This category has the following 3 subcategories, out of 3 total.
This category has the following 3 subcategories, out of 3 total.
1. Arrapha – Arrapha or Arrapkha was an ancient city in what today is northeastern Iraq, on the site of the modern city of Kirkuk. It began as a city of the Gutian people, became Hurrian, in 1948, Arrapha became the name of the residential area in Kirkuk which was built by the North Oil Company as a settlement for its workers. The city was founded around 2000 B, subsequent to this it fell to the Neo-Sumerian Empire, the Old Assyrian Empire and Babylonian Empire, and was an important trading center in the 18th century BCE under Assyrian and Babylonian rule. The city reached great prominence in the 11th and 10th centuries BC as a part of Assyria, the region later became part of the Persian ruled province of Athura. Arrapha then fell to the Macedonian Empire and its succeeding Seleucid Empire, Syria originally being a Greek corruption of Assyria Arrapha is mentioned as such until Hellenistic times, at which point the settlement was refounded under the Syriac name Karka. Arrapha has not been excavated yet, due to its location beneath modern Kirkuk
2. Harran – Harran was a major ancient city in Upper Mesopotamia whose site is near the modern village of Altınbaşak, Turkey,44 kilometers southeast of Şanlıurfa. The location is in a district of Şanlıurfa Province that is also named Harran. It was known as Ḫarrānu in the Assyrian period, Ḫaran in the Hebrew Bible, Carrhae under the Roman and Byzantine empires, Hellenopolis in the Early Christian period, the earliest records of Harran come from Ebla tablets. From these, it is known that a king or mayor of Harran had married an Eblaite princess, Zugalum, who then became queen of Harran. It appears that Harran remained a part of the regional Eblaite kingdom for some time thereafter, royal letters from the city of Mari on the middle of the Euphrates, have confirmed that the area around the Balikh river remained occupied in c. the 19th century BCE. A confederation of tribes was especially active around the region near Harran at that time. By the 19th century BCE, Harran was established as a merchant outpost due to its ideal location, the community, well established before then, was situated along a trade route between the Mediterranean and the plains of the middle Tigris. It lay directly on the road from Antioch eastward to Nisibis, the Tigris could be followed down to the delta to Babylon. Not only did Harran have easy access to both the Assyrian and Babylonian roads, but also to north road to the Euphrates that provided access to Malatiyah. According to Roman authors such as Pliny the Elder, even through the classical period, in its prime Harran was a major Assyrian city which controlled the point where the road from Damascus joins the highway between Nineveh and Carchemish. This location gave Harran strategic value from an early date, because Harran had an abundance of goods that passed through its region, it became a target for raids. In the 18th century, Assyrian king Shamshi-Adad I launched an expedition to secure the Harranian trade route, after the Suppiluliuma I–Shattiwaza treaty between the Hittite Empire and Mitanni, Harran was burned by a Hittite army under Piyashshili in the course of the conquest of Mitanni. In the 13th century BCE, Assyrian king Adad-Nirari I reported that he conquered the fortress of Kharani and it is frequently mentioned in Assyrian inscriptions as early as the time of Tiglath-Pileser I, about 1100 BCE, under the name Harranu. Tiglath-Pileser had a fortress there, and mentioned that he was pleased with the abundance of elephants in the region, 10th-century BCE inscriptions reveal that Harran had some privileges of fiscal exemption and freedom from certain forms of military obligations. It had even been termed as the city of Harran. However, in 763 BCE, it was sacked by a Harranian rebellion against Assyrian control that resulted in the loss of those privileges, not until Sargon II restored order, in the late 8th century BCE, were those privileges restored. Harran was besieged and conquered by Nabopolassar and Cyaxares in 610 BCE and it was briefly retaken by Ashur-uballit II and his Egyptian allies in 609 BCE, before it finally fell to the Medes and Babylonians in 605 BCE. Harran became part of the Median Empire after the fall of Assyria and it became part of the Persian province of Athura, the Persian word for Assyria
3. Tell Leilan – Tell Leilan is an archaeological site situated near the Wadi Jarrah in the Khabur River basin in Al-Hasakah Governorate, northeastern Syria, a region formerly a part of ancient Assyria. The site has been occupied since the 5th millennium BC, during the late third millennium, the site was known as Shekhna. Around 1800 BC, the site was renamed Shubat-Enlil by the Assyrian king, Shamshi-Adad I, Shubat-Enlil was abandoned around 1700 BC. The site is located close to some other flourishing cities of the time, hamoukar is about 50 km away to the southeast. Tell Brak is about 50 km away to the southwest, Tell Mozan is about 50 km to the west. Leilan, Brak and Urkesh were particularly prominent during the Akkadian period, the city originated around 5000 BC as a small farming village and grew to be a large city ca.2600 BC, three hundred years before the Akkadian Empire. The conquest of the region by Shamshi-Adad I of Assyria revived the abandoned site of Tell Leilan, Shamshi-Adad saw the great potential in the rich agricultural production of the region and made it the capital city of his empire. He renamed it from Shehna to Shubat-Enlil, or Šubat-Enlil, meaning the residence of the god Enlil in the Akkadian language, in the city a royal palace was built and a temple acropolis to which a straight paved street led from the city gate. There was also a residential area and the entire city was enclosed by a wall. The city size was about 90 hectares, Shubat-Enlil may have had a population of 20,000 people at its peak. The Babylonians were defeated driven out of Assyria by the Assyrian king Adasi, however Shubat-Enlil was never reoccupied, the mound of Tell Leilan is being excavated by a team of archaeologists from Yale University. The excavation started in 1979 led by Harvey Weiss and the study of the site, among many important discoveries at Tell Leilan is an archive of 1100 cuneiform clay tablets maintained by the rulers of the city. These tablets date to the eighteenth century BC and record the dealings with other Mesopotamian states, finds from the excavations at Tell Leilan are on display in the Deir ez-Zor Museum. Cities of the ancient Near East Short chronology timeline The Climate of Man — II, marc van de Mieroop, The Mesopotamian City. ISBN 0-19-815286-8 Peter M. M. G. Akkermans, Glenn M. Annales Archeologiques Arabes Syriennes, Weiss, Harvey, ed.2012, Seven Generations Since the Fall of Akkad
4. Nuzi – Nuzi was an ancient Mesopotamian city southwest of Kirkuk in modern Al Taamim Governorate of Iraq, located near the Tigris river. The site consists of one medium-sized multiperiod tell and two small single period mounds, the town of Gasur was apparently founded during the Akkadian Empire in the late third millennium BC. In the middle second millennium Hurrians absorbed the town and renamed it Nuzi, the history of the site during the intervening period is unclear, though the presence of a few cuneiform tables from Old Assyria indicates that trade with nearby Assur was taking place. After the fall of the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni to the Hittites, Nuzi fell to the Assyrians, note that while Hurrian period is well known because those levels of the site were fully excavated, the earlier history is less firm because of only scanty digging. The history of Nuzi is closely interrelated with that of the towns of Eshnunna. While tablets from Yorghan Tepe began appearing back as far as 1896, the site has 15 occupation levels. The hundreds of tablets and other finds recovered were published in a series of volumes, more finds continue to be published to this day. To date, around 5000 tablets are known, mostly held at the Oriental Institute, the Harvard Semitic Museum, many are routine legal and business documents and about one quarter concern the business transactions of a single family. The vast majority of finds are from the Hurrian period during the second millennium BC with the remainder dating back to the towns founding during the Akkadian Empire. An archive contemporary to the Hurrian archive at Nuzi has been excavated from the Green Palace at the site of Tell al-Fakhar,35 kilometres southwest of Nuzi, perhaps the most famous item found is the Nuzi map, which is the oldest known map ever discovered. It is unknown exactly what the Nuzi map charts, even though the majority of the tablet is preserved, the Nuzi map is actually one of the so-called Gasur texts, and predates the invasion of the city of Gasur by the Hurrians, who renamed it Nuzi. The cache of economic and business documents among which the map was found date to the Old Akkadian period, Gasur was a thriving commercial center, and the texts reveal a varied business community with far reaching enterprises. It is possible that Ebla was a partner, and that the tablet, rather than a record of land-holdings. The tablet, which is approximately 6 x 6.5 cm. is inscribed only on the obverse and it shows the city of Maskan-dur-ebla in the lower left corner, as well and a canal/river and two mountain ranges. The best-known period in the history of Yorghan Tepe is by far one of the city of Nuzi in the 15th-14th centuries BC, Nuzi was a provincial town in the kingdom of Arrapha. It was administered by a governor from the palace, the palace, situated in the center of the mound, had many rooms arranged around a central courtyard. The functions of some of those rooms have been identified, reception areas, apartments, offices, kitchens, the walls were painted, as was seen in fragments unearthed in the ruins of the building. Junior officers of the administration are sukkallu, the district manager
5. Tell Barri – Tell Barri is an archaeological site in north-eastern Syria in the Al-Hasakah Governorate. Its ancient name was Kahat as proved by a threshold found on the slope of the mound. Tell Barri is situated along the Wadi Jaghjagh, a tributary of the Khabur River, the earliest layers discovered at Tell Barri date to the Halaf period. Barri was situated in the crescent and could benefit from winter rains as well as the river water. This developed the agriculture of the area. The site of Tell Barri was inhabited since the fourth millennium BC, by the middle of the third millennium BC Barri came under Akkadian cultural influence. The large urban centre at Tell Brak was only a distance away. By the eighteenth century BC the city known as Kahat is attested from the archives of Mari. Kahat seems to have ruled by semi-independent kings. The town then came under the rule of the Old Assyrian Empire whose capital, when the empire collapsed, the harem of its king Shamshi-Adad I sought refuge at Kahat. Several centuries later, the town emerged as a religious centre when the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni established itself in the region by the fifteenth century BC, the temple to the Storm god Teshub in Kahat is specifically mentioned in the Shattiwaza treaty of the fourteenth century BC. Shortly afterwards the town fell into the hands of the Middle Assyrian Empire, in the Neo-Assyrian Empire period a palace was built by the Assyrian king Tukulti-Ninurta II in Kahat. The town lived on after the end of the Assyrian empire in the seventh century BC as a part of Achaemenid Assyria, babylonians, Persians, Seleucids, Romans, and Parthians left their trace. The site was inhabited into the Arab period, the height of town mound is 32 meters, and its size 37 hectares, nearly 100 acres. In 1980 excavations were begun by a team of Italian archaeologists from the University of Florence led by Paolo Emilio Pecorella, since 2006, the dig was operated by a team from University of Naples Federico II led by Raffaella Pierobon-Benoit. The town was walled in the second millennium BC, with an acropolis at its centre, tombs were also found at the site. Many ceramics were discovered which have helped the archaeologists determine the different strata of occupation of the mound, artifacts from Tell Barri, including a number of cuneiform tablets, have been taken to the museum of Aleppo. Significant discoveries are a complex in Area G, the remains of the royal palace of Tukulti-Ninurta II