Category:Hilltowns in Umbria
Pages in category "Hilltowns in Umbria"
The following 24 pages are in this category, out of 24 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 24 pages are in this category, out of 24 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Amelia, Umbria – Amelia is a town and comune of the province of Terni, in the Umbria region of central Italy. It grew up around an ancient hill fort, known to the Romans as Ameria, the town lies in the south of Umbria, on a hill overlooking the Tiber River to the east and the Nera River to the west. The city is 8 kilometres north of Narni,15 kilometres from Orte and it is about 100 kilometres north of Rome. According to some scholars, Amelia is the oldest town in Umbria and it was supposedly founded by a legendary Umbrian king, King Ameroe, who gave the city the name Ameria. Cato the Elder is reported as saying that Ameria was founded 963 years before the war with Perseus and this date cannot be considered accurate. The city was occupied by the Etruscans, and later still by the Romans. Ameria occupied a location in the Second Latin War, lying on a loop of the Via Cassia called the Via Amerina. The town gained political status as a municipium, maybe as early as 338 BC. Citizens of the town were members of the tribus Clustumina, ciceros speech in defence of Sextus Roscius Amerinus describes Ameria as a flourishing place in 80 BC, with a fertile territory extending to the Tiber. Its fruit is often extolled by Roman writers, augustus divided its lands among his veterans, but did not plant a colony. The bishopric of Ameria was founded in the middle of the 4th century, the campanile of the cathedral was erected in 1050 using fragments of Roman buildings. Amelia is especially known for its walls, parts of which may date to Amelias earliest days, large segments of the wall are built in polygonal masonry of carefully jointed blocks of limestone — most likely an Etruscan work. The walls were fortified and enlarged during Roman times and at various times during the Middle Ages. The Romans left other traces of their occupation, including a complex of ten underground cisterns, built in the 1st century AD, there are also snatches of Roman roads within the city, some of them only recently uncovered. A larger-than-life gilt bronze statue of Germanicus was unearthed just outside the Porta Romana in 1963 and is now the linchpin of a new Archaeological Museum, today, old Amelia inside the walls, which is most accessible through the Porta Romana, is a well-preserved medieval city. The upper part also offers a view of the Tiber Valley, the center of the city is the Piazza del Duomo where the cathedral and the 30-meter-high Torre Civica are located. Amelia Cathedral was built originally in 872, and totally rebuilt in Baroque style after a fire in 1629, the interior has works by Federico Zuccari, Lavinia Fontana, Agostino di Duccio, an organ from 1600, and a Turkish banner captured at Lepanto. Nearby are the Archaeological Museum and the Pinacoteca Comunale, housed in the old Boccarini college
2. Assisi – Assisi is a town and comune of Italy in the Province of Perugia in the Umbria region, on the western flank of Monte Subasio. The 19th-century Saint Gabriel of Our Lady of Sorrows was also born in Assisi, around 1000 BC a wave of immigrants settled in the upper Tiber valley as far as the Adriatic Sea, and also in the neighborhood of Assisi. These were the Umbrians, living in fortified settlements on high ground. From 450 BC these settlements were taken over by the Etruscans. The Romans took control of central Italy after the Battle of Sentinum in 295 BC and they built the flourishing municipium Asisium on a series of terraces on Monte Subasio. Roman remains can still be found in Assisi, city walls, the forum, a theatre, an amphitheatre, in 1997, the remains of a Roman villa were also discovered containing several well-preserved rooms with frescoes and mosaics in a condition rarely found outside sites such as Pompei. In 238 AD Assisi was converted to Christianity by bishop Rufino, according to tradition, his remains rest in the Cathedral Church of San Rufino in Assisi. The Ostrogoths of king Totila destroyed most of the town in 545, Assisi then came under the rule of the Lombards as part of the Lombard and then Frankish Duchy of Spoleto. The thriving commune became an independent Ghibelline commune in the 11th century, the city, which had remained within the confines of the Roman walls, began to expand outside these walls in the 13th century. In this period the city was under papal jurisdiction, the city went into a deep decline through the plague of the Black Death in 1348. The city came again under papal jurisdiction under the rule of Pope Pius II, in 1569 construction was started of the Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli. During the Renaissance and in later centuries, the city continued to develop peacefully, as the 17th-century palazzi of the Bernabei, now the site of many a pilgrimage, Assisi is linked in legend with its native son, St. Francis. The gentle saint founded the Franciscan order and shares honors with St. Catherine of Siena as the saint of Italy. He is remembered by many, even non-Christians, as a lover of nature, Assisi was hit by two devastating earthquakes, that shook Umbria in September 1997. But the recovery and restoration have been remarkable, although much remains to be done, massive damage was caused to many historical sites, but the major attraction, the Basilica di San Francesco, reopened less than 2 years later. UNESCO collectively designated the Franciscan structures of Assisi as a World Heritage Site in 2000, the Basilica of San Francesco dAssisi. The Franciscan monastery, il Sacro Convento, and the lower and upper church of St Francis were begun immediately after his canonization in 1228, and completed in 1253. The Basilica was badly damaged by an earthquake on 26 September 1997, during part of the vault collapsed, killing four people inside the church
3. Gubbio – Gubbio is a town and comune in the far northeastern part of the Italian province of Perugia. It is located on the lowest slope of Mt. Ingino, the citys origins are very ancient. The hills above the town were occupied in the Bronze Age. After the Roman conquest in the 2nd century BC — it kept its name as Iguvium — the city remained important, as attested by its Roman theatre, Gubbio became very powerful in the beginning of the Middle Ages. The following centuries were turbulent, and Gubbio was engaged in wars against the surrounding towns of Umbria. One of these saw the miraculous intervention of its bishop, St. Ubaldo Baldassini, who secured Gubbio an overwhelming victory. In 1350 Giovanni Gabrielli, count of Borgovalle, a member of the most prominent noble family of Gubbio, seized communal power, however his rule was short, and he was forced to hand over the town to Cardinal Albornoz, representing the Church. A few years later, Gabriello Gabrielli, bishop of Gubbio, betrayed by a group of noblemen which included many of his relatives, the bishop was forced to leave the town and seek refuge at his home castle at Cantiano. With the decline of the prestige of the Gabrielli family. Federico da Montefeltro rebuilt the ancient Palazzo Ducale, incorporating in it a studiolo veneered with intarsia like his studiolo at Urbino, the maiolica industry at Gubbio reached its apogee in the first half of the 16th century, with metallic lustre glazes imitating gold and copper. Gubbio became part of the Papal States in 1631, when the family della Rovere, in 1860 Gubbio was incorporated into the Kingdom of Italy along with the rest of the Papal States. The town is located in northern Umbria, near the borders with Marche, the municipality borders wit Cagli, Cantiano, Costacciaro, Fossato di Vico, Gualdo Tadino, Perugia, Pietralunga, Scheggia e Pascelupo, Sigillo, Umbertide and Valfabbrica. The historical centre of Gubbio has a medieval aspect, the town is austere in appearance because of the dark grey stone, narrow streets. Many houses in central Gubbio date to the 14th and 15th centuries and they often have a second door fronting on the street, usually just a few inches from the main entrance. This secondary entrance is narrower, and a foot or so above the street level. This type of door is called a porta dei morti because it was proposed that they were used to remove the bodies of any who might have died inside the house and this is almost certainly false, but there is no agreement as to the purpose of the secondary doors. A more likely theory is that the door was used by the owners to protect themselves when opening to unknown persons, leaving them in a dominating position. Among most visited buildings and sites in the city are, Roman Theater, traces of mosaic decoration have been found
4. Narni – Narni is an ancient hilltown and comune of Umbria, in central Italy, with 20,385 inhabitants. At an altitude of 240 m, it overhangs a narrow gorge of the Nera River in the province of Terni and it is very close to the Geographic center of Italy. There is a stone on the spot with a sign in multiple languages. The area around Narni was already inhabited in the Paleolithic and Neolithic Ages, records mention Nequinum as early as 600 BC. The Romans conquered Nequinum in the 4th century BC and made it a position of force in this key point of the Via Flaminia the famous road which connected the city of Rome to the Adriatic Sea and it supported the Gauls with the hope of freeing itself from Rome. In 299 BC it became a Roman Municipality, and took the name Narnia, the recent discovery of an ancient Roman shipyard within its territory has made researchers supposing a particular importance during the Punic Wars. In 209 BC, however, Narnia refused to help the Romans financially for their aim to carry on the war against Carthage, during the Roman times it was a strategical outpost for the Roman army. The Roman Emperor Nerva was born at Narni in 30 AD, Narnia is mentioned in an Early Christian list of false gods in first century Church father Tertullians Apology, midway into Chapter 21. Every province even, and every city, has its god, syria has Astarte, Arabia has Dusares, the Norici have Belenus, Africa has its Caelestis, Mauritania has its own princes. In Late Antiquity it suffered the events of the Greek-Gothic war and was plundered by Totila, seat of a Lombard gastald, Narnia embraced the cause of Otho I of Saxony thanks to the mediation of its bishop, now Pope John XVII. Narni was part of the possessions of the Countess Matilde, once part of the Dominions of the Church in 726. During the late 9th to early 10th century, Narni was, along much of central Italy. From the 11th century it began to increase in wealth and power, was opposed to Pope Paschal II in 1112 and this insubordination cost Narni a ferocious repression imposed by the archbishop Christian of Mainz, Barbarossas chancellor. In 1242 Narni, prevalently tied to the Guelph party, entered into an alliance with Perugia, in the following century it was included in the reconquest of the papal patrimony by Cardinal Albornoz, who also had the mighty Rocca built. It was the work of Ugolino di Montemarte, known as il Gattapone and he was also author of the plans for the Loggia dei Priori and the Colonnade that faces out onto the Piazza dei Priori together with the 13th century Palazzo del Podestà and the 14th century fountain. In 1373 Narni was given as fief to the Orsini to whom it returned in 1409, occupied by King Ladislaus of Naples, in the 15th century, to be soon again reabsorbed by the church, thanks to Braccio da Montone. July 15,1527 marked a decisive turning-point in Narnis history, the troops of Charles V, mostly in fact the undisciplined Spanish soldiery and German mercenaries, put the city to fire and sword, it lost its ancient prosperity. Even the inhabitants of Terni took advantage of the situation to deliver their blame to give vent to their hatred of Narni
5. Orvieto – Orvieto is a city and comune in the Province of Terni, southwestern Umbria, Italy situated on the flat summit of a large butte of volcanic tuff. The site of the city is among the most dramatic in Europe, the ancient city, populated since Etruscan times, has usually been associated with Etruscan Velzna, but some modern scholars differ. Orvieto was certainly a centre of Etruscan civilization, the archaeological museum houses some of the Etruscan artifacts that have been recovered in the immediate neighbourhood. Orvieto was annexed by Rome in the third century BC, because of its site on a high, steep bluff of tufa, a volcanic rock, the city was virtually impregnable. It was last conquered by Julius Caesar, by the thirteenth century, three papal palaces had been built. In the 13th century bitter feuds divided the city, which was at the apogée of its wealth but found itself often at odds with the papacy, Pope Urban IV stayed at Orvieto from 1262-64. The city became one of the cultural centers of its time when Thomas Aquinas taught at the studium there. A small university, had its origins in a studium generale that was granted to the city by Pope Gregory IX in 1236. The territory of Orvieto was under papal control long before it was added to the Papal States, it remained a papal possession until 1860. The design has often attributed to Arnolfo di Cambio. The church is striped in white travertine and greenish-black basalt in narrow bands, similar in ways to the cathedral of Siena. In the following decade, cathedral authorities called Sienese architect and sculptor Lorenzo Maitani to stabilize the building and he enlarged the choir and planned a transept with two chapels, spaces that were not finished until long after his death. The Cathedral has five bells, tuned in E flat, which date back to the renaissance, the façade is particularly striking and includes some remarkable sculpture by Lorenzo Maitani. Inside the cathedral, the Chapel of San Brizio is frescoed by Fra Angelico and with Luca Signorellis masterpiece, from the 11th century onward, the popes maintained an aggressive political presence in the papal territory which occupied central Italy. Together with his court, the pope moved from palace to palace in the manner of his European secular counterparts, several central Italian cities hosted the pope and his retinue during the years of wandering, housing them in the bishops palace. Outside Rome, only Orvieto and Viterbo had papal palaces, Pope Adrian IV was the first pope to spend significant time in Orvieto. His successor, Pope Innocent III, was a militant opponent of the Cathar heresy, which had infiltrated the city, in 1227, Pope Gregory IX confirmed the Dominican studium generale in Orvieto, a school of theology, and one of the first in Europe. Pope Urban IV, a Frenchman who was crowned in the Dominican church in Viterbo, in 1263, he began a papal palace, perhaps the first outside Rome, and consecrated the new Dominican church in Orvieto
6. Perugia – Perugia is the capital city of both the region of Umbria in central Italy, crossed by the river Tiber, and of the province of Perugia. The city is located about 164 kilometres north of Rome and 148 km south-east of Florence and it covers a high hilltop and part of the valleys around the area. The region of Umbria is bordered by Tuscany, Lazio, the history of Perugia goes back to the Etruscan period, Perugia was one of the main Etruscan cities. Perugia is also a cultural and artistic centre of Italy. The famous painter Pietro Vannucci, nicknamed Perugino, was a native of Città della Pieve and he decorated the local Sala del Cambio with a beautiful series of frescoes, eight of his pictures can also be admired in the National Gallery of Umbria. Perugino was the teacher of Raphael, the great Renaissance artist who produced five paintings in Perugia, another famous painter, Pinturicchio, lived in Perugia. Galeazzo Alessi is the most famous architect from Perugia, the citys symbol is the griffin, which can be seen in the form of plaques and statues on buildings around the city. Perugia was an Umbrian settlement but first appears in history as Perusia, one of the 12 confederate cities of Etruria. Fabius Pictors account, utilized by Livy, of the carried out against the Etruscan League by Fabius Maximus Rullianus in 310 or 309 BC. At that time a thirty-year indutiae was agreed upon, however, in 295 Perusia took part in the Third Samnite War and was reduced, with Volsinii and Arretium, a number of lead bullets used by slingers have been found in and around the city. Negotiations with the besieging forces fell to the bishop, Herculanus. Totila is said to have ordered the bishop to be flayed and beheaded, st. Herculanus later became the citys patron saint. In the Lombard period Perugia is spoken of as one of the cities of Tuscia. Peter, acknowledged the validity of the statement and recognised the established civic practices as having the force of law. However this dominant tendency was rather an anti-Germanic and Italian political strategy, midway through the 14th century Bartholus of Sassoferrato, who was a renowned jurist, asserted that Perugia was dependent upon neither imperial nor papal support. Civic peace was constantly disturbed in the 14th century by struggles between the party representing the people and the nobles. A citadel known as the Rocca Paolina, after the name of Pope Paul III, was built, in 1797, the city was conquered by French troops. On 4 February 1798, the Tiberina Republic was formed, with Perugia as capital, in 1799, the Tiberina Republic merged to the Roman Republic
7. Spello – Spello is an ancient town and comune of Italy, in the province of Perugia in east central Umbria, on the lower southern flank of Mt. Subasio. It is 6 km NNW of Foligno and 10 km SSE of Assisi, the old walled town lies on a regularly NW-SE sloping ridge that eventually meets the plain. Populated in ancient times by the Umbri, it became a Roman colony in the 1st century BC, under the reign of Constantine the Great it was called Flavia Constans, as attested by a document preserved in the local Communal Palace. Spello boasts about two small churches, most of them medieval, the most important are, Santa Maria Maggiore, probably built over an ancient temple dedicated to Juno. The façade has a Romanesque portal and a 13th-century bell tower, the most striking feature is the Baglioni Chapel, frescoed by Pinturicchio. The Umbrian artist was called to paint it around 1500 by Troilo Baglioni, the cycle include the Annunciation, the Nativity and the Dispute with the Doctors, plus four Sibyls in the vault. The Palazzo dei Canonici, annexed to the church, houses the Towns Art Gallery, the interior, on a single nave, has 14th-century frescoes. Theres also a panel by Pinturicchio, San Bernardino da Siena began his preaching season in this church in 1438. San Claudio, an elegant example of Romanesque architecture with a window on the asymmetrical façade. The interior has 14th century votive frescoes from the Umbrian school and it is said to have been built on the remains of a Paleo-Christian cemetery. Tega Chapel, with Umbrian school 15th-century frescoes, including a Crucifixion attributed to Nicolò Alunno, other points of interest include, Palazzo Comunale Vecchio. It has some frescoed halls, one attributed to the Zuccari brothers and it is faced by a 16th-century fountain. Palazzo Cruciali, built in the early 17th century, Palazzo Baglioni, erected as a fortificated mansion around 1359. The Governors Hall has frescoes from the 16th century, in the plain, near S. Claudio, are the remains of a semi-excavated Roman amphitheater, and a small valley to the east of the town is remarkable for its traces of Roman centuriation. Beyond the town proper, the chief monuments are the church of San Silvestro at Collepino. The Infiorate include a whole night of work to create over sixty flower carpets on the Corpus Domini feast, alfonsine, Italy, since 1974 Since 2008 Spello has also a pact of friendship with Accadia, Italy. Official site Bill Thayers site Creative Spello by Adalberto Tiburzi Spellos Infiorate Official site Gruppo infioratori Acquatino Spello Infiorata
8. Spoleto – Spoleto is an ancient city in the Italian province of Perugia in east central Umbria on a foothill of the Apennines. It is 20 km S. of Trevi,29 km N. of Terni,63 km SE of Perugia,212 km SE of Florence, and 126 km N of Rome. Spoleto was situated on the branch of the Via Flaminia. An ancient road also ran hence to Nursia, the Ponte Sanguinario of the 1st century BC still exists. The Forum lies under todays marketplace, located at the head of a large, broad valley, surrounded by mountains, Spoleto has long occupied a strategic geographical position. It appears to have been an important town to the original Umbri tribes, after the Battle of Lake Trasimene Spoletium was attacked by Hannibal, who was repulsed by the inhabitants During the Second Punic War the city was a useful ally to Rome. It suffered greatly during the wars of Gaius Marius and Sulla. The latter, after his victory over Marius, confiscated the territory of Spoletium, from this time forth it was a municipium. Under the empire it seems to have flourished once again, but is not often mentioned in history, aemilianus, who had been proclaimed emperor by his soldiers in Moesia, was slain by them here on his way from Rome, after a reign of three or four months. Rescripts of Constantine and Julian are dated from Spoleto, owing to its elevated position Spoleto was an important stronghold during the Vandal and Gothic wars, its walls were dismantled by Totila. Under the Lombards, Spoleto became the capital of an independent duchy, the Duchy of Spoleto, in 774 it became part of Holy Roman Empire. Together with other fiefs, it was bequeathed to Pope Gregory VII by the powerful countess Matilda of Tuscany, in 1155 it was destroyed by Frederick Barbarossa. In 1213 it was occupied by Pope Gregory IX. After Napoleons conquest of Italy, in 1809 Spoleto became capital of the short-lived French department of Trasimène, returning to the Papal States after Napoleons defeat, in 1860, after a gallant defence, Spoleto was taken by the troops fighting for the unification of Italy. Giovanni Pontano, founder of the Accademia Pontaniana of Naples, was born here, the stage is occupied by the former church of St. Agatha, currently housing the National Archaeological Museum. Ponte Sanguinario, a Roman bridge 1st century BCE, the name is traditionally attributed to the persecutions of Christians in the nearby amphiteatre. A restored Roman house with floors, indicating it was built in the 1st century. An inscription by Polla to Emperor Caligula suggests the house was that of Vespasia Polla and it was turned into a fortress by Totila in 545 and in Middle Ages times was used for stores and shops, while in the cavea the church of San Gregorio Minore was built
9. Todi – Todi is a town and comune of the province of Perugia in central Italy. It is perched on a tall two-crested hill overlooking the east bank of the river Tiber, commanding distant views in every direction. In the 1990s, Richard S. Levine, a professor of architecture at the University of Kentucky, chose Todi as the sustainable city, because of its scale. After that, the Italian press reported on Todi as the worlds most livable city. According to the legend, said to have recorded around 1330 BC by a mythological Quirinus Colonus, Todi was built by Hercules, who here killed Cacus. Historical Todi was founded by the ancient Italic people of the Umbri, in the 8th-7th century BC, the name means border, the city being located on the frontier with the Etruscan dominions. It probably was still under the influence when it was conquered by the Romans in 217 BC. According to Silius Italicus, it had a line of walls that stopped Hannibal himself after his victory at the Trasimeno. In most Latin texts, the name of the town took the form Tuder, christianity spread to Todi very early, through the efforts of St. Terentianus. Bishop St. Fortunatus became the saint of the city for his heroic defense of it during the Gothic siege. In Lombard times, Todi was part of the Duchy of Spoleto, after the 12th century the city started to expand again, the government was held first by consuls, and then by podestà and a peoples captain, some of whom achieved wide fame. In 1244 the new quarters, housing mainly the new classes, were enclosed in a new circle of walls. In 1290 the city had 40,000 inhabitants, Communal autonomy was lost in 1367 when the city was annexed to the Papal States, the local overlordship shifted among various families. In July 1849 Todi received Giuseppe Garibaldi, who was fleeing after the failed attempt of the Republic of Rome. Todi is the birthplace of the Franciscan poet Jacopone da Todi, the whole landscape is sited over some huge ancient Roman cisterns, with more than 500 pits, which remained in use until 1925. Todi Cathedral is a Gothic edifice on the Lombard plan, said to be erected over an ancient Roman building, the current church was almost totally rebuilt after a fire in 1190. The main feature of the squarish façade is the central great rose-window, of the same period is the wooden door of the portal, by Antonio Bencivenni from Mercatello, of which only the four upper panels remain today. The church follows the plan of the Latin cross, with a nave, bonifacio VIII allegedly had a second aisle on one side, commonly known as La navatina
10. Trevi, Umbria – Trevi is an ancient town and comune in Umbria, Italy, on the lower flank of Monte Serano overlooking the wide plain of the Clitunno river system. It is 10 km SSE of Foligno and 20 km north of Spoleto, the population of the comune was c. The historical subdivisions of Trevi proper are the terzieri of Castello, Matiggia e Piano, most of the town, densely inhabited and of decidedly medieval aspect, lies on sharply sloping terrain, only the very center being more or less flat. It commands one of the best views in Umbria, extending over 50 km in most westerly directions, Trevi is served by the main rail line from Rome to Ancona as well as the line from Florence to Rome via Perugia. In the plain, the fertile land is well irrigated by many watercourses, heirs for the most part to the Lacus Clitorius of Antiquity. Finally, the mountains are clothed in meadows and forests, primarily deciduous, the natural environment of the territory as a whole remains largely unspoiled, this despite being significantly populated for millennia. The most important growth areas since the period following World War II have been Borgo Trevi, Pietrarossa, many rivers and canals, none of them very large, run in a general South-to-North direction, converging into a single river near Bevagna. Trevi borders the municipalities, Campello sul Clitunno, Castel Ritaldi, Foligno, Montefalco, Sellano. Treviae is also mentioned in the 5th‑century Bordeaux Itinerary, Francis, who is known to have visited the area and to have advised people to bathe there. In antiquity Trevi is said to have had jurisdiction over much of the valley below, the seat of a bishop until the 11th century, Trevi was a Lombard gastaldate, then, in the early 13th century, freed itself of outside rulership to become a free commune. Trevis best fortunes were in the 15th century, when its importance was such that it was called il porto secco — the dry port. In 1470, along with Foligno, Trevi became the town in Italy to have a printing press. The wealth of this period can still be seen in a number of Renaissance mansions in town, durastante Natalucci was an Italian historian who specialized in the history of Trevi. Trevi is enclosed in two circuits of walls, in the late 20th century, the inner circuit was shown to be of Roman origin. The Madonna delle Lacrime is a medieval church with large votive frescoes, including an Adoration of the Magi by Pietro Perugino. The chapel of Saint Francis was frescoed by Lo Spagna, one of Peruginos pupils, S. Martino, with Lombard lapidary remains and good paintings by Mezzastris. S. Francesco, a large Gothic building, now housing a museum, san Pietro in Bovara is a medieval monastery in Bovara Santo Stefano in Manciano, another monastery in Manciano, has only its church remaining. Trevis main museum is the Museo S, particularly notable are a group of ex-votos representative of 16th‑ through 18th‑century folk art
11. Bettona – Bettona is an ancient town and comune of Italy, in the province of Perugia in central Umbria at the northern edge of the Colli Martani range. It is 5 km E of Torgiano and 12 km SW of Assisi, passaggio, Colle and Cerreto are frazioni of the comune. The town is of Etruscan origin, its people are first referred to in Pliny, NH III.114, then in other ancient authors, Bettona was once the seat of a bishopric. While legend associates two other bishops with the see, the historically documented one is Gaudentius, who took part in a synod at Rome called by Pope Hilarius in 465. Under the Latin name Bettonium the bishopric is listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see, Bettona still retains a complete circuit of medieval walls incorporating substantial portions of the original Etruscan walls. Santa Maria Maggiore church, situated in the centre, is the main church of the region of Bettona. The Gothic chapel, dedicated to Saint Rita, is the remaining part of the Roman church. The main altar is in the shape of domed temple, by Cruciano Egiduzio, the apse was frescoed in 1939 by the futurist painter Gerardo Dottori. The church of San Crispolto was erected by monks to preserve the body of the patron saint, the current façade is by Antonio Stefanucci. In the “Oratorio of St. Andrea” is a series of paintings from the school of Giotto, dated 1394, the town is also locally noted for its walled gardens. Bettona official site, also in English Bill Thayers site
12. Castelluccio (Norcia) – Castelluccio is a village in Umbria, in the Apennine Mountains of central Italy. Administratively, it is a frazione of the ca.28 km distant town Norcia, according to the 2001 census, it had close to 150 inhabitants. The village lies at 1452 m, making it the highest settlement in the Apennines and it lies above the Great Plain, next to the Monti Sibillini National Park. Rain and meltwater accumulate on the surface of the plain, which is made of impermeable sediments. The greenish ditches drain the water towards openings called Ponors, which are part of the underground drainage system. If the karst drainage is blocked for any reason, water backs up, the village dates from the 13th century or slightly earlier, but was also settled by the Romans. The fields on the slopes below the village are cultivated, the town is known for its excellent lentils, in springtime the nature of the fields is in lavish color, with red poppies and yellow rapeseed. The plains grassland is ideal for sheep husbandry, there is a lot of ski- and trekking tourism