Big Sur Folk Festival
The Big Sur Folk Festival, held from 1964 to 1971, was an informal gathering of prominent and emerging folk artists from across the United States. Nancy Carlen was working at the Esalen Institute when Joan Baez was asked to lead workshops on music, Carlen was a good friend of Baez, and they decided to invite other artists, which turned into the first festival. Baez performed at all seven events, all of the artists were paid union scale, about $50. The audience paid $3.50 to $5.50, depending on the year, all proceeds benefitted Baez Institute for the Study of Nonviolence. Carlen intended it to be a friendly, low-key event that allowed artists to relax after their summer concert series. It was held except for one year in front of the pool at the Esalen Institute on the Big Sur coast, the second-to-last year was held at the Monterey County Fairgrounds. Carlen purposefully kept advertising to a minimum to keep crowds small. Richard and Mimi Fariña performed for the first time at the festival, at the September 1969 festival, many artists had performed only four weeks earlier at Woodstock.
The event was considered by some as the antithesis of the commercial Woodstock. The festival was founded in 1964 by Nancy Carlen and she was attending Boston University when she met Joan Baez. Baez at the time lived in Carmel Valley, impressed with Baez music and social convictions, Nancy drove cross-country and arrived in Big Sur in 1961. She got a job at Esalen and began living there and she invited Joan Baez to lead the workshop. Carlen had met Richard and Mimi Farina at a friends home. She brainstormed ideas for the festival with Richard and invited both of them and it was their first professional performance. Sunday afternoon we invited the neighborhood in general to join us, turned the deck of the Esalen swimming pool into a stage, Carlen invited Malvina Reynolds, Mark Spoelstra, Roger Abraham, and local artists Janet Smith and Richard and Mimi Fariña. Carlen said she intended the festival to be a performers festival, the audience liked Mimi and Dickson Farina so much that three record companies offered the duo a recording contract.
Since Richard already had a contract with folk giant Vanguard. The festival was held annually from 1964 through 1969 at the Esalen Institute in Big Sur, in 1970 it moved to the Monterey County Fairgrounds, as the seminar evolved into full concerts, Carlen kept the events purposefully small, emphasizing quality and atmosphere over publicity and commercial success
Anti-nuclear movement in California
The 1970s proved to be a pivotal period for the anti-nuclear movement in California. Opposition to nuclear power in California coincided with the growth of the environmental movement. Opposition to nuclear power increased when President Richard Nixon called for the construction of 1000 nuclear plants by the year 2000, the movement succeeded in blocking plans to build a large number of facilities in the state as well as closing operating power plants. The confrontation between nuclear power advocates and environmentalists grew to include the use of non-violent civil disobedience, in 1976 the state of California placed a moratorium on new reactors until a solution to radioactive waste disposal was in place. In September 1981, over 1,900 arrests took place during a blockade at Diablo Canyon Power Plant. As part of a national anti-nuclear weapons movement Californians passed a 1982 statewide initiative calling for the end of nuclear weapons, in 1984, the Davis City Council declared the city to be a nuclear free zone.
In 2013, San Onofre 2 and 3 were permanently closed and this conflict began in 1958 and ended in 1964, with the forced abandonment of these plans. Subsequent plans to build a power plant in Malibu were abandoned. The anti-nuclear movement grew in California between 1964 and 1974 and it was during this period that some scientists and engineers began supporting the positions of the activists. They were influenced by the Ecology and Free Speech Movements that had inspired activists and had impacted the public consciousness, Californians for Nuclear Safeguards would succeed at placing Proposition 15 on the June 1976 ballot which would ban new facilities and put additional safety requirements on operating reactors. The initiative failed to pass with millions of dollars spent by the industry to influence the outcome. Anti-nuclear groups campaigned to stop construction of several proposed plants in the seventies, especially those located on the coast and these proposals included the Sundesert Nuclear Power Plant, which was never built.
The project was cancelled that year, the discovery of a fault near General Electrics Vallecitos Nuclear Center near Pleasanton resulted in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission closing the facility down. This discovery as well as plutonium a short distance from a school in Humboldt California resulted in the closure of Pacific Gas & Electrics, over a two-week period in 1981,1,900 activists were arrested at Diablo Canyon Power Plant. It was the largest arrest in the history of the movement in the United States. Specific protests included, August 6,1977, The Abalone Alliance held the first blockade at Diablo Canyon Power Plant, August 1978, almost 500 people were arrested for protesting at Diablo Canyon. April 8,1979,30,000 people marched in San Francisco to support shutting down the Diablo Canyon Power Plant, June 30,1979, about 40,000 people attended a protest rally at Diablo Canyon. September 1981, more than 1900 protesters were arrested at Diablo Canyon, may 1984, about 130 demonstrators showed up for start-up day at Diablo Canyon, and five were arrested
David C. Broderick
David Colbreth Broderick was an attorney and politician, elected by the legislature as Democratic U. S. Born in Washington, DC, to Irish immigrant parents, he lived in New York until moving to California during the Gold Rush and he was a first cousin of politicians Andrew Kennedy of California and Case Broderick of Kansas. Broderick was born in 1820 in Washington, D. C. on East Capitol Street just west of 3rd Street and he was the son of an Irish stonecutter and his wife. His father had come to the United States in order to work on the United States Capitol, in 1823 Broderick moved with his parents to New York City. There he attended schools and was apprenticed to a stonecutter. Broderick became active in politics as a man, joining the Democratic Party. In 1846, he was the Democratic candidate for U. S, representative from New Yorks 5th congressional district, but lost the election to the Whig candidate, who gained 42% of the vote to Brodericks 38%. In 1849, Broderick joined the California Gold Rush and he moved to San Francisco, where he engaged in smelting and assaying gold.
Broderick minted gold coins that contained less gold than their face value and his $10 coins, for example, contained $8 in gold. He used the profits to finance his political aspirations, Broderick was a member of the California State Senate from 1850 to 1852, serving as its president from 1851 to 1852. Broderick was acting Lieutenant Governor from January 9,1851 to January 8,1852, from on, Broderick effectively had political control of San Francisco, which under his utterly vicious rule soon became notorious for municipal corruption. In the words of his biographer Jeremiah Lynch, In San Francisco he became the dictator of the municipality and his political lessons and observations in New York were priceless. He introduced a modification of the organization in San Francisco with which Tammany has controlled New York for lo. these many years. At a forthcoming election a number of offices were to be filled, those of sheriff, district attorney, several of these positions were very lucrative, notably that of the sheriff, tax-collector, and assessor.
The incumbents received no specified salaries, but were entitled to all or a certain proportion of the fees and these fees occasionally exceeded $50,000 per annum. Broderick would say to the most popular or the most desirable aspirant, keep half and give me the other half, which I require to keep up our organization in the state. Without intelligent, systematic discipline, neither you nor I can win, Broderick became rich from this system. In 1856 Broderick was elected by the legislature for a seat as US Senator from California
The Argonaut was a literary journal based in San Francisco, that ran from 1877 to 1956, founded and published originally by Frank M. Pixley. The name comes from the term for gold prospectors, argonaut. The magazine was known for containing strong political Americanism combined with art, many 19th-century writers such as Ambrose Bierce, Yda Addis, and Gertrude Atherton appeared regularly in its pages. It was considered one of the most important publications in California, as a staunch Republican, Pixley used The Argonaut to support Leland Stanford and other owners of the Central Pacific Railroad. Pixley, who served as The Argonauts editor and publisher, had been Californias 8th attorney general when Stanford was governor, the journal was founded as a counterweight to Denis Kearney, an Irish-born labor leader who represented many of the Irish immigrants who worked for the railroad. Pixley, who wanted someday to become governor of California himself, was said to have handed out gold coins to sway voters, jerome Hart became the magazines editor in 1891.
The magazine was revived in 1991, by Warren Hinckle, and continues in both print and online formats
Automobile Club of Southern California
The Automobile Club of Southern California is the Southern California affiliate of the American Automobile Association federation of motor clubs. The completion of the Ridge Route greatly facilitated automobile travel through this significant mountain barrier, starting around 1910, the Auto Club sent teams of cartographers to survey the states roads for the production of maps and to create a uniform signing system. The Auto Club posted thousands of porcelain-on-steel traffic signs throughout the state, the signs were produced by a local company that manufactured porcelain-on-steel bathtubs. A few of these remain in service today, though they are extremely rare. The year 1923 marked the completion of the Auto Clubs main office on the corner of Figueroa Street, designed by architects Sumner P. Hunt and Silas R. Burns, and built in the Spanish Colonial Revival style, the building now serves as the Los Angeles branch office. The clubs headquarters are still in Los Angeles but its offices are in Costa Mesa.
From 1934 through 1941 the buildings served as the site of the Auto Clubs annual Outing Show. These events were halted after the start of the war and were never revived, the Auto Club has experienced its share of scandals. His lawsuit dragged on for over 15 years and involved two trials and three appeals, all of which Braude ultimately won. In the end, the Auto Club was forced to revise its election procedures to give board outsiders a better chance of winning seats. Today, the Automobile Club of Southern Californias affiliated insurance company and it provides coverage for automobiles, recreational vehicles and watercrafts. Unusually, it is organized as a reciprocal inter-insurance exchange rather than as an insurance company. The Auto Club is the largest member of the AAA federation, the Auto Club is still a membership organization, and provides as a member benefit maps, travel planning, emergency roadside service, and DMV services. Members receive Westways, a magazine published eight times a year and devoted to travel, branch offices stretch from Chula Vista, near the international border with Mexico, to the small town of Bishop, in Californias eastern Sierra mountains.
It went on to affiliate with AAA Northern New England in 2003, AAA Alabama was acquired in 2007. The Auto Club affiliated with AAA East Central, it affiliated with AAA Tidewater in 2012, from Central California northward, the California State Automobile Association, now called AAA Northern California, Nevada & Utah, provides services to ACSC members who travel north. AAA Northern California and ACSC are both members of the AAA federation of motor clubs, while membership is not interchangeable among AAA clubs, each club provides certain services to all AAA members on a reciprocal basis, notably roadside assistance. In recent years, the Auto Club has returned to its roots with involvement in racing, sponsoring the annual Auto Club 400 Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series race
History of California
California was settled from the North by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years. It was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America, after contact with Spanish explorers, most of the Native Americans died out from European diseases. After the Portolà expedition of 1769–70, Spanish missionaries began setting up 21 California Missions on or near the coast of Alta California, during the same period, Spanish military forces built several forts and three small towns. Two of the pueblos would eventually grow into the cities of Los Angeles, after Mexican Independence was won in 1821, California fell under the jurisdiction of the First Mexican Empire. Fearing the influence of the Roman Catholic church over their newly independent nation and they left behind a small Californio population of several thousand families, with a few small military garrisons. After the Mexican–American War of 1846-48, Mexico was forced to relinquish any claim to California to the United States, the unexpected discovery of gold in 1849 produced a spectacular gold rush in Northern California, attracting hundreds of thousand of ambitious young men from around the world.
Only a few struck it rich, and many returned home disappointed, most appreciated the other economic opportunities in California, especially in agriculture, and brought their families to join them. California became the 31st US state in 1850 and played a role in the American Civil War. Chinese immigrants increasingly came under attack from nativists, they were forced out of industry and agriculture, as gold petered out, California increasingly became a highly productive agricultural society. The coming of the railroads in 1869 linked its rich economy with the rest of the nation, in the late 19th century, Southern California, especially Los Angeles, started to grow rapidly. Different tribes of Native Americans lived in the area that is now California for an estimated 13,000 to 15,000 years, over 100 tribes and bands inhabited the area. Various estimates of the Native American population in California during the period range from 100,000 to 300,000. Californias population held about one-third of all Native Americans in what is now the United States and this popular Spanish fantasy was printed in several editions with the earliest surviving edition published about 1510.
In exploring Baja California the earliest explorers thought the Baja California peninsula was an island, mapmakers started using the name California to label the unexplored territory on the North American west coast. European explorers flying the flags of Spain and of England explored the Pacific Coast of California beginning in the mid-16th century, the first European to explore the California coast was Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, working for Spain. He died in California, and his expedition found no wealth, no advanced Indian civilization, no apparent agriculture, California was of little further interest. They depicted the Indians as living at a subsistence level. They had no apparent agriculture, no domesticated animals except dogs, no pottery, and their only tools were made out of wood, woven baskets and netting and horns
Bald Hills War
The war was fought within the boundaries of the counties of Mendocino, Humboldt and Del Norte in Northern California. The district was headquartered at Fort Humboldt, which is now a California State Historic Park located within the City of Eureka, the Districts efforts were directed at waging the ongoing Bald Hills War against the Indians in those counties. There were several causes of the Bald Hills War, the most important was the disruptive effect of commercial hunting and grazing on food plants by the herds of the settlers cattle and pigs. Hundreds of deer and elk were killed by parties of hunters for their hides and other plant foods they depended on were eaten or destroyed by pigs or cattle. The hunting and gathering economy of the Bald Hills tribes that had previously satisfied their wants was increasingly disrupted following the Klamath, ever increasing numbers of settlers and others traveling through their territory increased this disruption. From 1856 onward thousands of acres of lands were preempted for the growing of wheat, oats and potatoes.
These lands were chiefly in the valleys of Eel River, Mad River and Bear River and farms appeared in the midst of wilderness where only two or three years before there had been no sign of a white mans presence. Also the lumber industry was operating nine steam saw mills, with a capacity of 24,000,000 board feet per annum. The farmers and stockmen of Humboldt County found an outlet for their crops and realized a high price for all their produce selling them to the miners in Klamath and these goods were packed by mule and the stock driven in herds over the Bald Hills trails to the mines. Following the bad winter of 1857, the interference with the tribes food supply had become a crisis by 1858. Following a series of incidents between February and June 1858, hostilities were touched off by the killing of a packer, William E. Ross. On July 1,1858, three parties of volunteers were organized for a campaign against the Indians on Redwood Creek and Upper Mad River, on September 5,1858, Governor John B.
Communication between these places was almost suspended because traveling on that route had become exceedingly dangerous and they were asking the Governor for a military force to, open the route, and give protection and security to those who desired to travel over it. Kibbe, appointed Isaac G. Messec as Captain of the newly organized California Militia company, Messec led that unit in the Klamath & Humboldt Expedition against the Whilkut people during the fall and winter of 1858-1859. Additionally the Whilkut gradually returned from the south to their lands, the U. S. Army established Fort Gaston among the Hupa people on the Trinity River and posts in the Eel River valley to keep the peace in the area. Federal troops were unable to protect the settlers from attacks by native raiders. Settlers dispersed over the countryside were on the side of this irregular warfare. It disbanded, when funding ran out in January 1860
Ancient Bristlecone Pine Forest
The Ancient Bristlecone Pine Forest is a protected area high in the White Mountains in Inyo County in eastern California. The Great Basin Bristlecone Pine trees grow between 9,800 and 11,000 feet above sea level, in xeric alpine conditions, foxtail Pine grow in the forest. The Methuselah Grove in the Ancient Bristlecone Pine Forest is the location of the Methuselah, a Great Basin Bristlecone Pine that is 4,848 years old. For many years, it was the worlds oldest known living non-clonal organism, Methuselah is not marked in the forest, to ensure added protection from vandals. The forests mountain habitat is in the Central Basin and Range ecoregion and Taiga, the Patriarch Grove is the source of Cottonwood Creek, a designated Wild and Scenic River. On September 4,2008, an arsonist set fire to the Schulman Grove Visitor Center, the building and all the exhibits within were destroyed. Activities to rebuild the center began the day and are now complete. The Methuselah Grove trail starts from the center at 9,846 feet.
Numbered natural-history markers are explained by a booklet, the Ancient Bristlecone Pine Forest is generally open from mid-May through the end of November, weather permitting. Schulman Grove and Schulman Grove Visitor Center – daily interpretive talks and natural history lectures mid-June through Labor Day, Patriarch Grove – home of the worlds largest bristlecone pine, the Patriarch Tree, and a self-guided nature trail. Www. fs. usda. gov – Inyo National Forest official Ancient Bristlecone Pine Forest site www. fs. usda. gov – Inyo National Forest, The Natural History of the Bristlecone Pines
Annie Kennedy Bidwell, with her husband John Bidwell, was a pioneer and founder of society in the Sacramento Valley area of California in the 19th century. She is known for her contributions to social causes, such as suffrage, the temperance movement. Annie Bidwell was a friend and correspondent of Susan B, Frances Willard, and John Muir. Born Annie Ellicott Kennedy, she was the daughter of Joseph C. G. Kennedy, a politician in the Whig party, the Kennedy family lived in Washington, D. C. from Annies 10th year. Annie Bidwells strong religious beliefs motivated her to herself to social and moral causes. From her teenage years, she was associated with the Presbyterian Church and she was to commission the building of a Presbyterian Church in Chico, California. Annie Kennedy married John Bidwell on April 16,1868 in Washington and their wedding guests included Elizabeth Cady Stanton, President Andrew Johnson and future President Ulysses S. Grant. After their marriage, Annie returned with her new husband to his home in Chico, the Bidwell Mansion in Chico is now preserved as a state historic park.
While Annie and John Bidwell resided in the mansion, they were hosts to many prominent figures of their era, hayes, General William T. Sherman, Susan B. Anthony, Frances Willard, Governor Leland Stanford, John Muir, Annie was concerned for the future of the local Mechoopda Native Americans during the life of her husband, and was active in state and national Indian associations. An amateur botanist, Annie Bidwell collected the first known specimen of an annual plant which was named Bidwells knotweed. After her husbands death Annie remained a citizen of Chico. Her final act of benevolence was to donate to the city of Chico on July 10,1905, some 2,238 acres of land, since the land has remained in the public trust and is now known as Bidwell Park. ISBN 0-9708922-7-6 Review of Annie Kennedy Bidwell, An Intimate History
California Historical Landmark
California Historical Landmarks are buildings, sites, or places in the state of California that have been determined to have statewide historical landmark significance. Historical significance is determined by meeting at least one of the criteria listed below, The first, only, associated with an individual or group having a profound influence on the history of California. California Historical Landmarks of #770 and above are listed in the California Register of Historical Resources. By contrast, a site, feature, or event that is of local significance may be designated as a California Point of Historical Interest. List of California Historical Landmarks by county National Historic Sites National Register of Historic Places listings in California — with links to list articles by county, los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments San Francisco Designated Landmarks Johnson, Marael. A Guide to California Roadside Historical Markers, official OHP—California Office of Historic Preservation website OHP, California Historical Sites searchpage — links to lists by county
1989 World Series
The 1989 World Series was played between the Oakland Athletics and the San Francisco Giants. The Series ran from October 14 through October 28, with the As sweeping the Giants in four games and it was the first World Series sweep since 1976. The four game sweep by the Athletics at the time would mark only the time in World Series history that a team never trailed in any game. Until 2015, this was the last time a team would win the World Series after losing in the previous year and this marked the fourth World Series matchup, and first since 1913, between the two franchises. The previous three matchups occurred when the Giants were in New York and the Athletics resided in Philadelphia and it was the first cross-town World Series since 1956, and only the third such series that did not involve New York City. On October 17, just minutes before the start of Game 3, Candlestick Park in San Francisco suffered damage to its upper deck as pieces of concrete fell from the baffle at the top of the stadium and the power was knocked out.
The game was postponed out of concerns for the safety of everyone in the ballpark as well as the loss of power, the series resumed on October 27 and finished the next day. The October 28 finale set a record for the latest finish to a World Series at the time. The San Francisco Giants won the NL West division by three games over the San Diego Padres, defeated the Chicago Cubs four games to one in the National League Championship Series. The Oakland Athletics won the AL West division by seven games over the Kansas City Royals and it was the Giants first World Series appearance since 1962, while the Athletics were playing in their second straight Fall Classic following the 1988 Series. AL Oakland Athletics vs. NL San Francisco Giants † Game 3 was originally slated for October 17 at 5,35 pm, however, it was postponed when an earthquake occurred at 5,04 pm. Prior to Game 1, a tribute to late Commissioner Bart Giamatti was held, Giamattis son Marcus threw out the first pitch, Dave Stewart, the Athletics ace, took on Giants pitcher Scott Garrelts in game one of the Bay Bridge series.
Walt Weiss sent a soft ground ball toward first, but Giants first baseman Will Clark threw the ball low, Steinbach knocked the ball out of Kennedys mitt, scoring the second run of the inning. Kennedy was charged with an error, and Phillips advanced to second, Rickey Henderson drove in Phillips on a single to right field, the second inning ended with Oakland leading 3–0. As designated hitter Dave Parker tattooed a solo run to lead off the third off of Garrelts. Oakland starter Stewart dominated the Giants, allowing five hits in a complete game and we ran into a buzz saw, Clark said of Stewarts pitching. Little League World Series MVP and future NHL star Chris Drury threw out the ceremonial first pitch in Game 2, Oakland starter Mike Moore took on Giant Rick Reuschel. Oakland got off to a fast start, Rickey Henderson led off the bottom of the first with a walk, Henderson promptly stole second, and scored one pitch when Carney Lansford hit a double to right field
California in the American Civil War
The State of California did not send its units east, but many citizens traveled east and joined the Union Army there, some of whom became famous. Californias Volunteers conducted operations against the native peoples within the state and in the other Western territories of the Departments of the Pacific. Following the Gold Rush, California was settled primarily by Midwestern and Southern farmers, Democrats dominated the state from its foundation. In the beginning of 1861, as the crisis began, the secessionists in San Francisco made an attempt to separate the state and Oregon from the union. Patriotic fervor swept California after the attack on Fort Sumter, providing the manpower for Volunteer Regiments recruited mainly from the counties in the north of the State. When the Democratic party split over the war, Republican supporters of Lincoln took control of the state in the September elections, Volunteer Regiments were sent to occupy pro-secessionist Southern California and Tulare County, leaving them generally powerless during the war itself.
However some Southerners traveled east to join the Confederate Army, evading Union patrols, others remaining in the state attempted to outfit a privateer to prey on coastal shipping, and late in the war two groups of partisan rangers were formed but none was successful. When California was admitted as a state under the Compromise of 1850, as a result, Southerners in Congress voted against admission in 1850 while Northerners pushed it through, pointing to its population of 93,000 and its vast wealth in gold. Northern California, which was dominated by mining and commercial elites of San Francisco, in the 1856 presidential election, California gave its electoral votes to the winner, James Buchanan. The last attempt, the Pico Act of 1859, was passed by the California State Legislature, approved overwhelmingly by voters in the proposed Territory of Colorado and sent to Washington, D. C. with a strong advocate in Senator Milton Latham. However the secession crisis following the election of Lincoln in 1860 led to the proposal never coming to a vote.
In 1860 California gave a plurality of 38,733 votes to Abraham Lincoln, whose 32% of the total vote was enough to win all its electoral votes. During the secession crisis following Lincolns election, Federal troops were under the command of Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston, in Benicia, General Johnston strongly believed in the Southern right to secede but regretted that it was occurring. A group of Southern sympathizers in the state plans to secede with Oregon to form a Pacific Republic. The success of their plans rested on the cooperation of General Johnston and he told them to tell this to their Southern friends. Deprived of his aid the plans for California and Oregon to secede from the United States never came to fruition, Union men feared Johnston would aid such a plot and communicated their fears to Washington asking for his replacement. Brig. Gen. Edwin Vose Sumner was soon sent west via Panama to replace Johnston in March 1861, Johnston resigned his commission on April 9, and after Sumner arrived on April 25 turned over his command and moved with his family to Los Angeles.
He would soon travel with other Southerners across New Mexico Territory to Texas and he died at the Battle of Shiloh