and 1504 and was destroyed in the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, along with most of the city. In 1492, after obtaining approval, King John II ordered the building of one of the most important civil and charitative infrastructures in old Lisbon. The Hospital was finished in 1504, during the reign of King Manuel I, the construction of the Hospital was part of a Royal campaign to centralise the health assistance of the most important cities of the Kingdom into general hospitals. Large hospitals were founded in Coimbra, Évora and Braga. The main façade of All-Saints Hospital occupied the eastern side of Rossio Square. Todays Praça da Figueira is located over of the occupied by the old Hospital. The Chapel was located in middle of the ensemble and had a tower in the eastern end of the nave. The main façade of the Hospital had a gallery with buttresses in its ground floor. The entrance of the Chapel was located in the middle of the Hospital façade and was reached by a monumental stairway, contemporary drawings show that the portal of the Chapel was a notable work in Manueline style, the Portuguese version of late Gothic typical of King Manuel Is time.
The rules of the Hospital were granted by King Manuel I in 1504, initially the Hospital had three infirmaries located in the upper storey, where the ill were treated. The groundfloor was occupied by the Hospital personnel, the first floor housed dependencies like the kitchen and pharmacy, as well as rooms for abandoned children and the mentally ill. Initially, it is estimated that the Hospital was capable of housing around 250 people, even though the premises were victim of several fires, the facilities were greatly expanded until the middle of 18th century, when the Hospital had around 12 infirmaries. It was the most important health institution in the city and an important centre for the study of anatomy. Things changed with the massive 1755 earthquake, in which a part of the city was destroyed by the quake itself. The situation was worsened by the fact that the All Saints Hospital was greatly damaged, the government of King Joseph I, headed by the Marquis of Pombal, quickly started rebuilding the Hospital, which was soon treating the ill again.
For some reason, possibly related to financial constraints, the Hospital was never fully rebuilt, the new Hospital was renamed Hospital de São José, paying hommage to King Joseph I. The remnants of the All Saints Hospital were demolished and a new square was created, Rossio Praça da Figueira History of the Hospital by Luís Graça History of the Hospital after 1755 by Rui Prudêncio
Monastery of Santa Cruz (Coimbra)
The Santa Cruz Monastery, best known as Igreja de Santa Cruz, is a National Monument in Coimbra, Portugal. Because the first two kings of Portugal are buried in the church it was granted the status of National Pantheon, founded in 1131 outside the protecting walls of Coimbra, the Santa Cruz Monastery was the most important monastic house during the early days of the Portuguese monarchy. St. Theotonius founded this community of Canons Regular of the Holy Cross of Coimbra, the monastery and church were erected between 1132 and 1223. Its school, with its vast library, was respected in medieval times and was a meeting point for the intellectual. Its scriptorium was used for the consolidation of power by King Afonso Henriques. Nothing remains of the early Romanesque monastery and it is known that it had only one nave and a high tower in the façade, as typical of the Augustinian-Romanesque constructions, but none of those elements subsisted. In the first half of the 16th century, the Monastery was completely renovated by King Manuels order, the architect Diogo de Boitaca was responsible for the layout of the Manueline church and the chapter house with its basket-handled and ribbed ceilings.
Marco Pires gave continuity to the work, with the completion of the church, the Capela de São Miguel, the sacristy dates back to the 17th century and keeps some notable 16th-century canvases. Saint Anthony of Lisbon was a member of the community of canons regular and it was in this capacity that he welcomed the remains of the Franciscan protomartyrs, whose remains were being transported back to Assisi, after their deaths in Morocco. This led to his decision to leave the security and ease of the life of a canon for that of the newly founded Franciscans
The Porto Cathedral is a Roman Catholic church located in the historical centre of the city of Porto, Portugal. It is one of the citys oldest monuments and one of the most important local Romanesque monuments, the cathedral is flanked by two square towers, each supported with two buttresses and crowned with a cupola. The façade lacks decoration and is rather architecturally heterogeneous and it shows a Baroque porch and a beautiful Romanesque rose window under a crenellated arch, giving the impression of a fortified church. The Romanesque nave is narrow and is covered by barrel vaulting. It is flanked by two aisles with a lower vault, the stone roof of the central aisle is supported by flying buttresses, making the building one of the first in Portugal to use this architectonic feature. This first Romanesque building has suffered many alterations but the aspect of the façade has remained romanesque. Around 1333 the Gothic funerary chapel of João Gordo was added, João was a Knight Hospitaller who worked for King Dinis I.
His tomb is decorated with his recumbent figure and reliefs of the Apostles, the external appearance of the Cathedral was greatly altered during Baroque times. In 1772 a new main portal substituted the old Romanesque original, around 1732 Italian architect Nicolau Nasoni added an elegant Baroque loggia to the lateral façade of the Cathedral. During the War of the Oranges whilst the battle at Amarante was taking place a group of Spanish soldiers briefly took control of the Cathedral before being overcome by the locals of the town. A marble plaque with a Magnetite backing now hangs up behind the altar in order to remind everyone of those who lost their lives whilst regaining control of the chapel. In one of the chapels there is a magnificent silver altarpiece, in the 17th century the romanesque apse was torn down and a new one was built in baroque style, decorated with new wall paintings by Nasoni and choir stalls. The altarpiece of the chapel, designed by Santos Pacheco and executed by Miguel Francisco da Silva between 1727 and 1729, is an important work of Portuguese Baroque, the three red marble holy-water fonts, supported by a statue, date from the 17th century.
The baptistery contains a bronze bas-relief by António Teixeira Lopes, depicting the baptism of Christ by John the Baptist, the South transept arm gives access to the Gothic cloister, which is decorated with baroque azulejos by Valentim de Almeida. They depict the life of the Virgin Mary and Ovids Metamorphoses, the remains of the Early-Romanesque ambulatory contain a few sarcophagi. The terrace is decorated with panels by António Vidal. The coffered ceiling of the house was painted with allegories of moral values by Pachini in 1737. Portugal/1 - Europa Romanica, Gerhard N Graf, Ediciones Encuentro, Madrid,1987 Portuguese Institute for Architectural Heritage General Bureau for National Buildings and Monuments
The Monastery of Batalha, literally the Monastery of the Battle, is a Dominican convent in the civil parish of Batalha, in the district of Leiria, in the Centro Region of Portugal. It is one of the best and original examples of Late Gothic architecture in Portugal, the monastery was built to thank the Virgin Mary for the Portuguese victory over the Castilians in the battle of Aljubarrota in 1385, fulfilling a promise of King John I of Portugal. The battle put an end to the 1383–85 Crisis and it took over a century to build, starting in 1386 and ending circa 1517, spanning the reign of seven kings. It took the efforts of fifteen architects, but for seven of them the title was no more than a title bestowed on them. The construction required an enormous effort, using resources of men. New techniques and artistic styles, hitherto unknown in Portugal, were deployed, work began in 1386 by the Portuguese architect Afonso Domingues who continued until 1402. He drew up the plan and many of the structures in the church and his style was essentially Rayonnant Gothic, however there are influences from the English Perpendicular Period.
There are similarities with the façade of York Minster and with the nave and he was succeeded by Huguet from 1402 to 1438. This architect, who was probably of Catalonian descent, introduced the Flamboyant Gothic style. This is manifest in the main façade, the dome of the chapter house, the Founders Chapel, the basic structure of the Imperfect Chapels. He raised the height of the nave to 32.46 m, by altering the proportions he made the interior of the church seem even narrower. He completed the transept but he died before he could finish the Imperfect Chapels, during the reign of Afonso V of Portugal, the Portuguese architect Fernão de Évora continued the construction between 1448 and 1477. He added the Cloister of Afonso V and he was succeeded by the architect Mateus Fernandes the Elder in the period 1480–1515. This master of the Manueline style worked on the portal of the Capelas Imperfeitas, together with the famous Diogo Boitac he realized the tracery of the arcades in the Claustro Real. Work on the convent continued into the reign of John III of Portugal with the addition of the fine Renaissance tribune by João de Castilho, the construction came to a halt, when the king decided to put all his efforts in the construction of the Jerónimos Monastery in Lisbon.
The earthquake of 1755 did some damage, but much greater damage was inflicted by the Napoleonic troops of Marshal Masséna, when the Dominicans were expelled from the complex in 1834, the church and convent were abandoned and left to fall in ruins. In 1840, king Ferdinand II of Portugal started a program of the abandoned and ruined convent. The restoration would last till the years of the 20th century
This innovative style synthesizes aspects of Late Gothic architecture with influences of the Spanish Plateresque style, Mudéjar, Italian urban architecture, and Flemish elements. It marks the transition from Late Gothic to Renaissance, the construction of churches and monasteries in Manueline was largely financed by proceeds of the lucrative spice trade with Africa and India. Varnhagen named the style after King Manuel I, whose reign coincided with its development, although the period of this style did not last long, it played an important part in the development of Portuguese art. The influence of the style outlived the king, celebrating the newly maritime power, it manifested itself in architecture and extended into other arts such as sculpture, works of art made of precious metals and furniture. This decorative style is characterized by virtuoso complex ornamentation in portals, columns, in its end period it tended to become excessively exuberant as in Tomar. Several elements appear regularly in these intricately carved stoneworks, elements used on ships, elements from the sea, such as shells and strings of seaweed.
Botanical motifs such as branches, oak leaves, poppy capsules, corncobs. Symbols of Christianity such as the cross of the Order of Christ, the cross of this order decorated the sails of the Portuguese ships. When King Manuel I died in 1521, he had funded 62 construction projects, much original Manueline architecture in Portugal was lost or damaged beyond restoration in the 1755 Lisbon earthquake and subsequent tsunami. In Lisbon, the Ribeira Palace, residence of King Manuel I, the city, still has outstanding examples of the style in the Jerónimos Monastery and in the small fortress of the Belém Tower. Both are located close to other in the Belém neighbourhood. The portal of the Church of Nossa Senhora da Conceição Velha, outside Lisbon, the church and chapter house of the Convent of the Order of Christ at Tomar is a major Manueline monument. In particular, the window of the chapter house, with its fantastic sculptured organic. Other major Manueline monuments include the arcade screens of the Royal Cloister and the Unfinished Chapels at the Monastery of Batalha, civil buildings in Manueline style exist in Évora and the Castle of Évoramonte of 1531), Viana do Castelo, Guimarães and some other towns.
Its influence is apparent in southern Spain, the Canary Islands, North Africa, turner, J. Grove Dictionary of Art, MacMillan Publishers Ltd. 1996, ISBN 0-19-517068-7 The Rough Guide to Portugal, March 2005, 11th edition, ISBN 1-84353-438-X Smith, the Art of Portugal 1500-1800, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London,1968 ISBN 0-297-76096-3
Portuguese Gothic architecture
Portuguese Gothic architecture is the architectural style prevalent in Portugal in the Late Middle Ages. As in other parts of Europe, Gothic style slowly replaced Romanesque architecture in the period between the late 12th and the 13th century, between the late 15th and early 16th century, Gothic was replaced by Renaissance architecture through an intermediate style called Manueline. Gothic architecture was brought to Portugal by the Cistercian Order, the first fully Gothic building in Portugal is the church of the Monastery of Alcobaça, a magnificent example of the clear and simple architectural forms favoured by the Cistercians. The church was built between 1178 and 1252 in three phases, and seems inspired by the Abbey of Clairvaux, in the Champagne and its three aisles are very tall and slender, giving an exceptional impression of height. The whole church is covered by rib vaulting and the chapel has an ambulatory. The vault of the ambulatory is externally supported by flying buttresses, typical features of Gothic architecture, after the foundation of Alcobaça, the Gothic style was chiefly disseminated by mendicant orders.
Mendicant Gothic churches usually had a nave covered with wooden roof. These churches lacked towers and were devoid of architectural decoration. Mendicant Gothic was adopted in several churches built all over the country, for instance in Sintra, Lourinhã. Many of the Romanesque cathedrals were modernised with Gothic elements, the Romanesque nave of Oporto Cathedral is supported by flying buttresses, one of the first built in Portugal. The apse of Lisbon Cathedral was totally remodelled in the first half of the 14th century, the ambulatory has a series of radiant chapels illuminated with large windows, contrasting with the dark Romanesque nave of the cathedral. An important transitional building is Évora Cathedral, built during the 13th century, even though its floorplan, façade and elevation are inspired by Lisbon Cathedral, its forms are already Gothic. Several Gothic cloisters were built and can still be found in the Cathedrals of Oporto, Lisbon and Évora as well as in monasteries like Alcobaça, Santo Tirso and the Convent of the Order of Christ.
In the early 15th century, the building of the Monastery of Batalha, sponsored by King John I, after 1402, the works were trusted to Master Huguet, of unknown origin, who introduced the Flamboyant Gothic style to the project. The whole building is decorated with Gothic pinnacles, large windows with intrincate tracery, the main portal has a series of archivolts decorated with a multitude of statues, while the tympanum has a relief showing Christ and the Evangelists. The Founders Chapel and the Chapter House have elaborate star-ribbed vaulting, Batalha influenced 15th-century workshops like those of Guarda Cathedral, Silves Cathedral and monasteries in Beja and Santarém. Another Gothic variant was the so-called Mudéjar-Gothic, which developed in Portugal towards the end of the 15th century, the name Mudéjar refers to the influence of Islamic art in the Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula, specially in the Middle Ages. as well as tile decoration. Examples include the portico of St Francis Church of Évora, the courtyard of the Sintra Royal Palace and several churches and palaces in Évora, Arraiolos, Beja, múdejar eventually intermingled with the Manueline style in the early 16th century
The Cathedral of Braga is a Roman Catholic church in the northern city of Braga, Portugal. Due to its history and artistic significance, it is one of the most important buildings in the country. It is the seat of the Archdiocese of Braga, the Diocese of Braga dates from the 3rd century AD, being one of the oldest in the peninsula and the centre for the Christianisation of Gallaecia. When Roman power was being dissolved by invading Germanic tribes, Braga became the capital of the Suebi Kingdom, Bishop Martin of Dumio, a great religious figure of the time, converted the Suebi to Catholicism around 550. The importance of Braga diminished during Visigoth times, and after the arrival of the Moors it lost its bishop seat. The bishopric of Braga was restored around 1071, after the city was back into Christian hands, and Bishop Pedro started to build a cathedral, consecrated in 1089. Starting in 1093, the County of Portugal was ruled by Count Henry of Burgundy who, together with Bishop Geraldo de Moissac, the archbishop of Braga had power over a large region in Northwestern Iberia, including most of Portugal and part of Galicia, in today Spain.
Construction on the cathedral was resumed and lasted until the middle of the 13th century. The original 12th century-building was built in the Burgundian Romanesque style of the church of Cluny. It influenced many other churches and monasteries in Portugal in that period, in times the cathedral was greatly modified, so that today it is a mix of Romanesque, Moorish and baroque styles. The figures of one archivolt, with hens, foxes and a minstrel, may be telling a moralistic song like the Roman de Renart, between 1486 and 1501, an entrance gallery in late gothic style was built preceding the main portal. The galilee has ribbed vaulting and is decorated with statues and gargoyles, the beautiful manueline metal gate was originally in the interior of the cathedral, but was moved to the galilee in the 18th century. In the early 16th century, Archbishop Diogo de Sousa modified the main romanesque portal, the upper part of the façade and towers were totally modernised in the 18th century and are unremarkable.
The Southern façade of the cathedral has an interesting romanesque portal, notable is the main chapel of the apse, rebuilt in 1509 under Archbishop Diogo de Sousa by basque architect João de Castilho. The exterior of the chapel has beautiful late gothic and manueline tracery with gargoyles and pinnacles, Braga Cathedral has three aisles covered by a wooden roof, a transept and five Eastern chapels in the apse. None of the chapels is original romanesque anymore, the chapel is manueline. In the North wall outside of the cathedral there is a chapel, of early romanesque design. This chapel was left outside of the cathedral, perhaps due to a change of design in the 12th century
Cathedral of Funchal
The Cathedral of Our Lady of the Assumption in Sé, Madeira, Portugal is the cathedral of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Funchal, which encompasses all of the Autonomous Region of Madeira. The late fifteenth-century cathedral is one of the few structures that survives virtually intact since the period of colonization of Madeira. The patron of the cathedral is Our Lady of the Assumption The cathedral is designed in a Gothic style and has three naves, the roof of the cathedral features a Mudéjar-inspired design and is of cedar wood. The exterior walls are made of stone from Cabo Girão, the cathedral contains a silver processional cross, donated by King Manuel I of Portugal, considered one of the masterpieces of precious metalwork of Manueline Portugal. A statue of Pope John Paul II is located outside the cathedral, during the 1490s, Manuel I sent architect Pêro Anes or Gil Enes to work on the design of the cathedral of Funchal. The cathedral was complete in 1514. Prior to completion, however, by 1508, when Funchal was elevated to the status of a city, the spire of the bell tower and a few additional details were finalized in 1517-1518.
Diocese of Funchal - Information about the Cathedral Cathedral of Our Lady of the Assumption - gcatholic Diocese do Funchal - Catholic Encyclopedia