Category:Governors of Mexican California
Pages in category "Governors of Mexican California"
The following 16 pages are in this category, out of 16 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 16 pages are in this category, out of 16 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Alta California – Alta California, founded in 1769 by Gaspar de Portolà, was a polity of New Spain and after the Mexican War of Independence in 1822, a territory of Mexico. The region included all of the states of California, Nevada, and Utah. Large areas east of the Sierra Nevada and San Gabriel Mountains were claimed to be part of Alta California, to the southeast, beyond the deserts and the Colorado River, lay the Spanish settlements in Arizona. The areas formerly comprising Alta California were ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that ended the Mexican–American War in 1848, two years later, California joined the union as the 31st state. Other parts of Alta California became all or part of the later U. S. states of Arizona, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, and Wyoming. The Spanish explored the area of Alta California by sea beginning in the 16th century. During the following two centuries there were plans to settle the area, none of which were effectively carried out. Ultimately, New Spain did not have the resources nor population to settle such a far northern outpost. To ascertain the Russian threat a number of Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest were launched, the Spanish Crown funded the construction and subsidized the operation of the missions, with the goal that the relocation, conversion and enforced labor of Native people would bolster Spanish rule. The first Alta California mission and presidio were established by the Franciscan friar Junípero Serra, the following year,1770, the second mission and presidio were founded in Monterey. In 1773 a boundary between the Baja California missions and the Franciscan missions of Alta California was set by Francisco Palóu, the missionary effort coincided with the construction of presidios and pueblos, which were to be manned and populated by Hispanic people. The first pueblo founded was San José in 1777, followed by Los Ángeles in 1781, by law, mission land and property were to pass to the indigenous population after a period of about ten years, when the natives would become Spanish subjects. In the interim period, the Franciscans were to act as mission administrators who held the land in trust for the Native residents, the transfer of property never occurred under the Franciscans. As the number of Spanish settlers grew in Alta California, the boundaries, conflicts between the Crown and the Church and between Natives and settlers arose. State and ecclesiastical bureaucrats debated over authority of the missions and they advocated that the Natives owned property and had the right to defend it. Governor Diego de Borica is credited with defining Alta and Baja Californias official borders, Mexico won independence in 1822, and Alta California became a territory of Mexico. The Spanish and later Mexican governments rewarded retired soldados de cuera with large grants, known as ranchos, for the raising of cattle. Hides and tallow from the livestock were the primary exports of California until the mid-19th century, the construction, ranching and domestic work on these vast estates was primarily done by Native Americans, who had learned to speak Spanish and ride horses
2. Mexico – Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a federal republic in the southern half of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States, to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea, and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost two million square kilometers, Mexico is the sixth largest country in the Americas by total area, Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and a federal district that is also its capital and most populous city. Other metropolises include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana, pre-Columbian Mexico was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations, such as the Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Maya and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, Three centuries later, this territory became Mexico following recognition in 1821 after the colonys Mexican War of Independence. The tumultuous post-independence period was characterized by instability and many political changes. The Mexican–American War led to the cession of the extensive northern borderlands, one-third of its territory. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, the dictatorship was overthrown in the Mexican Revolution of 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the countrys current political system. Mexico has the fifteenth largest nominal GDP and the eleventh largest by purchasing power parity, the Mexican economy is strongly linked to those of its North American Free Trade Agreement partners, especially the United States. Mexico was the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts. By 2050, Mexico could become the fifth or seventh largest economy. The country is considered both a power and middle power, and is often identified as an emerging global power. Due to its culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas. Mexico is a country, ranking fourth in the world by biodiversity. In 2015 it was the 9th most visited country in the world, Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus and the Pacific Alliance. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely, the Valley of Mexico, and its people, the Mexica and this became the future State of Mexico as a division of New Spain prior to independence. It is generally considered to be a toponym for the valley became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result. After New Spain won independence from Spain, representatives decided to name the new country after its capital and this was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan
3. Juan Bautista Alvarado – Juan Bautista Valentín Alvarado y Vallejo was a Californio and Governor of Alta California from 1836 to 1842. He was governor during the Revolution of 1836, when the territorial Diputación declared free and sovereign independence from Mexico and forced the Mexican commander, Alvarado also oversaw Californias brief rejoining with Mexico as a state. Alvarado was born in Monterey, Alta California, to Jose Francisco Alvarado and his grandfather Juan Bautista Alvarado accompanied Gaspar de Portolà as an enlisted man in the Spanish Army in 1769. His father died a few months after his birth and his mother remarried three years later, leaving Juan Bautista in the care of his grandparents, the Vallejo family and he and Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo grew up together in the Vallejo household. They were both taught by William Edward Petty Hartnell, an English merchant living in Monterey, in 1827 the eighteen-year-old Alvarado was hired as secretary to the territorial legislature. In 1829 he was arrested along with Vallejo and another friend, José Castro. In 1831 he built a house in Monterey for his mistress, Juliana Francisca Ramona y Castillo, over the years, the pair had a total of at least two illegitimate daughters whom he recognized and perhaps several more he did not recognize, but he never married their mother. During this period Alvarado began drinking heavily, one of his daughters claimed that Raymunda had refused to marry Alvarado because of his excessive drinking. Alvarado supported secularization of the Spanish missions in California and he was appointed by José María de Echeandía to oversee the turn over of Mission San Miguel, even though Echeandía was no longer governor. The new governor Manuel Victoria rescinded the order and sought to have Alvarado, the pair fled and were hidden by their old friend Vallejo, who had become adjutant at the Presidio of San Francisco. However, Victoria was unpopular and Echeandía overthrew his rule and replaced him with Pío de Jesús Pico} near the end of 1831, secularization of the missions resumed in 1833. In 1834 Alvarado was elected to the legislature as a delegate, Governor José Figueroa granted Rancho El Sur, the vast wilderness south of Monterey, to Alvarado on October 30,1834. After Figueroas death in September 1835, Nicolás Gutiérrez was appointed as governor in January 1836. He was replaced by Mariano Chico in April, but Chico was very unpopular, thinking a revolt was coming, Chico went to Mexico to gather troops, but was reprimanded for leaving his post. Gutierrez, the commandant, re-assumed the governorship, but he too was unpopular. The Americans wanted California independence, but Alvarado instead preferred staying a part of Mexico, Alvarados rebellion adopted a new flag - a single red star on a white background. The flag never became a flag of Alta California, and was not used after Alvarado made peace with the central government. Alvarado, at age 27, was appointed governor
4. Carlos Antonio Carrillo – Carlos Antonio Carrillo, was Governor of Alta California from 1837 to 1838. He took his oath as Governor in Pueblo de Los Angeles, present day Los Angeles and he was also the great-grandfather of actor Leo Carillo. Carrillo was a Californio, one of the first children born at the Presidio of Santa Barbara and his father, José Raimundo Carrillo, was a soldier who came north with the Portolá expedition in 1769 and served at the Presidio of Santa Barbara for twelve years. From 1797 to 1825 Carlos Antonio served in the military at Monterey, as Alta Californias delegate to the Mexican Congress of the Union, Carrillo pursued Alta California judicial reform, but his ideas were rejected. In 1836, Carrillo joined the rebellious Juan Bautista Alvarado in demanding a more autonomous Alta California, in 1837, Carlos was appointed to replace Alvarado as governor, but Alvarado was able to reclaim the Governorship a year later. Governor Manuel Micheltorena gave a Mexican land grant of Santa Rosa Island, in the Channel Islands of California, to Carlos and they later gave the island to Carlos daughters, Manuela Carrillo Jones and Francisca Carrillo Thompson. Brother of José Antonio Carrillo Father of Maria Josefa Carrillo, who married Captain William Goodwin Dana Father of Maria Encarnation Carrillo, Father of Maria Tomasa Carrillo 1827-1851 who married Luis T Burton 1812-1839 Father of Maria Edwiges Carrillo 1829-Unknown
5. Mariano Chico – Colonel Mariano Chico served one of the briefest terms as Alta California governor from April 1836 to July 1836. He was both preceded and succeeded by the equally unpopular Lieutenant Colonel Nicolas Gutierrez, who joined him in exile in Mexico on November 5,1836, San Diego, The San Diego Union
6. Manuel Micheltorena – José Manuel Micheltorena was a brigadier general of the Mexican Army, adjutant-general of the same, governor, commandant-general and inspector of the department of Alta California, then within Mexico. Micheltorena was the last non-Californian Mexican governor before Californian native son Pío Pico took office, Micheltorena received this appointment by the President of Mexico, Antonio López de Santa Anna and served from 30 December 1842, until his ouster in 1845. Micheltorena was instrumental in the privatisation of California land by rancho land grants, with his loyalties firmly seated in Mexico City, he faced criticism, opposition, and eventually war from the Californios in Alta California. Micheltorena lost to Juan Bautista Alvarado and the Californios in the 1845 Battle of Providencia, a History Of The New California - Its Resources And People. New York, The Lewis Publishing Company
7. Manuel Victoria – Manuel Victoria was governor of the Mexican-ruled territory of Alta California from January 1831 to December 6,1831. He was appointed governor on March 8,1830 by Lucas Alamán, the revolt, called Battle of Cahuenga Pass, against his governorship lead to his abbreviated twelve-month tenure, and subsequent exile. The Battle left one man dead on either side, although the rebels against governor retreated to the pueblo, they were victorious in defeat, the wounded governor resigned and returned to Mexico. He was not popular with the Californios, santiago Argüello was lieutenant of the San Diego Company, and commandant from 1830 to 1835. From 1831 to 1835, Argüello was captain of the company and took part, with his brother-in-law Agustín V. Zamorano, Jose Maria Avila of the Avila family of California also helped lead the revolt. He and fifty other Los Angeles leaders were imprisoned by Alcalde Vicente Sanchez for plotting against Victoria, an army of 150 men raised in San Diego by Jose Antonio Carrillo and Pio Pico marched into the pueblo and released all prisoners. Victoria led a force from Monterey to stop the insurrection in Los Angeles, the two armies clashed at the Battle of Cahuenga Pass and Jose Maria Avila was killed. Andrés Ybarra of the Rancho Las Encinitas took part in the revolt, José López with the Rancho San Isidro Ajajolojol also join the revolt. Governor Manuel Victoria was severely wounded fighting rebellious locals at the Battle of Cahuenga Pass, joseph John Chapman was called on to dress his wounds, which he apparently did well enough that Victoria survived. That same year, Chapman was naturalized as a Mexican citizen, after Victoria rescinded the order and wanted Juan Bautista Alvarado and José Castro arrested. The pair fled and were hidden by their old friend Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, pío Pico first briefly replaced Manuel Victoria as governor. Then Agustín V. Zamorano in the north, and José María de Echeandía in the south, Governor José Figueroa arrived from Mexico in 1833, resolving the north-south political struggle. Secularization and Mexican land grants resumed with Governor Figueroa, List of pre-statehood governors of California List of Ranchos of California Rancho Tularcitos legal advisor to Governor Manuel Victoria