Category:Hills of Rome
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1. Janiculum – The Janiculum is a hill in western Rome, Italy. The Janiculum is one of the best locations in Rome for a view of central Rome with its domes. The Villa Lante al Gianicolo by Giulio Romano is an important early building by the Mannerist master, the Janiculum was a center for the cult of the god Janus, its position overlooking the city made it a good place for augurs to observe the auspices. In Roman mythology, Janiculum is the name of an ancient town founded by the god Janus, in Book VIII of the Aeneid by Virgil, King Evander shows Aeneas the ruins of Saturnia and Janiculum on the Capitoline Hill near the Arcadian city of Pallanteum. Virgil uses these ruins to stress the significance of the Capitoline Hill as the center of Rome. According to Livy, the Janiculum was incorporated into ancient Rome during the time of king Ancus Marcius to prevent an enemy from occupying it and it was fortified by a wall, and a bridge was built across the Tiber to join it to the rest of the city. During the war between Rome and Clusium in 508 BC, it is said that the forces of Lars Porsena occupied the Janiculum and laid siege to Rome. The Aurelian Walls were continued up the hill by the emperor Aurelian to include the mills used to grind grain to provide bread flour for the city. The mills were supplied from an aqueduct, where it plunged down a steep hill, thus the site resembles Barbegal, although excavations in the late 1990s suggest that they may have been undershot rather than overshot in design. The mills were in use in AD537, when the Goths besieging the city cut off their water supply, but they were later restored and may have remained in operation until at least the time of Pope Gregory IV. Several monuments to Garibaldi and to the fallen in the wars of Italian independence are on the Janiculum, daily at noon, a cannon fires once from the Janiculum in the direction of the Tiber as a time signal. This tradition goes back to December 1847, when the cannon of the Castel SantAngelo gave the sign to the surrounding belltowers to start ringing at midday, in 1904, the ritual was transferred to the Janiculum and continued until 1939. On 21 April 1959, popular appeal convinced the Commune of Rome to resume the tradition after a twenty-year interruption, the hill is featured in the third section of Ottorino Respighis famous orchestral piece The Pines of Rome. The crest of the Janiculum is dominated by the 1895 equestrian Monument to Garibaldi and this site was chosen for its proximity to the Villa Doria Pamphili, where Garibaldi mounted a military defense of the short-lived Roman Republic in late April 1849. The hill also features a number of statues and monuments of prominent Italians, a 2011 guide published by the local Associazione Amilcare Cipriani group, after an extensive restoration of these monuments, lists a total of 84 busts on the hill
2. Monte Mario – Monte Mario is the highest hill in Rome, Italy. It lies around the northwest side of the city, the hill was known as Mons Vaticanus or Clivus Cinnae during the ancient Roman period. The current name, according to theories, comes from Mario Mellini. However, the hill was known as Monte Malo in the Middle Ages due to the here of patrician Giovanni Crescenzio, whence, it is presumed. The eastern part of the hill is a reserve. Atop one hill is the church and convent of Santa Maria Rosario, on the hilltop, now occupying the site of the 15th century Villa Mellini, is the Monte Mario Observatory, part of the Rome Observatory, and the Museo Astronomico Copernicano. This location was used as the meridian for maps of Italy until the 1960s. The side of the hill was the site of the Villa Pigneto built by Pietro da Cortona. The ruins of the structure were razed in the 19th century, the John Felice Rome Center, one of the four campuses of Loyola University Chicago, is located on the hill on Via Massimi. Although it is the highest hill in the city of Rome, Monte Mario is not one of the proverbial Seven Hills of Rome. Monte Mario tra cronaca e storia, info about Monte Mario Agrinet Romanatura
3. Monte Testaccio – Monte Testaccio is an artificial mound in Rome composed almost entirely of testae, fragments of broken amphorae dating from the time of the Roman Empire, some of which were labelled with tituli picti. It has a circumference of nearly a kilometre and stands 35 metres high, though it was considerably higher in ancient times. It stands a short distance away from the east bank of the River Tiber, the mound later had both religious and military significance. It has been estimated that the contains the remains of as many as 53 million olive oil amphorae. The vast majority of vessels had a capacity of some 70 liters. As the vessels found at Monte Testaccio appear to represent mainly state-sponsored olive oil imports, Monte Testaccio was not simply a haphazard waste dump, it was a highly organised and carefully engineered creation, presumably managed by a state administrative authority. Excavations carried out in 1991 showed that the mound had been raised as a series of terraces with retaining walls made of nearly intact amphorae filled with shards to anchor them in place. Empty amphorae were probably carried up the mound intact on the backs of donkeys or mules and then broken up on the spot, lime appears to have been sprinkled over the broken pots to neutralise the smell of rancid oil. As the oldest parts of Monte Testaccio are at the bottom of the mound, deposits found by excavators have been dated to a period between approximately AD140 to 250, but it is possible that dumping could have begun on the site as early as the 1st century BC. The mound has a triangular shape comprising two distinct platforms, the eastern side being the oldest. At least four series of terraces were built in a stepped arrangement. Layers of small sherds were laid down in places, possibly to serve as paths for those carrying out the waste disposal operations. The hill was constructed using mostly the fragments of large globular 70-liter vessels from Baetica and it also included smaller numbers of two types of amphorae from Tripolitania and Byzacena. All three types of vessel were used to transport olive oil, however, it is not clear why Monte Testaccio was built using only olive oil vessels. The oil itself was probably decanted into bulk containers when the amphorae were unloaded at the port, one possibility is that the Dressel 20 amphora, the principal type found at Monte Testaccio, may have been unusually difficult to recycle. Many types of amphora could be re-used to carry the type of product or modified to serve a different purpose—for instance. Fragmentary amphorae could be pounded into chips to use in opus signinum, the Dressel 20 amphora, however, broke into large curved fragments that could not readily be reduced to small shards. It is likely that the difficulty of reusing or repurposing the Dressel 20s meant that it was economical to discard them
4. Pincian Hill – The Pincian Hill is a hill in the northeast quadrant of the historical center of Rome. The hill lies to the north of the Quirinal, overlooking the Campus Martius. It was outside the boundaries of the ancient city of Rome, and was not one of the Seven hills of Rome. The hill came to be known in Roman times as Collis Hortulorum and its current name comes from the Pincii, one of the families that occupied it in the 4th century AD. The Pincio as seen today was laid out in 1809-14 by Giuseppe Valadier, Valadier linked the two spaces with formal staircases broken by generous landings, and a switchback carriageway. Another version stands in the Villa Borghese gardens, embriaco had presented two prototypes of his invention at the Paris Universal Exposition in 1867 where it won prizes and great acclaim. In the gardens of the Pincian, it was Giuseppe Mazzinis urging that lined the viali with busts of notable Italians, La collina del Pincio scopre i suoi segreti La Repubblica 11 December 2014
5. Vatican Hill – Vatican Hill is a hill located across the Tiber river from the traditional seven hills of Rome. It is the location of St. Peters Basilica, the ancient Romans had several opinions about the derivation of the Latin word Vaticanus. Varro connected it to a Deus Vaticanus or Vagitanus, a Roman deity thought to endow infants with the capacity for speech evidenced by their first wail. St. Augustine, who was familiar with Varros works on ancient Roman theology, Vaticanus is more likely to derive in fact from the name of an Etruscan settlement, possibly called Vatica or Vaticum, located in the general area the Romans called vaticanus ager, Vatican territory. If such a settlement existed, however, no trace of it has been discovered, the consular fasti preserve a personal name Vaticanus in the mid-5th century BC, of unknown relation to the place name. Vaticanus Mons was most often a name in Classical Latin for the Janiculum, cicero uses the plural form Vaticani Montes in a context that seems to include the modern Vatican Hill as well as the Monte Mario and the Janiculan hill. The Vaticanum or Campus Vaticanus was originally an area between the Vaticanus Mons and the Tiber. During the Republican era, it was a site frequented by the destitute. Caligula and Nero used the area for exercises, as at the Gaianum. The location of tombs near the Circus Vaticanus is mentioned in a few late sources, the Vaticanum was also the site of the Phrygianum, a temple of the Magna Mater goddess Cybele. Remnants of this structure were encountered in the Seventeenth Century reconstruction of St. Peters Square, Vaticanus Mons came to refer to the modern Vatican Hill as a result of calling the whole area the Vatican. Christian usage of the name was spurred by the martyrdom of St. Peter there, beginning in the early 4th century AD, construction began on the Old St. Peters Basilica over a cemetery that is the traditional site of St. Peters tomb. Around this time, the name Vaticanus Mons was established in its usage. Another cemetery nearby was opened to the public on 10 October 2006 to commemorate the 500th anniversary of the Vatican Museums. The Vatican Hill was included within the city limits of Rome during the reign of Pope Leo IV, thus, Vatican Hill has been within the walls and city limits of Rome for over 1100 years. Until the Lateran Treaties in 1929 it was part of the Rione of Borgo, before the Avignon Papacy, the headquarters of the Holy See were located at the Lateran Palace. After the Avignon Papacy the church moved to Vatican Hill. Since 1929, part of the Vatican Hill is the site of the State of the Vatican City, incredible Book of Vatican Facts and Papal Curiosities,1998
6. Velian Hill – The Velia — or Velian Hill or Velian Ridge — is a saddle or spur stretching out from the middle of the north side of the Palatine Hill towards the Oppian Hill in Rome. In later times, the Velia was called Summa Sacra Via — since that road began there at its highest point — and was marked by the Arch of Titus and Temple of Venus, the Velian was reckoned as one of the seven hills on which the Septimontium was celebrated. The name appears frequently in the singular, but also in the plural. The hill is described by Dionysius of Halicarnassus as ὑψηλὸν ἐπιεικῶς καὶ περίτομον, the original height of the ridge may have been somewhat diminished by the construction of the Domus Aurea. The meaning and derivation of the Velia is as now as it was in antiquity. It is regularly mentioned in extant literature in connection with the Aedes Deorum Penatium, rebert, Homer Franklin, “The Velia, A Study in Historical Topography”, Transactions of the American Philological Association, Vol.56, pp 54-69