This category has the following 3 subcategories, out of 3 total.
This category has the following 3 subcategories, out of 3 total.
1. Harran – Harran was a major ancient city in Upper Mesopotamia whose site is near the modern village of Altınbaşak, Turkey,44 kilometers southeast of Şanlıurfa. The location is in a district of Şanlıurfa Province that is also named Harran. It was known as Ḫarrānu in the Assyrian period, Ḫaran in the Hebrew Bible, Carrhae under the Roman and Byzantine empires, Hellenopolis in the Early Christian period, the earliest records of Harran come from Ebla tablets. From these, it is known that a king or mayor of Harran had married an Eblaite princess, Zugalum, who then became queen of Harran. It appears that Harran remained a part of the regional Eblaite kingdom for some time thereafter, royal letters from the city of Mari on the middle of the Euphrates, have confirmed that the area around the Balikh river remained occupied in c. the 19th century BCE. A confederation of tribes was especially active around the region near Harran at that time. By the 19th century BCE, Harran was established as a merchant outpost due to its ideal location, the community, well established before then, was situated along a trade route between the Mediterranean and the plains of the middle Tigris. It lay directly on the road from Antioch eastward to Nisibis, the Tigris could be followed down to the delta to Babylon. Not only did Harran have easy access to both the Assyrian and Babylonian roads, but also to north road to the Euphrates that provided access to Malatiyah. According to Roman authors such as Pliny the Elder, even through the classical period, in its prime Harran was a major Assyrian city which controlled the point where the road from Damascus joins the highway between Nineveh and Carchemish. This location gave Harran strategic value from an early date, because Harran had an abundance of goods that passed through its region, it became a target for raids. In the 18th century, Assyrian king Shamshi-Adad I launched an expedition to secure the Harranian trade route, after the Suppiluliuma I–Shattiwaza treaty between the Hittite Empire and Mitanni, Harran was burned by a Hittite army under Piyashshili in the course of the conquest of Mitanni. In the 13th century BCE, Assyrian king Adad-Nirari I reported that he conquered the fortress of Kharani and it is frequently mentioned in Assyrian inscriptions as early as the time of Tiglath-Pileser I, about 1100 BCE, under the name Harranu. Tiglath-Pileser had a fortress there, and mentioned that he was pleased with the abundance of elephants in the region, 10th-century BCE inscriptions reveal that Harran had some privileges of fiscal exemption and freedom from certain forms of military obligations. It had even been termed as the city of Harran. However, in 763 BCE, it was sacked by a Harranian rebellion against Assyrian control that resulted in the loss of those privileges, not until Sargon II restored order, in the late 8th century BCE, were those privileges restored. Harran was besieged and conquered by Nabopolassar and Cyaxares in 610 BCE and it was briefly retaken by Ashur-uballit II and his Egyptian allies in 609 BCE, before it finally fell to the Medes and Babylonians in 605 BCE. Harran became part of the Median Empire after the fall of Assyria and it became part of the Persian province of Athura, the Persian word for Assyria
2. Tell Brak – Tell Brak was an ancient city in Syria. Its remains constitute a tell located in the Upper Khabur region, near the village of Tell Brak,50 kilometers north-east of Al-Hasaka city. The citys original name is unknown, during the second half of the third millennium BC, the city was known as Nagar and later on, Nawar. Nagar prospered again by the 19th century BC, and came under the rule of different regional powers, in c.1500 BC, Tell Brak was a center of Mitanni before being destroyed by Assyria c.1300 BC. The city never regained its importance, remaining as a small settlement. Different peoples inhabited the city, including the Halafians, Semites, the culture of Tell Brak was defined by the different civilizations that inhabited it, and it was famous for its glyptic style, equids and glass. When independent, the city was ruled by an assembly or by a monarch. Tell Brak was a center due to its location between Anatolia, the Levant and southern Mesopotamia. It was excavated by Max Mallowan in 1937, then regularly by different teams between 1979 and 2011, when the work stopped due to the Syrian Civil War, the original name of the city is unknown, Tell Brak is the current name of the tell. East of the mound lies a lake named Khatuniah which was recorded as Lacus Beberaci in the Roman map Tabula Peutingeriana. The lake was named after Tell Brak which was the nearest camp in the area. The name Brak might therefore be an echo of the most ancient name, during the third millennium BC, the city was known as Nagar, which might be of Semitic origin and mean a cultivated place. The name Nagar ceased occurring following the Old Babylonian period, however and those scholars opt for a city closer to Urkesh which was also called Nawala/Nabula as the intended Nawar. The earliest period A, is dated to the proto Halaf culture c.6500 BC, many objects dated to that period were discovered including the Halaf pottery. By 5000 BC, Halaf culture transformed into Northern Ubaid, in southern Mesopotamia, the original Ubaid culture evolved into the Uruk period. The people of the southern Uruk period used military and commercial means to expand the civilization, in Northern Mesopotamia, the post Ubaid period is designated Late Chalcolithic / Northern Uruk period, during which, Tell Brak started to expand. Period Brak E witnessed the building of the walls. By the late 5th millennium BC, Tell Brak reached the size of c.55 hectares, area TW of the tell revealed the remains of a monumental building with two meters thick walls and a basalt threshold
3. Tell Barri – Tell Barri is an archaeological site in north-eastern Syria in the Al-Hasakah Governorate. Its ancient name was Kahat as proved by a threshold found on the slope of the mound. Tell Barri is situated along the Wadi Jaghjagh, a tributary of the Khabur River, the earliest layers discovered at Tell Barri date to the Halaf period. Barri was situated in the crescent and could benefit from winter rains as well as the river water. This developed the agriculture of the area. The site of Tell Barri was inhabited since the fourth millennium BC, by the middle of the third millennium BC Barri came under Akkadian cultural influence. The large urban centre at Tell Brak was only a distance away. By the eighteenth century BC the city known as Kahat is attested from the archives of Mari. Kahat seems to have ruled by semi-independent kings. The town then came under the rule of the Old Assyrian Empire whose capital, when the empire collapsed, the harem of its king Shamshi-Adad I sought refuge at Kahat. Several centuries later, the town emerged as a religious centre when the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni established itself in the region by the fifteenth century BC, the temple to the Storm god Teshub in Kahat is specifically mentioned in the Shattiwaza treaty of the fourteenth century BC. Shortly afterwards the town fell into the hands of the Middle Assyrian Empire, in the Neo-Assyrian Empire period a palace was built by the Assyrian king Tukulti-Ninurta II in Kahat. The town lived on after the end of the Assyrian empire in the seventh century BC as a part of Achaemenid Assyria, babylonians, Persians, Seleucids, Romans, and Parthians left their trace. The site was inhabited into the Arab period, the height of town mound is 32 meters, and its size 37 hectares, nearly 100 acres. In 1980 excavations were begun by a team of Italian archaeologists from the University of Florence led by Paolo Emilio Pecorella, since 2006, the dig was operated by a team from University of Naples Federico II led by Raffaella Pierobon-Benoit. The town was walled in the second millennium BC, with an acropolis at its centre, tombs were also found at the site. Many ceramics were discovered which have helped the archaeologists determine the different strata of occupation of the mound, artifacts from Tell Barri, including a number of cuneiform tablets, have been taken to the museum of Aleppo. Significant discoveries are a complex in Area G, the remains of the royal palace of Tukulti-Ninurta II
4. Urkesh – Urkesh or Urkish is a tell, or settlement mound, located in the foothills of the Taurus Mountains in Al-Hasakah Governorate, northeastern Syria. It was founded during the fourth millennium BC possibly by the Hurrians on a site which appears to have been inhabited previously for a few centuries, there are other contemporary ancient sites in this area of upper Khabur River basin. For example, Chagar Bazar is 22km south of Mozan, Tell Arbid is located 45km south of Tell Mozan. Tell Brak is about 50km to the south, Tell Leilan is located about 50km to the east of Urkesh. Leilan, Brak and Urkesh were particularly prominent during the Akkadian period, Urkesh was an ally of the Akkadian Empire through what is believed to have been a dynastic marriage tradition. Taram-Agade the daughter of the Akkadian king, Naram-Sin, is believed to have married to the king of Urkesh. During the early second millennium BC the city passed into the hands of the rulers of Mari, the king of Urkesh became a vassal of Mari. But you are mine, even if the city of Urkesh is not, in the middle of the millennium, Tell Mozan was the location of a Mitanni religious site. The city appears to have largely abandoned circa 1350 BC. The genealogy and identity of Urkeshs rulers is largely unknown, the high mound covers about 18 hectares and rises to a height of 25 metres, with 5 sub-mounds. The high mound is surrounded by a city wall that was roughly 8 metres wide and 7 metres high. Soundings at the site were first made by Max Mallowan during his survey of the area, agatha Christie, his wife, wrote that they chose not to continue at the site because it seemed to have Roman material. No trace of Roman occupation levels have been found in later excavations, Mallowan went on to excavate Chagar Bazar, another site to the south of Mozan/Urkesh. Excavations at Tell Mozan began in 1984 and have been conducted for at least 17 seasons up to the present time, the work has been led by Giorgio Buccellati of UCLA and Marilyn Kelly-Buccellati of California State University, Los Angeles. The 2007 season was dedicated to working on publication material, primarily excavation units A16, J1, J3. A small sounding was done in J1 to clarify the transition between Mittani and Khabur, the excavations have been assisted at various times by other groups including the German Archaeological Institute. The excavations at Tell Mozan are known for the projects interest in pursuing the uses of technology in an archaeological context, the main focus is on the Global Record, a method of documentation that combines journal entries into a hypertext based output. Another focal point of research at the site is the application of conservation, the mud brick architecture which comprises the majority of the structures found to date has been preserved over the years though an innovative system
5. Arrapha – Arrapha or Arrapkha was an ancient city in what today is northeastern Iraq, on the site of the modern city of Kirkuk. It began as a city of the Gutian people, became Hurrian, in 1948, Arrapha became the name of the residential area in Kirkuk which was built by the North Oil Company as a settlement for its workers. The city was founded around 2000 B, subsequent to this it fell to the Neo-Sumerian Empire, the Old Assyrian Empire and Babylonian Empire, and was an important trading center in the 18th century BCE under Assyrian and Babylonian rule. The city reached great prominence in the 11th and 10th centuries BC as a part of Assyria, the region later became part of the Persian ruled province of Athura. Arrapha then fell to the Macedonian Empire and its succeeding Seleucid Empire, Syria originally being a Greek corruption of Assyria Arrapha is mentioned as such until Hellenistic times, at which point the settlement was refounded under the Syriac name Karka. Arrapha has not been excavated yet, due to its location beneath modern Kirkuk
6. Tell Leilan – Tell Leilan is an archaeological site situated near the Wadi Jarrah in the Khabur River basin in Al-Hasakah Governorate, northeastern Syria, a region formerly a part of ancient Assyria. The site has been occupied since the 5th millennium BC, during the late third millennium, the site was known as Shekhna. Around 1800 BC, the site was renamed Shubat-Enlil by the Assyrian king, Shamshi-Adad I, Shubat-Enlil was abandoned around 1700 BC. The site is located close to some other flourishing cities of the time, hamoukar is about 50 km away to the southeast. Tell Brak is about 50 km away to the southwest, Tell Mozan is about 50 km to the west. Leilan, Brak and Urkesh were particularly prominent during the Akkadian period, the city originated around 5000 BC as a small farming village and grew to be a large city ca.2600 BC, three hundred years before the Akkadian Empire. The conquest of the region by Shamshi-Adad I of Assyria revived the abandoned site of Tell Leilan, Shamshi-Adad saw the great potential in the rich agricultural production of the region and made it the capital city of his empire. He renamed it from Shehna to Shubat-Enlil, or Šubat-Enlil, meaning the residence of the god Enlil in the Akkadian language, in the city a royal palace was built and a temple acropolis to which a straight paved street led from the city gate. There was also a residential area and the entire city was enclosed by a wall. The city size was about 90 hectares, Shubat-Enlil may have had a population of 20,000 people at its peak. The Babylonians were defeated driven out of Assyria by the Assyrian king Adasi, however Shubat-Enlil was never reoccupied, the mound of Tell Leilan is being excavated by a team of archaeologists from Yale University. The excavation started in 1979 led by Harvey Weiss and the study of the site, among many important discoveries at Tell Leilan is an archive of 1100 cuneiform clay tablets maintained by the rulers of the city. These tablets date to the eighteenth century BC and record the dealings with other Mesopotamian states, finds from the excavations at Tell Leilan are on display in the Deir ez-Zor Museum. Cities of the ancient Near East Short chronology timeline The Climate of Man — II, marc van de Mieroop, The Mesopotamian City. ISBN 0-19-815286-8 Peter M. M. G. Akkermans, Glenn M. Annales Archeologiques Arabes Syriennes, Weiss, Harvey, ed.2012, Seven Generations Since the Fall of Akkad