This category has only the following subcategory.
- ► John C. Calhoun (1 C, 10 P)
This category has only the following subcategory.
1. American System (economic plan) – The American System was an economic plan that played a prominent role in American policy during the first half of the 19th century. Congressman Henry Clay was the plans foremost proponent and the first to refer to it as the American System. A plan to strengthen and unify the nation, the American System, was advanced by the Whig Party, Clay argued that the West, which opposed the tariff, should support it since urban factory workers would be consumers of western foods. In Clay’s view, the South should support them because of the market for cotton in northern mills. This last argument was the weak link, the South never strongly supported the American System and had access to plenty of markets for its cotton exports. Portions of the American System were enacted by the United States Congress, the Second Bank of the United States was rechartered in 1816 for 20 years. High tariffs were first suggested by Alexander Hamilton in his 1791 Report on Manufactures but were not approved by Congress until the Tariff of 1816, tariffs were subsequently raised until they peaked in 1828 after the so-called Tariff of Abominations. After the Nullification Crisis in 1833, tariffs remained the same rate until the Civil War, however, the national system of internal improvements was never adequately funded, the failure to do so was due in part to sectional jealousies and constitutional squabbles about such expenditures. Jacksons Maysville Road veto was due to both his personal conflict with Clay and his ideological objections, the establishment of a protective tariff, a 20%–25% tax on imported goods, would protect a nation’s business from foreign competition. Congress passed a tariff in 1816 which made European goods more expensive, in 1816, Congress created the Second Bank of the United States. The improvement of the infrastructure, especially transportation systems, made trade easier and faster for everyone. Poor roads made transportation slow and costly and this program became the leading tenet of the Whig Party of Henry Clay and Daniel Webster. Among the most important internal improvements created under the American System was the Cumberland Road, the Economic Mind in American Civilization, 1606-18652 vol Eckes, Jr. Foreign Trade Policy Since University of North Carolina Press Foner, Eric, American Development Policy, the Case of Internal Improvements, Journal of Economic History,16, 449-60. National Planning of Internal Improvements, Political Science Quarterly,63, Internal Improvement, National Public Works and the Promise of Popular Government in the Early United States Lively, Robert A. The American System, a Review Article, Business History Review, XXIX, Henry Clay, Statesman for the Union,1991 Edward Stanwood, American Tariff Controversies in the 19th Century,2 vols. Favors protectionism Charles M. Wiltse, John C, the Papers of Henry Clay, 1797-1852. Edited by James Hopkins The American System, Speeches on the Tariff Question and Internal Improvements by Congressman Andrew Stewart
2. John C. Calhoun – John Caldwell Calhoun was an American statesman and political theorist from South Carolina, and the seventh Vice President of the United States from 1825 to 1832. He is remembered for defending slavery and for advancing the concept of minority rights in politics. He began his career as a nationalist, modernizer, and proponent of a strong national government. His beliefs and warnings heavily influenced the Souths secession from the Union in 1860–1861, Calhoun began his political career in the House of Representatives. He then served as Secretary of War under President James Monroe, Calhoun was a candidate for the presidency in the 1824 election. After failing to support, he let his name be put forth as a candidate for vice president. The Electoral College elected Calhoun for vice president by an overwhelming majority and he served under John Quincy Adams and continued under Andrew Jackson, who defeated Adams in the election of 1828. During his terms as president, he made a record of 31 tie-breaking votes in Congress. Calhoun had a relationship with Jackson primarily due to the Nullification Crisis. In 1832, with only a few remaining in his second term, he resigned as vice president. He sought the Democratic nomination for the presidency in 1844, but lost to surprise nominee James K. Polk, Calhoun served as Secretary of State under John Tyler from 1844 to 1845. As Secretary of State, he supported the annexation of Texas as a means to extend the slave power and he then returned to the Senate, where he opposed the Mexican–American War, the Wilmot Proviso, and the Compromise of 1850 before his death in 1850. Calhoun often served as a virtual party-independent who variously aligned as needed with Democrats, later in life, Calhoun became known as the cast-iron man for his rigid defense of Southern beliefs and practices. His concept of republicanism emphasized approval of slavery and minority rights, as embodied by the Southern states—he owned dozens of slaves in Fort Hill. Calhoun also asserted that slavery, rather than being an evil, was a positive good. To protect minority rights against majority rule, he called for a concurrent majority whereby the minority could sometimes block proposals that it infringed on their liberties. To this end, Calhoun supported states rights and nullification, through which states could declare null, Calhoun was one of the Great Triumvirate or the Immortal Trio of Congressional leaders, along with his Congressional colleagues Daniel Webster and Henry Clay. In 1957, a Senate Committee headed by Senator John F. Kennedy selected Calhoun as one of the five greatest United States Senators of all time
3. Henry Clay – Henry Clay, Sr. was an American lawyer and planter, statesman, and skilled orator who represented Kentucky in both the United States Senate and House of Representatives. He served three terms as Speaker of the House of Representatives and served as Secretary of State under President John Quincy Adams from 1825 to 1829. Clay ran for the presidency in 1824,1832 and 1844, however, he was unsuccessful in all of his attempts to reach his nations highest office. Despite his presidential losses, Clay remained a dominant figure in the Whig Party, Clay was a dominant figure in both the First and Second Party systems. After serving two stints in the Senate, Clay won election to the House of Representatives in 1810 and was elected Speaker of the House in 1811. Clay would remain a prominent public figure until his death 41 years later in 1852, a leading war hawk, Speaker Clay favored war with Britain and played a significant role in leading the nation into the War of 1812. In 1814, Clays tenure as Speaker was interrupted when Clay traveled to Europe, Clay ran for president in 1824 and lost, finishing fourth in a four-man contest. No candidate received a majority, and so the election was decided in the House of Representatives. Clay maneuvered House voting in favor of John Quincy Adams, who appointed him as Secretary of State. Opposing candidate Andrew Jackson denounced the actions of Clay and Adams as part of a corrupt bargain, Clay returned to the Senate in 1831. He continued to advocate his American System, and become a leader of the opposition to President Andrew Jackson, President Jackson opposed federally-subsidized internal improvements and a national bank as a threat to states rights, and the president used his veto power to defeat many of Clays proposals. In 1832, Clay ran for president as a candidate of the National Republican Party, following the election, the National Republicans united with other opponents of Jackson to form the Whig Party, which remained one of the two major American political parties until after Clays death. In 1844, Clay won the Whig Partys presidential nomination, Clays opposition to the annexation of Texas, partly over fears that such an annexation would inflame the slavery issue, hurt his campaign, and Democrat James K. Polk won the election. Clay later opposed the Mexican–American War, which resulted in part from the Texas annexation, Clay returned to the Senate for a final term, where he helped broker a compromise over the status of slavery in the Mexican Cession. Known as The Great Compromiser, Clay brokered important agreements during the Nullification Crisis, as part of the Great Triumvirate or Immortal Trio, along with his colleagues Daniel Webster and John C. Calhoun, he was instrumental in formulating the Missouri Compromise of 1820, the Compromise Tariff of 1833, and he was viewed as the primary representative of Western interests in this group, and was given the names Harry of the West and The Western Star. As a plantation owner, Clay held slaves during his lifetime, Henry Clay was born on April 12,1777, at the Clay homestead in Hanover County, Virginia, in a story-and-a-half frame house. It was a home for a common Virginia planter of that time
4. Daniel Webster – Daniel Webster was an American politician who twice served in the United States House of Representatives, representing New Hampshire and Massachusetts, served as a U. S. Senator from Massachusetts and was twice the United States Secretary of State, under Presidents William Henry Harrison and John Tyler and he and James G. Blaine were the only two people to serve as Secretary of State under three presidents. Webster also sought the Whig Party nomination for President three times, in 1836,1840 and 1852. As a diplomat he is best known for negotiating the Webster–Ashburton Treaty of 1842 with Great Britain, Webster was an outstanding spokesman for American nationalism with powerful oratory that made him a key Whig leader. He spoke for conservatives and led the opposition to Democrat Andrew Jackson and he was a spokesman for modernization, banking, and industry, but not for the common people who composed the base of his opponents in Jacksonian democracy. He was a thoroughgoing elitist, and he reveled in it, chiefly recognized for his Senate tenure, Webster was a key figure in the institutions Golden days. Webster was the Northern member of the Great Triumvirate, with his colleagues Henry Clay from the West and his Reply to Hayne in 1830 has been regarded as one of the greatest speeches in the Senates history. As with his fellow Whig Henry Clay, Webster wanted to see the Union preserved and they both worked for compromises to stave off the sectionalism that threatened war between the North and the South. Websters support for the Compromise of 1850, devised in part by Clay, in 1957, a Senate committee selected Webster as one of the five greatest U. S. Senators with Clay, Calhoun, Robert La Follette, and Robert A. Taft, Daniel Webster was born on January 18,1782, in Salisbury, New Hampshire, the present-day city of Franklin. He was the son of Abigail and Ebenezer Webster and he and his nine siblings grew up on their parents farm, a small parcel of land granted to his father. His ancestors were among the settlers of Salisbury. Webster attended Phillips Exeter Academy, a school in Exeter. He was chosen Fourth of July orator in Hanover, the town, in 1800. After he graduated from Dartmouth, Webster was apprenticed to the lawyer Thomas W. Thompson in Salisbury, in 1802 Webster began as the headmaster of the Fryeburg Academy, Maine, where he served for one year. When Ezekiels education could no longer be sustained, Webster returned to his apprenticeship, in 1804 he left New Hampshire and got a position in Boston under the prominent attorney Christopher Gore. Clerking for Gore – who was involved in international, national, in 1805 Webster was admitted to the bar. He returned to New Hampshire to set up a practice in Boscawen and he began to speak locally in support of Federalist causes and candidates