Pages in category "Hulagu Khan"
The following 8 pages are in this category, out of 8 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 8 pages are in this category, out of 8 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Hulagu Khan – Hulagu Khan, also known as Hülegü or Hulegu, was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Western Asia. Son of Tolui and the Keraite princess Sorghaghtani Beki, he was a grandson of Genghis Khan and brother of Ariq Böke, Möngke Khan, and Kublai Khan. Hulagus army greatly expanded the portion of the Mongol Empire, founding the Ilkhanate of Persia, a precursor to the eventual Safavid dynasty. Under Hulagus leadership, the siege of Baghdad destroyed the greatest center of Islamic power and also weakened Damascus, Hulagu was born to Tolui, one of Genghis Khans sons, and Sorghaghtani Beki, an influential Keraite princess. Sorghaghtani successfully navigated Mongol politics, arranging for all of her sons to become Mongol leaders and she was a Christian of the Church of the East and Hulagu was friendly to Christianity. Hulagus favorite wife, Doquz Khatun, was also a Christian, as was his closest friend and general and it is recorded however that he converted to Buddhism as he neared death, against the will of Doquz Khatun. The erection of a Buddhist temple at Ḵoy testifies his interest in that religion, Hulagu had at least three children, Abaqa Khan, Tekuder, and Taraqai. Abaqa was second Ilkhan of Iran from 1265–82, Teguder Ahmad was third Ilkhan from 1282–84, the order of birth is listed as Abaqa, Hyaxemet, Tandon, Teguder, then Taraqai. His daughter-in-law, Absh Khatun, was sent to Shiraz to reign in 1263, Hulagus brother Möngke Khan had been installed as Great Khan in 1251. In 1255, Möngke charged Hulagu with leading a massive Mongol army to conquer or destroy the remaining Muslim states in southwestern Asia, Möngke ordered Hulagu to treat kindly those who submitted and utterly destroy those who did not. Hulagu vigorously carried out the part of these instructions. Hulagu marched out with perhaps the largest Mongol army ever assembled – by order of Möngke and he easily destroyed the Lurs, and the Assassins surrendered their impregnable fortress of Alamut without a fight, accepting a deal that spared the lives of their people. Hulagus Mongol army set out for Baghdad in November 1257, once near the city he divided his forces to threaten the city on both the east and west banks of the Tigris. Hulagu demanded surrender, but the caliph, Al-Mustasim, refused, the caliphs army repulsed some of the forces attacking from the west but were defeated in the next battle. The attacking Mongols broke dikes and flooded the ground behind the caliphs army, much of the army was slaughtered or drowned. The Mongols under Chinese general Guo Kan laid siege to the city on January 29,1258, constructing a palisade, the battle was short by siege standards. By February 5 the Mongols controlled a stretch of the wall, the caliph tried to negotiate but was refused. The Mongols swept into the city on February 13 and began a week of destruction, the Grand Library of Baghdad, containing countless precious historical documents and books on subjects ranging from medicine to astronomy, was destroyed
2. Battle of Ain Jalut – The Battle of Ain Jalut took place on 3 September 1260 between Muslim Mamluks and the Mongols in the southeastern Galilee, in the Jezreel Valley, not far from the site of Zirin. The battle marked the south-westernmost extent of Mongol conquests, and was the first time a Mongol advance had been permanently halted. This was blamed on the death of the then-Khagan Möngke Khan. This left Hulagus lieutenant, Kitbuga, with only a detachment of soldiers. When Möngke Khan became Great Khan in 1251, he set out to implement his grandfather Genghis Khans plan for world empire. To lead the task of subduing the nations of the West, he selected his brother, another of Genghis Khans grandsons, assembling the army took five years, and it was not until 1256 that Hulagu was prepared to begin the invasions. Operating from the Mongol base in Persia, Hulagu proceeded south, Möngke Khan had ordered good treatment for those who yielded without resistance, and destruction for those who did not. In this way Hulagu and his army had conquered some of the most powerful, other countries in the Mongols path submitted to Mongol authority, and contributed forces to the Mongol army. By the time that the Mongols reached Baghdad, their army included Cilician Armenians, the Hashshashin in Persia fell, the 500-year-old Abbasid Caliphate of Baghdad was destroyed, and so too fell the Ayyubid dynasty in Damascus. Hulagus plan was to then proceed southwards through the Kingdom of Jerusalem towards the Mamluk Sultanate, in 1260, Hulagu sent envoys to Qutuz in Cairo, demanding his surrender, From the King of Kings of the East and West, the Great Khan. To Qutuz the Mamluk, who fled to escape our swords and you should think of what happened to other countries and submit to us. You have heard how we have conquered a vast empire and have purified the earth of the disorders that tainted it and we have conquered vast areas, massacring all the people. You cannot escape from the terror of our armies, what road will you use to escape us. Our horses are swift, our arrows sharp, our swords like thunderbolts, our hearts as hard as the mountains, fortresses will not detain us, nor armies stop us. Your prayers to God will not avail against us and we are not moved by tears nor touched by lamentations. Only those who beg our protection will be safe, hasten your reply before the fire of war is kindled. Resist and you suffer the most terrible catastrophes. We will shatter your mosques and reveal the weakness of your God and then will kill your children, at present you are the only enemy against whom we have to march
3. Franco-Mongol alliance – Several attempts at a Franco-Mongol alliance against the Islamic caliphates, their common enemy, were made by various leaders among the Frankish Crusaders and the Mongol Empire in the 13th century. Such an alliance might have seemed an obvious choice, the Mongols were already sympathetic to Christianity, the Franks and Mongols also shared a common enemy in the Muslims. However, despite many messages, gifts, and emissaries over the course of several decades, communications tended to follow a recurring pattern, the Europeans asked the Mongols to convert to Western Christianity, while the Mongols responded with demands for submission and tribute. Other Christian leaders such as the Crusaders of Acre were more mistrustful of the Mongols, European attitudes began to change in the mid-1260s, from perceiving the Mongols as enemies to be feared, to potential allies against the Muslims. The Mongols sought to capitalize on this, promising a re-conquered Jerusalem to the Europeans in return for cooperation, the Mongol Empire eventually dissolved into civil war, and the Egyptian Mamluks successfully recaptured all of Palestine and Syria from the Crusaders. After the Fall of Acre in 1291, the remaining Crusaders retreated to the island of Cyprus, with the Fall of Ruad in 1302 or 1303, the Crusaders lost their last foothold in the Holy Land. Traditionally, the Mongols tended to see outside parties as either subjects or enemies, among Western Europeans, there had long been rumors and expectations that a great Christian ally would come from the East. These rumors circulated as early as the First Crusade, and usually surged in popularity after the Crusaders lost a battle, a legend arose about a figure known as Prester John, who lived in far-off India, Central Asia, or perhaps even Ethiopia. This legend developed a life of its own, and some individuals who came from the East were greeted with expectations that they might be sent by the long-awaited Prester John. In 1210, news reached the West of the battles of the Mongol Kuchlug, kuchlugs forces had been battling the powerful Khwarezmian Empire, whose leader was the Muslim Muhammad II of Khwarezm. Rumors circulated in Europe that Kuchlug was the mythical Prester John, Mongol raiding parties were beginning to invade the eastern Islamic world, in Transoxania and Persia in 1219–1221. In a letter dated June 20,1221, Pope Honorius III even commented about forces coming from the Far East to rescue the Holy Land. After Genghis Khans death in 1227, his empire was divided by his descendants into four sections or Khanates, the southwestern section, known as the Ilkhanate, was under the leadership of Genghis Khans grandson Hulagu. He continued to support his brother, the Great Khan, and was therefore at war with the Golden Horde, while at the time continuing an advance towards Persia. The Mongol invasion of Europe ended in 1242, in part because of the death of the Great Khan Ögedei, when one Great Khan died, Mongols from all parts of the empire were recalled to the capital to decide who should be the next Great Khan. In the meantime, the Mongols relentless march westward had displaced the Khawarizmi Turks, along the way, the Turks took Jerusalem from the Christians in 1244. After the subsequent loss at the Battle of La Forbie, Christian kings began to prepare for a new crusade, the loss of Jerusalem caused some Europeans to look to the Mongols as potential allies of Christendom, provided the Mongols could be converted to Western Christianity. In March 1245, Pope Innocent IV had issued multiple papal bulls, some of which were sent with an envoy, the Franciscan John of Plano Carpini, to the Emperor of the Tartars
4. Ilkhanate – The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate, was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu. It was founded in the 13th century and was based primarily in Iran as well as neighboring territories, such as present-day Azerbaijan and the central and eastern parts of present-day Turkey. The Ilkhanate was originally based on the campaigns of Genghis Khan in the Khwarazmian Empire in 1219–24 and was founded by Hulagu Khan, with the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259 it became a functionally separate khanate. At its greatest extent, the state expanded into territories that comprise most of Iran, Iraq, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkmenistan, Turkey, western Afghanistan. Later Ilkhanate rulers, beginning with Ghazan in 1295, would convert to Islam, according to the historian Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, Kublai Khan granted Hulagu the title of Ilkhan after his defeat of Ariq Böke. The term il-Khan means subordinate khan and refers to their initial deference to Möngke Khan, the title Ilkhan, borne by the descendants of Hulagu and later other Borjigin princes in Persia, does not materialize in the sources until after 1260. When Muhammad II of Khwarezm executed a contingent of merchants dispatched by the Mongols, the Mongols overran the empire, occupying the major cities and population centers between 1219 and 1221. Persian Iraq was ravaged by the Mongol detachment under Jebe and Subedei, Transoxiana also came under Mongol control after the invasion. The undivided area west of the Transoxiana was the inheritance of Genghis Khans Borjigin family, thus, the families of the latters four sons appointed their officials under the Great Khans governors, Chin-Temür, Nussal, and Korguz, in that region. Muhammads son Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu returned to Iran in c.1224 after his exile in India, the rival Turkic states, which were all that remained of his fathers empire, quickly declared their allegiance to Jalal. He repulsed the first Mongol attempt to take Central Persia, however, Jalal ad-Din was overwhelmed and crushed by Chormaqans army sent by the Great Khan Ögedei in 1231. During the Mongol expedition, Azerbaijan and the southern Persian dynasties in Fars and Kerman voluntarily submitted to the Mongols, to the west, Hamadan and the rest of Persia was secured by Chormaqan. The Mongols invaded Armenia and Georgia in 1234 or 1236, completing the conquest of the Kingdom of Georgia in 1238 and they began to attack the western parts of Greater Armenia, which was under the Seljuks, the following year. In 1236 Ögedei was commanded to raise up Khorassan and proceeded to populate Herat, the Mongol military governors mostly made camp in the Mughan plain in what is now Azerbaijan. Realizing the danger posed by the Mongols, the rulers of Mosul, Chormaqan divided the Transcaucasia region into three districts based on the Mongol military hierarchy. In Georgia, the population was divided into eight tumens. By 1237 the Mongol Empire had subjugated most of Persia, Armenia, Georgia, as well as all of Afghanistan and Kashmir. After the battle of Köse Dağ in 1243, the Mongols under Baiju occupied Anatolia, while the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm and the Empire of Trebizond became vassals of the Mongols
5. Mongol raids into Palestine – Mongol raids into Palestine took place towards the end of the Crusades, following the temporarily successful Mongol invasions of Syria, primarily in 1260 and 1300. Following each of these invasions, there existed a period of a few months during which the Mongols were able to launch raids southward into Palestine, the raids were executed by a relatively small part of the Mongol army, which proceeded to loot, kill, and destroy. The Mongols took the city of Aleppo, and on March 1,1260, they conquered Damascus, with the Islamic power centres of Baghdad and Damascus gone, Cairo, under the Mamluks, became the centre of Islamic power. The Mongols probably would have continued their advance on through Palestine towards Egypt, hulagu departed with the bulk of his forces, leaving only about 10,000 Mongol horsemen in Syria under his Nestorian Christian general Kitbuqa, to occupy the conquered territory. A Mongol garrison, of about 1,000, was placed in Gaza, the devastation of this raid on the Samaritan community of Nablus is recorded in the Tolidah. Many men, women and children were killed and ׳Uzzī, son of the High Priest ׳Amram ben Itamar, was captured and he was later ransomed by the community. Hulagu also sent a message to King Louis IX of France, however, modern historians believe that though Jerusalem may have been subject to at least one Mongol raid during this time, that it was not otherwise occupied or formally conquered. At the time, the Franks appear to have regarded the Mongols as a threat than the Muslims. The Mamluks achieved a victory, which was important for the region. It became the mark for the Mongol conquests, as after this battle, even if he Mongols would again attempt several invasions of Syria. Even then, they again they would hold territory for only a few months, when the Mongol general Kitbuqa sent his nephew with a small force to obtain redress, they were ambushed and killed by Julian. Kitbuqa responded forcefully by raiding the city of Sidon, destroying walls and slaying Christians although it is said that the castle remained untaken. In 1269, the English Prince Edward, inspired by tales of his uncle, Richard the Lionheart and the Second Crusade of the French king, Louis VII, started on a crusade of his own, the Ninth Crusade. Many of the members of Edwards expedition were close friends and family, including his wife Eleanor of Castile, his brother Edmund, when Edward finally arrived in Acre on May 9,1271, he immediately sent an embassy to the Mongol ruler Abaqa. Edwards plan was to use the help of the Mongols to attack the Muslim leader Baibars, the embassy was led by Reginald Russel, Godefrey Welles and John Parker. Abaqa answered positively to Edwards request in a letter dated September 4,1271, and they killed all the Sarazins they found. In mid-October 1271, the Mongol troops requested by Edward arrived in Syria, the Mongols defeated the Turcoman troops that protected Aleppo, putting to flight the Mamluk garrison in that city, and continued their advance to Maarat an-Numan and Apamea. When Baibars mounted a counteroffensive from Egypt on November 12, the Mongols had already retreated beyond the Euphrates, unable to face the full Mamluk army
6. Siege of Baghdad (1258) – The Mongols were under the command of Hulagu Khan, brother of the khagan Möngke Khan, who had intended to further extend his rule into Mesopotamia but not to directly overthrow the Caliphate. Hulagu began his campaign in Iran with several offensives against Nizari groups, including the Assassins and he then marched on Baghdad, demanding that Al-Mustasim accede to the terms imposed by Möngke on the Abbasids. Although the Abbasids had failed to prepare for the invasion, the Caliph believed that Baghdad could not fall to invading forces, Hulagu subsequently besieged the city, which surrendered after 12 days. During the next week, the Mongols sacked Baghdad, committing atrocities and destroyed the Abbasids vast libraries. The Mongols executed Al-Mustasim and massacred residents of the city. Baghdad had for centuries been the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, the third caliphate whose rulers were descendants of Abbas, in 751, the Abbasids overthrew the Umayyads and moved the Caliphs seat from Damascus to Baghdad. At the citys peak, it was populated by one million people and was defended by an army of 60,000 soldiers. By the middle of the 13th century, however, the power of the Abbasids had declined and Turkic, Baghdad still retained much symbolic significance, however, and it remained a rich and cultured city. The Caliphs of the 12th and 13th centuries had begun to develop links with the expanding Mongol Empire in the east, Caliph an-Nasir li-dinillah, who reigned from 1180–1225, may have attempted an alliance with Genghis Khan when Muhammad II of Khwarezm threatened to attack the Abbasids. It has been rumored that some Crusader captives were sent as tribute to the Mongol khagan, according to The Secret History of the Mongols, Genghis and his successor, Ögedei Khan, ordered their general Chormaqan to attack Baghdad. In 1236, Chormaqan led a division of the Mongol army to Irbil, further raids on Irbil and other regions of the caliphate became nearly annual occurrences. Some raids were alleged to have reached Baghdad itself, but these Mongol incursions were not always successful, despite their successes, the Abbasids hoped to come to terms with the Mongols and by 1241 had adopted the practice of sending an annual tribute to the court of the khagan. Envoys from the Caliph were present at the coronation of Güyük Khan as khagan in 1246, during his brief reign, Güyük insisted that the Caliph Al-Mustasim fully submit to Mongol rule and come personally to Karakorum. In 1257, Möngke resolved to establish authority over Mesopotamia, Syria. The khagan gave his brother, Hulagu, authority over a subordinate khanate and army, the Ilkhanate, generals of the army included the Oirat administrator Arghun Agha, Baiju, Buqa Temür, Guo Kan, and Kitbuqa, as well as Hulagus brother Sunitai and various other warlords. About 1,000 Chinese artillery experts accompanied the army, as did Persian and Turkic auxiliaries, according to Ata-Malik Juvayni, Hulagu led his army first to Iran, where he successfully campaigned against the Lurs, the Bukhara, and the remnants of the Khwarezm-Shah dynasty. Though Assassins failed in attempts, Hulagu marched his army to their stronghold of Alamut, which he captured. The Mongols later executed the Assassins Grand Master, Imam Rukn al-Dun Khurshah, after defeating the Assassins, Hulagu sent word to Al-Mustasim, demanding his acquiescence to the terms imposed by Möngke