Category:Hungarian musical instruments
Pages in category "Hungarian musical instruments"
The following 14 pages are in this category, out of 14 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 14 pages are in this category, out of 14 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Cimbalom – The cimbalom is a concert hammered dulcimer, a type of chordophone composed of a large, trapezoidal box with metal strings stretched across its top. It is also popular in Greece, the cimbalom is played by striking two beaters against the strings. The steel treble strings are arranged in groups of 4 and are tuned in unison, the bass strings which are over-spun with copper, are arranged in groups of 3 and are also tuned in unison. The Hornbostel-Sachs musical instrument classification system registers the cimbalom with the number 314. 122-4,5, moreover, the instrument name “cimbalom” also denotes earlier, smaller versions of the cimbalom, and folk cimbaloms, of different tone groupings, string arrangements, and box types. In English, the spelling is the most common, followed by the variants, derived from Austria-Hungary’s languages, cimbál, cymbalom, cymbalum, țambal, tsymbaly. The first representation of a simple struck chordophone which we categorize as a hammered dulcimer can be found in the Assyrian bas-relief in Kyindjuk dated back to 3500 BC, the peoples of the Mediterranean all had versions of this instrument under different names, as did many peoples in Asia. The fourth edition of the first textbook for the concert cimbalom by Géza Allaga, use of the instrument spread by the end of the 19th century and took the place of the cobza in Romanian and Moldovan folk ensembles. In Wallachia it is used almost as a percussion instrument, in Transylvania and Banat, the style of playing is more tonal, heavy with arpeggios. Folk hammered dulcimers are usually referred to by their regional names and these instruments can differ from each other in size, tuning, number of strings and method of holding and moving the hammers or beaters. They are smaller and more portable than the concert cimbalom, in performance they were often carried by a single musician, typically using a strap around the players neck and leaning one edge of the instrument against the waist. Like the concert cimbalom, the folk hammered dulcimer / small cimbalom is played by striking the strings with two beaters, however, these are generally much shorter than the beaters used with the concert cimbalom, and often without soft coverings over the area which strikes the string. These instruments also lacked damper mechanisms, therefore, the hand, fingers, tunings are often partially chromatic or even diatonic rather than the fully chromatic tuning of the concert cimbalom, and they can vary regionally. Construction of these instruments is closely related to the particular style of music played on them than is the case with the concert cimbalom. The Schunda cimbalom was equipped with a frame for more stability. It included many more string courses for extended range and incorporated a damper pedal which allowed for more dynamic control, Four detachable legs were added to support this much larger instrument. The concert cimbalom continues to be played primarily with beaters although other playing techniques are used, concert instruments from Schunda onward are fully chromatic. The Schunda tuning system established a standard range of four octaves plus a major 3rd. The concert cimbalom eventually found its way to areas of the Austro-Hungarian empire, such as Romania and Ukraine
2. Cobza – The cobza is a multi-stringed instrument of the lute family of folk origin popular in Romanian and Moldovan folklore. It is also used in the Hungarian folk music revival and it is distinct from the Ukrainian kobza, an instrument of a different construction and origin. The Romanian cobza is metal-strung, and has a short neck without frets. It is usually double or triple strung, and often has a flat end clasp. The cobza is played with a plectrum in elaborate and florid melodic passagework and its strings are widely spaced at the bridge to facilitate this technique. It has a tone, most often tuned to D-A-D-G. The origins of the Romanian cobza are thought to be an adaptation of the Persian barbat or Turkish oud. A cobza player specifically is called a cobzar, notable cobza players are Ion Păturică, Ion Zlotea, Marin Cotoanță, Grigore Kiazim, Nicolae Păsnicuțu and Constantin Negel. The cobza was also played in the 19th Century by Jewish musicians from Moldova region, the name of the instrument comes from the Turkic kopuz. koboziskola. hu/
3. Davul – The davul or tupan is a large double-headed drum that is played with mallets. It has many names depending on the country and region and these drums have both a deep bass sound and a thin treble sound due to their construction and playing style, where different heads and sticks are used to produce different sounds on the same drum. In Armenia the dhol does not have as large of a circumference and is played with the hands, although a wooden. It is frequently heard in Armenian folk music, not only is it in folk music but also in modern music as well, even having solos in many prominent songs. Other Greek names for this drum include Davouli, Argano, Toskani, Tsokani, Toubi, Toubaki, Kiossi, Tavouli, Pavouli, Toubano, in the southern Balkans, the rhythm of the tapan is complex and utilizes many accents in numerous traditional time signatures. In Macedonia, tapans are most often used to other instruments such as the zurla and gaida, while in Bulgaria they usually accompany gaida. They are also played solo in some Albanian, Bulgarian and Macedonian folk dances, for centuries the tapan is irreplaceable at Bulgarian village festivities such as weddings and celebrations of patron saints of homes and villages. In Romania and Moldova the toba is sometimes used to accompany dances, in the regions of Moldavia, Maramures and Bihor there are also some varieties with a small cymbal mounted on top. They are generally struck with a mallet on one skin. In Turkey and Armenia, the davul is most commonly played with the zurna, although it can be played other instruments. It has also traditionally used for communication and for Turkish mehter. The drum shell is made of wood, perhaps walnut or chestnut. To make the shell, the wood is boiled in water to make it bendable, the heads are usually goat skin, and they are shaped into circles by wooden frames. However, one head may be goat skin to provide a higher tone, while the head can be sheepskin, calfskin. Some say that wolf skin and even dog skin are preferred, rope threaded back and forth across the shell of the drum, from head to head in a zigzag pattern, holds the heads on the drum and provides tension for tuning the drum. Sometimes metal rings or leather straps join neighboring strands of the rope in order to allow for further tuning, two rings are sometimes attached to the main rope where a belt-like rope is threaded through to hold the drum. In the former Yugoslavian republics and Bulgaria, the tapan is made in two dimensions, Bulgarian, golem, at about 50 –55 cm diameter, and Bulgarian, mal or tapanche, in Turkey, davuls typically range in size from 60 cm to 90 cm in diameter. Cow hide is used for the bass drum head side, while goat skin is used for the thin
4. Duda – The Hungarian duda is the traditional bagpipe of Hungary. It is an example of a group of bagpipes called Medio-Carparthian bagpipes, accounts are conflicting regarding the exact form of the Hungarian bagpipe. Cocks describes it as similar to the Bulgarian one which has a chanter, robert Bright in Travels through Lower Hungary, quoted by Flood, describes the Hungarian bagpipe as having two drones and a chanter of square section. Fraser has a picture of a Hungarian bagpipe with one chanter and one drone of medium length and it seems possible that all these forms of the instrument may be in use. The most characteristic feature of the magyar duda is the double-bored chanter, one chanter bore, the dallamsíp, plays the melody within an octave range. The second chanter, the kontrasíp or kontra has a finger hole. Hungarian piping is characterized by use of the kontra to provide rhythmic accompaniment, in some historic examples, the magyar duda was tuned with a neutral third and sixth and the flea hole was filled in with wax. Historically the bag was made from dog skin, but today goat skin is a much more common material. Other variations of the duda, especially those played along the Slovakian and Croatian borders, have as many as four chanter pipes, in these examples one hand plays the dominant through the octave on one pipe while the other hand plays the tonic through the subdominant on another. If a fourth pipe is added it is a pipe with a thumb hole that sounds the octave when uncovered. Hungarian bagpiping is characterized in its styling by hiccupping, use of notes to articulate lower notes. Up until the 1920s the duda was the instrument at celebrations in much of Hungary. Béla Bartóks composition Bagpipe, from Volume 5 of Mikrokosmos, is a piece that imitates the sound of the duda. As was the case in much of Europe, bagpipes in Hungary were associated with shepherds and a pastoral lifestyle, at the same time the duda was associated with the pagan lifestyle of the countryside. Despite these stories, the duda never received the sort of official censure in Catholic Hungary that bagpipes did in many Protestant nations. There are a number of excellent recordings of the duda, including CDs from the groups Téka and Muzsikás, the soloist Balázs Istvánfi
5. Hammered dulcimer – The hammered dulcimer is a percussion instrument and stringed instrument with the strings typically stretched over a trapezoidal sounding board. The hammered dulcimer is set before the musician, who may sit cross legged on the floor or on a stool at a stand on legs. The player holds a small spoon shaped mallet hammer in hand to strike the strings. The Graeco-Roman dulcimer derives from the Latin dulcis and the Greek melos, the dulcimer, in which the strings are beaten with small hammers, originated from the psaltery, in which the strings are plucked. Various types of hammered dulcimers are traditionally played in Iraq, India, Iran, Southwest Asia, China, and parts of Southeast Asia, Central Europe, the Balkans, Eastern Europe and Scandinavia. The instrument is played in the United Kingdom and the U. S. where its traditional use in folk music saw a notable revival in the late 20th century. A dulcimer usually has two bridges, a bridge near the right and a treble bridge on the left side. The bass bridge holds up bass strings, which are played to the left of the bridge, the treble strings can be played on either side of the treble bridge. In the usual construction, playing them on the side gives a note a fifth higher than playing them on the right of the bridge. The dulcimer comes in sizes, identified by the number of strings that cross each of the bridges. A 15/14, for example, has 15 strings crossing the bridge and 14 crossing the bass bridge. The strings of a hammered dulcimer are usually found in pairs, each set of strings is tuned in unison and is called a course. A hammered dulcimer, like an autoharp, harp, or piano, requires a tuning wrench for tuning, the strings of the hammered dulcimer are often tuned according to a circle of fifths pattern. Typically, the lowest note is struck at the lower right-hand of the instrument, as a player strikes the courses above in sequence, they ascend following a repeating sequence of two whole steps and a half step. With this tuning, a scale is broken into two tetrachords, or groups of four notes. For example, on an instrument with D as the lowest note and this is the lower tetrachord of the D major scale. At this point the player returns to the bottom of the instrument and shifts to the strings to the right of the treble bridge to play the higher tetrachord. See the drawing on the left above, in which DO would correspond to D, the shift from the bass bridge to the treble bridge is required because the bass bridges fourth string G is the start of the lower tetrachord of the G scale
6. Hurdy-gurdy – The hurdy-gurdy is a stringed instrument that produces sound by a crank-turned, rosined wheel rubbing against the strings. The wheel functions much like a bow, and single notes played on the instrument sound similar to those of a violin. Melodies are played on a keyboard that presses tangents—small wedges, typically made of wood—against one or more of the strings to change their pitch, like most other acoustic stringed instruments, it has a sound board to make the vibration of the strings audible. Most hurdy-gurdies have multiple strings, which give a constant pitch accompaniment to the melody. Many folk music festivals in Europe feature music groups with hurdy-gurdy players, the most famous has been held since 1976 at Saint-Chartier in the Indre département in Central France. In 2009, it relocated nearby to the Château dArs at La Châtre, the hurdy-gurdy is generally thought to have originated from fiddles in either Europe or the Middle East some time before the eleventh century A. D. The first recorded reference to fiddles in Europe was in the 9th century by the Persian geographer Ibn Khurradadhbih describing the lira as an instrument within the Byzantine Empire. One of the earliest forms of the hurdy-gurdy was the organistrum, an instrument with a guitar-shaped body. The organistrum had a melody string and two drone strings, which ran over a common bridge, and a relatively small wheel. Due to its size, the organistrum was played by two people, one of whom turned the crank while the other pulled the keys upward, pulling keys upward is cumbersome, so only slow tunes could be played on the organistrum. The pitches on the organistrum were set according to Pythagorean temperament, another 10th century treatise thought to have mentioned an instrument like a hurdy-gurdy is an Arabic musical compendium written by Al Zirikli. Later on, the organistrum was made smaller to let a player both turn the crank and work the keys. The solo organistrum was known from Spain and France, but was replaced by the symphonia. At about the time, a new form of key pressed from beneath was developed. These keys were more practical for faster music and easier to handle. Medieval depictions of the show both types of keys. During the Renaissance, the hurdy-gurdy was a popular instrument and the characteristic form had a short neck. It was around this time that buzzing bridges first appeared in illustrations, the buzzing bridge is an asymmetrical bridge that rests under a drone string on the sound board
7. Komuz – The komuz or qomuz, Azeri Qopuz, Turkish Kopuz, is an ancient fretless string instrument used in Central Asian music, related to certain other Turkic string instruments and the lute. It is the national instrument and one of the better-known Kyrgyz national symbols. The komuz is made from a single piece of wood and has three strings traditionally made out of gut, and often from fishing line in modern times. In the most common tunings the middle string is the highest in pitch, virtuosos frequently play the komuz in a variety of different positions, over the shoulder, between the knees and upside down. An illustration of a komuz is featured on the reverse of the one-som note, the komuz can be used either as accompaniment or as a lead instrument and is used in a wide variety of musical styles including aytysh and the recitation of epics. It is generally played seated, held horizontally and may be strummed or plucked, one piece consists of a simple tune repeated many times, each with a new stroke, as a test of the performer’s skill and creativity. The komuz has many different tunings, and the names of the tunings correspond with various styles of music. The word komuz is cognate to the names of other instruments in the Music of Central Asia, including the Kazakh kobyz, which depicted musicians at a council, holding a komuz-like instrument to their chests. The golcha gopuz was mentioned in the epic Book of Dede Korkut, the names of parts of the komuz are often allusions to body parts, particularly of horses. For example, the neck is called neck, the pegs are called. The Kyrgyz word кыл/qyl means string of an instrument or horses hair, the ancient komuz generally had two or three strings. The golcha gopuz is made from a leather covering which covered around two-thirds of the surface, the total length of the instrument is 810 mm, with the body 410 mm, the width 240 mm and the height or breadth only 20 mm. The Kyrgyz, ооз комуз or, alternatively, Kyrgyz, темир комуз, is a jaw harp, during the Soviet era the instrument fell from favour. It was derided as rudimentary and attempts were made to make it more like the Russian balalaika, after independence the komuz was again taught in music colleges, though some of the Soviet changes have remained. In the twentieth century the late Iranian dutar player Haj Ghorban Soleimani invented a new form of the komuz which has received some popularity, various myths exist about the komuz. One tells that the hunter Kambarkan was wandering in the forest when he heard a beautiful sound and he looked for the source and found the intestine of a squirrel tied between two tree branches, which he took and fashioned into a musical instrument. It is also said that the learned to sing by copying the komuz. The name is believed to have derived from the ancient Turkic words gop meaning height and uz meaning voice
8. Tambourine – The tambourine is a musical instrument in the percussion family consisting of a frame, often of wood or plastic, with pairs of small metal jingles, called zils. Classically the term denotes an instrument with a drumhead, though some variants may not have a head at all. Tambourines are often used with regular percussion sets and they can be mounted, for example on a stand as part of a drum kit, or they can be held in the hands and played by tapping or hitting the instrument. Tambourines come in shapes with the most common being circular. It is found in forms of music, Turkish folk music, Greek folk music, Italian folk music, classical music, Persian music, samba, gospel music, pop music. Tambourines originated in Egypt, where they were known as the kof to the Hebrews, from the Middle Persian word tambūr lute, drum. There are several ways to achieve a tambourine roll, the easiest method is to rapidly rotate the hand holding the tambourine back and forth, pivoting at the wrist. An advanced playing technique is known as the thumb roll, the finger or thumb is moved over the skin or rim of the tambourine, producing a fast roll from the jingles on the instrument. This takes more skill and experience to master, the thumb or middle finger of the hand not holding the tambourine is run around the head of the instrument approximately one centimeter from the rim with some pressure applied. If performed correctly, the thumb should bounce along the head rapidly, usually, the end of the roll is articulated using the heel of the hand or another finger. In the 2000s, the roll may be performed with the use of wax or resin applied to the outside of the drum head. This resin allows the thumb or finger to bounce more rapidly and forcefully across the head producing an even sound, a continuous roll can be achieved by moving the thumb in a figure of 8 pattern around the head. By drummers – Drummers such as Larry Mullen, Jr. of U2 mount a tambourine above the cymbals of their hi-hat stand, tambourines in rock music are most often headless, a ring with jangles but no drum skin. The Rhythm Tech crescent-shaped tambourine and its derivatives are popular, the original Rhythm Tech tambourine is displayed in the Museum of Modern Art. Jack Ashfords distinctive tambourine playing was a dominant part of the section on Motown records. The tambourine was featured in Green Tambourine, a song with which The Lemon Pipers. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was among the earliest western composers to include the tambourine in his compositions, gustav Holsts seven-movement orchestral suite The Planets also features the tambourine in several places throughout the suite, especially in the Jupiter movement. Originated in Galicia or Portugal, the pandeiro was brought to Brazil by the Portuguese settlers and it is a hand percussion instrument consisting of a single tension-headed drum with jingles in the frame
9. Tamburica – Tamburica or Tamboura refers to a family of long-necked lutes popular in Southern Europe and Central Europe, especially Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Slovenia, and Hungary. It is also known in Burgenland, all took their name and some characteristics from the Persian tanbur but also resemble the mandolin and guitar in the sense that its strings are plucked and often paired. The frets may be moveable to allow the playing of various modes, the variety of tamburica shapes known today were developed in Croatia and Serbia by a number of indigenous contributors near the end of the 19th century. There is little reliable data showing how the tamboura entered Central Europe and it already existed during Byzantine Empire, and the Greeks and Slavs used to call pandouras or tambouras the ancestor of modern bouzouki. The instrument was referred to as θαμπούριν, thambourin in the Byzantine Empire, until the Great Migration of the Serbs at the end of the 17th century, the type of tamboura most frequently used in Croatia and Serbia had a long neck and two or three strings. Similar string instruments are the Czech bratsche, Turkish saz and the sargija, çiftelia and bouzouki. The oldest of the drum so far known, which is kept in a museum in Osijek, dates from 1847 and was owned by Pajo Kolarić of Osijek. According to him, today the festival called tamburitzan which is every year in Osijek. The development process of the tamburica was initiated by several Croatian citizens over a period of time. The original long neck, pear shaped tamburica was called the samica, the kontra,4 strings tuned in an upper A chord and used only as an accompaniment, originated in Dalmatia. After a rebellion in Bosnia had broken out, many arrived in Sremski Karlovci. Among these refugees was a man named Marko Capkun who brought two tamburas with him and he called the small one icitel and the larger one sarkija. These tambura did not use wire strings but rather gut strings pulled through little holes on the neck, a woodworker, Josif, in Sremski Karlovci began to make Markos tamburas but instead of the traditional pear shape, he made them into a shape of a tiny guitar. A bird catcher named Joza built a large tambura-much bigger than a guitar in 1877 or 1878 and it stretched two thicker and two thinner strings on it and Joza called it the bas or berdon. They developed and orchestra with a little tambura called the prima,5 kontra and 1 bas, dual-fifths system bears the name by Milutin Farkas Farkas system. This system initially consisted of the first and second bisernom, three brača, two of bugaria and berde, later, they have an even čelović and čelo. This two-part note fifths system was widespread in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Slovenia, Czechoslovakia, in the second half of the nineteenth century in Backa and Srem there was a two-part note fourths system, but it quickly grew into a Triple. Three-note fourths system developed in Backa late nineteenth century and it consisted of a first and second tamburitza, third and fourth tambura, the first and second brothers and the bass
10. Zither – Zither is a class of stringed instruments. The word zither is a German rendering of the Latin word cithara, historically, it has been applied to any instrument of the cittern family, or an instrument consisting of many strings stretched across a thin, flat body – similar to a psaltery. This article describes the second variety, like a guitar or lute, a zithers body serves as a resonating chamber, but, unlike guitars and lutes, a zither lacks a distinctly separate neck assembly. The number of strings varies, from one to more than fifty, in modern common usage the term zither refers to three specific instruments, the concert zither, its variant the Alpine zither, and the chord zither. Concert and Alpine zithers are found in Slovenia, Austria, Hungary, France, north-western Croatia. Emigration from these areas during the 19th century introduced the concert, chord zithers similar to the instrument in the photograph also became popular in North America during the late 19th and early 20th century. These variants all use metal strings, similar to the cittern and it is not fully understood how zitter or zither came to be applied to the instruments in this article as well as German varieties of the cittern. The Hornbostel-Sachs system, an academic instrument classification method, also uses the term zither, pedal steel guitars, lap guitars, and keyboard instruments like the clavichord, harpsichord and piano also fall within this broad categorical use. The word has also used in conjunction with brand varieties of other string instruments. The earliest known surviving instrument of the family is a Chinese guqin. Increasing interest in music has brought wider recognition to these other zither family members. Many of these instruments have been sampled electronically, and are available in instrument banks for music synthesizers, some of these employed movable bridges similar to the Japanese koto, used for retuning the drone strings. The Alpine Scheitholt furnishes an example of this type of European zither. By the late 18th century, two varieties of European concert zither had developed, known as the Salzburg zither. Both styles are found in concert zithers today, although the Salzburg style has become by far the most common. The zither became a folk music instrument in Bavaria and Austria and. Viennese zitherist Johann Petzmayer became one of the outstanding virtuosi on these early instruments and his ideas were not, however, widely accepted until 1862, when luthier Max Amberger of Munich fabricated a new zither based on Weigels design. At this point the zither had reached something very close to its modern concert form, within a relatively short time the new design had largely replaced the old Volkszither throughout central Europe, particularly in the Alpine countries