Category:History of Nayarit
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- ► Archaeological sites in Nayarit (4 P)
This category has only the following subcategory.
1. Nayarit – Nayarit, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Nayarit, is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, make up the 32 federal entities of Mexico. It is divided in 20 municipalities and its capital city is Tepic and it is located in Western Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Sinaloa to the northwest, Durango to the north, Zacatecas to the northeast, to the west, Nayarit has a significant share of coastline on the Pacific Ocean, including the islands of Marías and Marietas. The beaches of San Blas and the so-called Riviera Nayarit are popular with tourists, beside tourism, the economy of the state is based mainly on agriculture and fishing. Home to Uto-Aztecan indigenous peoples such as the Huichol and Cora, Spanish governance was made difficult by indigenous rebellions and by the inhospitable terrain of the Sierra del Nayar. The last independent Cora communities were subjugated in 1722, the states name recalls the Coras label for themselves, Náayerite, commemorating Nayar, a resistance leader. Encountered on the western coast by the Spanish invaders in 1500, hernándo was the first known European to enter into the area now known as Nayarit, which claimed for Spain as part of the colony of Nueva Galicia. As the Spaniards invaded the area, led by Nuño de Guzman, their brutality caused the inhabitants to revolt. After almost two centuries of resistance, the last independent Cora communities were incorporated into the administration by force in 1722. Then followed intense missionary efforts by Jesuit friars, in the colonial period, the port of San Blas was one of the most important trade ports on the American Pacific coast. Galleons transporting goods from Manila, the Philippines arrived here before the rise of the port of Acapulco, today, the town still boasts colonial architecture from the its heyday, such as the aduana, contaduria and the fortress that protected the port against pirates. In Nayarit, the struggle for independence from Spain was initiated by the priest José María Mercado, with the first independent constitution of 1824, Nayarit was a part of Jalisco state. During the second half of the 19th century, Nayarit was one of the most turbulent territories in Mexico, the population was in open revolt, demanding access to land. Nayarit was one of the last territories admitted as a state of the Mexican federation, Nayarit covers 27,815 square kilometers, making it one of the smaller states in Mexico. Nayarit is located between latitude lines 23°05 north and 20°36 south and longitude lines 103°43 east and 105°46 west and its terrain is broken up by the western ends of the Sierra Madre Occidental mountains. Its highest mountains are, San Juan, Sanguangüey, El Ceboruco, Nayarit has two volcanoes, Ceboruco and Sangangüey. In the northeast are broad, tropical plains watered by the Río Grande de Santiago, the main state rivers are the Río Grande de Santiago, San Pedro, Acaponeta, Ameca and Las Cañas. The Río Grande de Santiago is the largest river in Nayarit, the Santiago and its tributaries are of major importance for agricultural irrigation
2. Mexico – Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a federal republic in the southern half of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States, to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea, and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost two million square kilometers, Mexico is the sixth largest country in the Americas by total area, Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and a federal district that is also its capital and most populous city. Other metropolises include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana, pre-Columbian Mexico was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations, such as the Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Maya and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, Three centuries later, this territory became Mexico following recognition in 1821 after the colonys Mexican War of Independence. The tumultuous post-independence period was characterized by instability and many political changes. The Mexican–American War led to the cession of the extensive northern borderlands, one-third of its territory. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, the dictatorship was overthrown in the Mexican Revolution of 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the countrys current political system. Mexico has the fifteenth largest nominal GDP and the eleventh largest by purchasing power parity, the Mexican economy is strongly linked to those of its North American Free Trade Agreement partners, especially the United States. Mexico was the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts. By 2050, Mexico could become the fifth or seventh largest economy. The country is considered both a power and middle power, and is often identified as an emerging global power. Due to its culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas. Mexico is a country, ranking fourth in the world by biodiversity. In 2015 it was the 9th most visited country in the world, Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus and the Pacific Alliance. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely, the Valley of Mexico, and its people, the Mexica and this became the future State of Mexico as a division of New Spain prior to independence. It is generally considered to be a toponym for the valley became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result. After New Spain won independence from Spain, representatives decided to name the new country after its capital and this was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan
3. Cora people – The Cora are an indigenous ethnic group of Western Central Mexico which live in the municipality El Nayar in the Mexican state of Nayarit and in a few settlements in the neighboring state of Jalisco. They call themselves náayerite, whence the name of the present day Mexican state of Nayarit, of these 24 thousand,67 percent were reported to speak Cora,17 percent were nonspeakers, and the remaining 16 percent were unspecified with regard to their language. The Cora cultivate maize, beans, and amaranth and they raise some cattle, the Cora live in the rugged mountain and canyon country of Nayarit and across the border in neighboring Jalisco, Durango, and Zacatecas. In the early 18th century they were an anomaly in that they had never permitted Catholic missionaries to live in their country and they had become a pagan island in a sea of Christian Indians and Hispanic culture. In 1716, a Spanish expedition to attempt to bring the Cora under Spanish control failed, however, in 1722, the Spanish returned in force and the Cora yielded. According to Spanish accounts many of them became Christian and practice, up until the present, the ancestral Cora religion has three principal divinities. The supreme god is the sun god, Tayau, our father and he travels across the sky during the day, sitting down in his golden throne at noon. Clouds are believed to be smoke from his pipe, in earlier times the priests of Tayau, the tonatí, were the highest authority of the Cora communities. His wife is Tetewan, the goddess associated with the moon, rain. Her alternate names are Hurima and Nasisa and their son, Sautari, the flower picker, is associated with maize and the afternoon. Other names for him are Hatsikan, big brother, Tahás and he is also associated with Jesus Christ. Some Cora myths clearly have Mesoamerican origins, for example, the myth of the creation of the fifth sun, the Cora language belongs to the Corachol languages branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family. It has two dialects, El Nayar and Santa Teresa, Cora, a no longer unknown Southern Uto-Aztecan language. In José Luis Moctezuma Zamarrón and Jane H. Hill, Avances y balances de lenguas yutoaztecas, instituto Nacional de Antropología y Historia. Nàyari history, politics, and violence, from flowers to ash, the customs of our ancestors, Cora religious conversion and millennialism, 2000–1722. Los Coras de la Sierra de Nayarit, Mexico, Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas, Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo. Series, Pueblos Indígenas del México Contemporáneo, McMahon, Ambrosio & Maria Aiton de McMahon. Series de Vocabularios Indigenas Mariano Silva y Aceves, sturtevant, Handbook of North American Indians
4. Francisco Tenamaztle – Francisco Tenamaztle, also Tenamaxtlan, Tenamaxtli or Tenamaxtle, was a leader of the Caxcan Indians in Mexico during the Mixton War of 1540–1542. He was later put on trial in Spain, with the support of Bartolomé de las Casas he defended the justice of his cause by appealing to King Carlos I. Over a six-year period Guzman conducted frequent violent slave raids throughout Northern Mexico, Tenamaztle was baptized a Catholic sometime after Guzman’s expedition and given the Christian name Francisco. He became “Lord Tlatoani of Nochistlan, ” an urban center, however, the Caxcanes seem to have been sedentary, depending upon agriculture for their livelihood and living in permanent towns and settlements. They were, perhaps, the most northerly of the agricultural, presumably at the same time as his baptism, Tenamaztle also swore allegiance to the Spanish crown and was confirmed in his position and any property he owned. Spanish rule, however, was oppressive and in mid-1540 the Caxcanes and their allies, the command structure of the Caxcanes is unknown but the most prominent leader who emerged was Tenamaztle. The spark which set off the Míxton War was apparently the arrest of 18 rebellious Indian leaders, later in the same year the Indians rose up to kill the encomendero Juan de Arze. Spanish authorities also became aware that the Indians were participating in “devilish” dances, after killing two Catholic priests, many Indians fled the encomiendas and took refuge in the mountains, especially on the hill fortress of Mixton. Acting Governor Cristobal de Oñate led a Spanish and Indian force to quell the rebellion, the Caxcanes killed a peace delegation of one priest and ten Spanish soldiers. Oñate attempted to storm Mixtón, but the Indians on the summit repelled his attack, Oñate then requested reinforcements from the capital, Mexico City. The Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza called upon the experienced conquistador Pedro de Alvarado to assist in putting down the revolt, Alvarado declined to await reinforcements and attacked Mixton in June 1541 with four hundred Spaniards and an unknown number of Indian allies. He was met there by an Indian army, estimated by the Spanish to number 15,000, under Tenamaztle and Don Diego, the first attack of the Spanish was repulsed with ten Spaniards and many Indian allies killed. Subsequent attacks by Alvarado were also unsuccessful and on June 24 he was crushed when a horse fell on him and he subsequently died on July 4. Emboldened, the Indians led by Tenamaztle attacked Guadalajara in September but were repulsed, the Indian army retired to Nochistlan and other strongpoints. The Spanish authorities were now thoroughly alarmed and feared that the revolt would spread and they assembled a force of 450 Spaniards and 30 to 60 thousand Aztec, Tlaxcalan and other Indians and under Viceroy Mendoza invaded the land of the Caxcanes. With his overwhelming force, Mendoza reduced the Indian strongholds one-by-one in a war of no quarter, on November 9,1541, he captured the city of Nochistlan and Tenamaztle—but the Indian leader later escaped. In early 1542 the stronghold of Mixton fell to the Spaniards, by the viceroys order men, women and children were seized and executed, some by cannon fire, some torn apart by dogs, and others stabbed. The reports of the violence against civilian Indians caused the Council of the Indies to undertake a secret investigation into the conduct of the viceroy
5. Nueva Galicia – El Nuevo Reino de Galicia or simply Nueva Galicia was an autonomous kingdom of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. It was named after Galicia in Spain, Nueva Galicias territory became the present-day Mexican states of Aguascalientes, Colima, Jalisco, Nayarit and Zacatecas. Spanish exploration of the began in 1531 with Nuño Beltrán de Guzmáns expedition. He named the city founded in the area Villa de Guadalajara after his birthplace. Instead Queen Joanna, at the moment the acting regent of Spain, Guzmáns violent conquest left Spanish control of the area unstable, and within a decade full war had reemerged between the settlers and the Native peoples of the area. The Mixtón War, which lasted from 1540–1541, pitted an alliance of Coras, Gauchichiles, nine years later the Chichimeca War broke out, this time pitting mostly Zacatecos against their former allies, the Caxcan, who had now allied with the Spanish. Nahuas from the Valley of Mexico moved into the region along with the Spanish as the area was settled, in the last decades of the sixteenth century Huichols also arrived. Given the growing wealth of the region with the discovery of silver to the north, especially in Nueva Vizcaya, the Audiencia of Guadalajara had oversight of all the northern mainland provinces of the Viceroyalty. The Audencia at first was subordinate to the Royal Audiencia of Mexico but was independent in 1572. This enabled New Galicia to be ruled largely separate from the rest of the Viceroyalty, there are a number of published chronicles on colonial Nueva Galicia. A1621 account by Domingo Lázaro de Arregui, Descripción de la Nueva Galicia gives considerable information about the peoples of the area. In the late 18th century, as part of the Bourbon Reforms, in 1824, after Mexican independence was consolidated, the kingdom was transformed into the State of Jalisco and the Territory of Colima. Province of Nueva Galicia Province, Nayarit and Jalisco, Province of Los Zacatecas Province, Aguascalientes and Zacatecas. Intendancy of Guadalajara, Nayarit, Jalisco and Colima, Intendancy of Zacatecas, Aguascalientes and Zacatecas. Real Audiencia of Guadalajara List of governors of New Galicia La Gran Chichimeca History of Mexico Worldstatesmen. org, Provinces of New Spain