Category:Holders of the office of fermier général
Pages in category "Holders of the office of fermier général"
The following 16 pages are in this category, out of 16 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 16 pages are in this category, out of 16 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Nicolas Beaujon – Nicolas Beaujon was a wealthy French banker at the Court of King Louis XV. The portrait of Nicolas Beaujon seen here was painted by Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun in 1784, Nicolas Beaujon, the eldest son, followed in the family footsteps and early made a fortune in commodities, mostly grain, and most notably during yet another famine. Private entrepreneurs often stepped in at this sort of juncture, alleviating the misery whilst lining their own pockets, as was sometimes the case when private individuals undertook large relief operations for a profit, charges of profiteering arose from some critical locals. During this period he became a Farmer General, around this time he also gained entry into the Conseil dEtat or Council of State under Louis XV. In 1773, he bought, for the price of one million livres fixed by the Abbé de Terray and he employed the architect Étienne-Louis Boullée to make substantial alterations to the buildings and to design an English-style garden. On display was his art collection which included such well-known masterpieces as Holbeins The Ambassadors. His architectural alterations and art galleries gave this residence international renown as one of the homes of Paris. Beaujon owned it until the year of his death, when he transferred the property to King Louis XVI, Napoleon was also to sign his abdication at the palace in Beaujons silver boudoir. Other famous residents included Russian Tsar Alexander I, the Duke of Wellington, the Elysée only became the Presidential Palace in 1848, which it has remained to this day. In addition to his city palace, Beaujon also commissioned the architect Girardin to create a folie for him on the land attached to his principal residence. At times Beaujon would have all together in his central apartment to amuse him of an evening with their brilliant conversation. It is to be mentioned that this existence is only attested for the period after the early death of his wife in 1769. They had had no children, and Beaujon never remarried, having found this alternative domestic arrangement more to his liking and she went on to marry Jean Frédéric Perregaux, the first president of the Banque de France which he helped to create under Napoleon. In 1784 Beaujon founded, on his grounds, the Hôpital Beaujon, originally intended for poor orphans, becoming a hospital during the Revolution, in 1795. Unfortunately, during the upheavals of the French Revolution, his tomb was desecrated and his immense fortune was left to his wifes niece Charlotte Bontemps Duchess de La Châtre and Marchioness de Jaucourt of whom descendants exist todayNicolas Beaujon – Nicolas Beaujon, 1784
2. Louis de Bechamel – Louis de Béchameil, marquis de Nointel was a French financier and patron of the arts. Son of Jean-Baptiste Béchameil, Louis was a tax farmer and superintendent to the house of the Duke of Orléans, he was intendant of Brittany. In 1697, Béchameil bought the marquisat of Nointel and later became Louis XIVs head steward, in 1698, Béchameil published another document focusing on the fiscal system. Béchameil was an art lover who was directed by the King to found the Academy at Angers, for which he delivered the opening address and served as director. He was a patron of Watteau, who painted a series of panels with figures for the hôtel de Nointel, Paris, doubtless, from the nature of the allegories. Béchameil and his wife, Marie Colbert had two children, Marie Louise Béchameil de Nointel and Louis Béchameil de Nointel. The white sauce called béchamel sauce acquired its name from him for he perfected an older sauce made from cream originally made by François Pierre de la Varenne, the cook of the marquis dUxelles. The sauce was dedicated to Béchameil to flatter him, at which the Duke of Escars commented, That fellow Béchameil has all the luck. I was serving breast of chicken à la crème more than 20 years before he was born, but I have never had the chance of giving my name to even the most modest sauceLouis de Bechamel – Béchamel and broccoli
3. Jean-Benjamin de La Borde – Jean-Benjamin de La Borde was a French composer, writer on music and fermier général. Born into a family, he studied violin under Antoine Dauvergne. From 1762 to 1774, he served at the court of Louis XV as premier valet de la chambre and he wrote many operas, mostly comic, and a four-volume collection of songs for solo voice, Choix de chansons mises en musique illustrated by Jean-Michel Moreau. Many of the songs from the collection were published individually through the efforts of the English folksong collector Lucy Etheldred Broadwood. His Essai sur la musique ancienne et moderne was published in 1780, La Borde was guillotined during the French Revolution in 1794Jean-Benjamin de La Borde – Jean-Benjamin de La Borde
4. Jean-Joseph de Laborde – Jean-Joseph, marquis de Laborde was a French politician. Laborde was born near Jaca in Aragon, into a modest béarnaise family, when he reached adolescence he joined his uncle, who was head of a maritime import-export company at Saint-Jean-de-Luz, and took over as head of the business on the cousins death. He based his subsequent fortune not only on this company, but also on transatlantic trade and his dazzling rise, comparable to that of several bourgeois men of the age of Enlightenment, gained him promotion to noble rank and allowed him to acquire several estates. He became fermier général on the suggestion of his friend the duc de Choiseul and he took up residence in the château de La Ferté-Vidame in 1764, redecorating it to his taste and commissioning several artists. Laborde was named marquis and in 1784 acquired the castle of Méréville, in politics, he was ahead of his time and of the French Revolution, and was one of the only noble députés to accept demotion to the Third Estate upon the Revolution. However, this was not enough to him from being guillotined under the loi des suspects on the orders of Louis de Saint-Just. In 1792 much of the fabulous Orleans Collection of paintings was briefly his, before he was forced by events to abandon his ambition to exhibit them in his Paris house, Laborde died in 1794 in Paris. Jean Joseph de Laborde, protecteur de F. X, fabre et sa collection confisquée en 1794. Bulletin de la société dhistoire de lart français, le Mécénat des financiers au XVIIIe siècle. Les collections de peinture de Jean-Joseph, marquis de Laborde, mémoires de Jean Joseph de Laborde, banquier de la cour et fermier général. Bulletin de la société dhistoire de France, Jean Joseph Laborde, négociant bourgeois bayonnais, banquier du roy, victime de la Terreur. Bulletin de la société des sciences, lettres et arts de Bayonne,1967, Jean-Joseph de La Borde, banquier de Louis XV, mécène des LumièresJean-Joseph de Laborde – Jean-Joseph de Laborde
5. Antoine Lavoisier – Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier was a French nobleman and chemist central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology. He is widely considered in popular literature as the father of modern chemistry and it is generally accepted that Lavoisiers great accomplishments in chemistry largely stem from his changing the science from a qualitative to a quantitative one. Lavoisier is most noted for his discovery of the role oxygen plays in combustion and he recognized and named oxygen and hydrogen and opposed the phlogiston theory. Lavoisier helped construct the system, wrote the first extensive list of elements. He predicted the existence of silicon and was also the first to establish that sulfur was an element rather than a compound and he discovered that, although matter may change its form or shape, its mass always remains the same. Lavoisier was a member of a number of aristocratic councils. All of these political and economic activities enabled him to fund his scientific research, at the height of the French Revolution, he was accused by Jean-Paul Marat of selling adulterated tobaccoand of other crimes, and was eventually guillotined a year after Marats death. Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier was born to a family of the nobility in Paris on 26 August 1743. The son of an attorney at the Parliament of Paris, he inherited a fortune at the age of five with the passing of his mother. Lavoisier began his schooling at the Collège des Quatre-Nations, University of Paris in Paris in 1754 at the age of 11, in his last two years at the school, his scientific interests were aroused, and he studied chemistry, botany, astronomy, and mathematics. Lavoisier entered the school of law, where he received a degree in 1763. Lavoisier received a law degree and was admitted to the bar, however, he continued his scientific education in his spare time. Lavoisiers education was filled with the ideals of the French Enlightenment of the time and he attended lectures in the natural sciences. Lavoisiers devotion and passion for chemistry were largely influenced by Étienne Condillac and his first chemical publication appeared in 1764. From 1763 to 1767, he studied geology under Jean-Étienne Guettard, in collaboration with Guettard, Lavoisier worked on a geological survey of Alsace-Lorraine in June 1767. In 1768 Lavoisier received an appointment to the Academy of Sciences. In 1769, he worked on the first geological map of France, on behalf of the Ferme générale Lavoisier commissioned the building of a wall around Paris so that customs duties could be collected from those transporting goods into and out of the city. Lavoisier attempted to introduce reforms in the French monetary and taxation system to help the peasants, Lavoisier consolidated his social and economic position when, in 1771 at age 28, he married Marie-Anne Pierrette Paulze, the 13-year-old daughter of a senior member of the Ferme généraleAntoine Lavoisier – Line engraving by Louis Jean Desire Delaistre, after a design by Julien Leopold Boilly
6. Claude Nicolas Ledoux – Claude-Nicolas Ledoux was one of the earliest exponents of French Neoclassical architecture. His greatest works were funded by the French monarchy and came to be perceived as symbols of the Ancien Régime rather than Utopia, the French Revolution hampered his career, much of his work was destroyed in the nineteenth century. In 1804, he published a collection of his designs under the title LArchitecture considérée sous le rapport de lart, in this book he took the opportunity of revising his earlier designs, making them more rigorously neoclassical and up to date. This revision has distorted an accurate assessment of his role in the evolution of Neoclassical architecture and his most ambitious work was the uncompleted Royal Saltworks at Arc-et-Senans, an idealistic and visionary town showing many examples of architecture parlante. Conversely his works and commissions included the more mundane and everyday architecture such as approximately sixty elaborate tollgates around Paris in the Wall of the General Tax Farm. Ledoux was born in 1736 in Dormans-sur-Marne, the son of a modest merchant from Champagne, at an early age his mother, Francoise Domino, and godmother, Francoise Piloy, encouraged him to develop his drawing skills. Later the Abbey of Sassenage funded his studies in Paris at the Collège de Beauvais and he then trained under Pierre Contant dIvry, and also made the acquaintance of Jean-Michel Chevotet. These two eminent Parisian architects designed in both the restrained French Rococo manner, known as the Louis XV style and in the Goût grec phase of early Neoclassicism, the two master architects introduced Ledoux to their affluent clientele. One of Ledouxs first patrons was the Baron Crozat de Thiers, another client obtained through the auspices of his teachers was Président Hocquart de Montfermeil and his sister, Mme de Montesquiou. In 1762, the young Ledoux was commissioned to redecorate the Café Godeau, the result was an interior of trompe loeil and mirrors. Pilasters painted on the walls were interspersed with alternating Pier glasses and panels painted with trophies of helmets and weaponry, in 1969 this interior was moved to the Musée Carnavalet. The following year the Marquis de Montesquiou-Fézensac commissioned Ledoux to redesign the old hilltop château on his estate at Mauperthuis, Ledoux rebuilt the château and created new gardens, replete with fountains supplied by an aqueduct. In addition in the gardens and park he built an orangery, in 1764, he designed for Président Hocquart, a Palladian house on the Chaussée dAntin using the colossal order. On 26 July 1764, in the Saint-Eustache Church, Paris, Ledoux married Marie Bureau, a friend from Champagne, Joseph Marin Masson de Courcelles, found him a position as the architect for the Water and Forestry Department. Here between 1764 and 1770 he worked on the renovation and designs of churches, bridges, wells, fountains and schools, in Tonnerrois, Sénonais and Bassigny. In 1766 Ledoux began designing the Hôtel dHallwyll, a building that, according to the Dijon architect Jacques Cellerier, received widespread praise, the owner Franz-Joseph dHallwyll and his wife, Marie-Thérèse Demidorge, were anxious to ensure work was executed economically. Therefore, Ledoux had to reuse portions of the existing buildings and he had envisaged two colonnades in the Doric order leading to a nymphaeum decorated with urns at the foot of the garden. However, the limitations of the site made this impossible, so Ledoux resorted to trompe loeil painting a colonnade on the wall of the neighboring conventClaude Nicolas Ledoux – Portrait of Claude Nicolas Ledoux by Martin Drolling, 1790
7. Pierre-Paul Riquet – Pierre-Paul Riquet, Baron de Bonrepos was the engineer and canal-builder responsible for the construction of the Canal du Midi. Paul Riquet was born in Béziers, Hérault, France, the eldest son of solicitor, state prosecutor, as a youth, Riquet was only interested in mathematics and science. He married Catherine de Milhau at age 19, as a fermier général of Languedoc-Roussillon, he was a tax farmer responsible for the collection and administration of the gabelle in Languedoc. He was appointed collector in 1630, and was also a provider to the Catalonian Army. Riquet became wealthy and was given permission by the King to levy his own taxes and this gave him greater wealth, which allowed him to execute grand projects with technical expertise. The logistics were immense and complex, so much so that other engineers including the ancient Romans had discussed the idea but not proceeded with it. Even so, Louis XIV was keen for the project to proceed, largely because of the increasing cost and danger of transporting cargo, planning, financing, and construction of the Canal du Midi completely absorbed Riquet from 1665 forward. Numerous problems occurred, including navigating around many hills and providing a system that would feed the canal with water through the dry summer months, the high cost of construction depleted Riquets personal fortune and the seemingly insurmountable problems caused his sponsors, including Louis XIV, to lose interest. Riquets major engineering achievements included the Fonserannes Lock Staircase and the Malpas Tunnel, the canal was completed in 1681, eight months after Riquets death. He is buried in the Cathedral Saint-Etienne in ToulousePierre-Paul Riquet – Portrait of Pierre-Paul Riquet