Chakravarti Rajagopalachari informally called Rajaji or C. R. was an Indian politician, independence activist, lawyer and statesman. Rajagopalachari was the last Governor-General of India and he served as leader of the Indian National Congress, Premier of the Madras Presidency, Governor of West Bengal, Minister for Home Affairs of the Indian Union and Chief Minister of Madras state. Rajagopalachari founded the Swatantra Party and was one of the first recipients of Indias highest civilian award and he vehemently opposed the use of nuclear weapons and was a proponent of world peace and disarmament. During his lifetime, he acquired the nickname Mango of Krishnagiri. Rajagopalachari was born in the village of Thorapalli in the Krishnagiri district of the Madras Presidency and educated at Central College, Bangalore, in 1900 he started a legal practice that in time became prosperous. On entering politics, he became a member and President of the Salem municipality and he joined the Indian National Congress and participated in the agitations against the Rowlatt Act, joining the Non-Cooperation movement, the Vaikom Satyagraha, and the Civil Disobedience movement.
In 1930, Rajagopalachari risked imprisonment when he led the Vedaranyam Salt Satyagraha in response to the Dandi March, in 1937, Rajagopalachari was elected Premier of the Madras Presidency and served until 1940, when he resigned due to Britains declaration of war on Germany. He advocated co-operation over Britains war effort and opposed the Quit India Movement and he favoured talks with both Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the Muslim League and proposed what came to be known as the C. R. formula. In 1959, he resigned from the Indian National Congress and founded the Swatantra Party, Rajagopalachari was instrumental in setting up a united Anti-Congress front in Madras state under C. N. Annadurai, which swept the 1967 elections. Rajagopalachari was a writer who made lasting contributions to Indian English literature and is credited with composition of the song Kurai Onrum Illai set to Carnatic music. He pioneered temperance and temple entry movements in India and advocated Dalit upliftment and he has been criticised for introducing the compulsory study of Hindi and the controversial Madras Scheme of Elementary Education in Madras State.
Critics have often attributed his pre-eminence in politics to his standing as a favourite of both Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, Rajagopalachari was described by Gandhi as the keeper of my conscience. Rajagopalachari was born to Chakravarti Venkataryan, munsiff of Thorapalli Village, the couple already had two sons and Srinivasa. A weak and sickly child, Rajagopalachari was a constant worry to his parents who feared that he might not live long. As a young child, he was admitted to a school in Thorapalli at the age of five moved with his family to Hosur where Rajagopalachari enrolled at Hosur R. V. Government Boys Hr sec School. He passed his examinations in 1891 and graduated in arts from Central College. Rajagopalachari studied law at the Presidency College, from where he graduated in 1897, Rajagopalachari married Alamelu Mangamma in 1897 and the couple had five children – three sons and two daughters. Mangamma died in 1916 whereupon Rajagopalachari took sole responsibility for the care of his children and his son Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari Narasimhan was elected to the Lok Sabha from Krishnagiri in the 1952 and 1957 elections and served as a member of parliament for Krishnagiri from 1952 to 1962
The Mumbai and Assam units have been dissolved. As published by few news agencies, Vishnu Gupta or Hindu Sena has no affiliation with Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh or Bharatiya Janata Party, Vishnu Gupta was born on 1 January 1984 in Sakit, Uttar Pradesh in a poor family. He moved to New Delhi when he was six for further studies and he started the Non-profit organization HINDU SENA along with a few trusted supporters in 2011, which now has units in almost all parts of India. Vishnu Gupta has been detained several times since 2011, for his protests against Leftists and he has organized several protests against Pakistan from time to time. He has been involved in protests against China for blocking Indias NSG bid in 2016 and he led Freedom for Balochistan demonstration which attracted positive response for India from the Baloch community living across the world. At seven, Vishnu Gupta participated in the 1991Ram Janmabhoomi Andholan in his village, Hindu Sena had protested infront of Lal Krishna Advanis house in support of the BJP Prime Minister Candidate Narendra Modi.
Hindu Sena led by National President Vishnu Gupta has been the widely spoken about and earliest Trump supporters from India. Hindu Sena has organized events in support of now President-elect Donald Trump on ground from time to time as well as campaigned on social media platforms. On 11 May 2016, Hindu Sena organized Havan, a Hindu religious ritual to ensure the victory of the Presidential Nominee Donald Trump. On 14 June 2016, as many across the country where underestimated Trumps candidature, Hindu Sena celebrated Donald Trumps Birthday, on 4 November 2016, Hindu Sena celebrated the US Presidential candidate Trump victory in advance, which was widely covered by news agencies. On 9 November 2016, 11am IST they started Trump victory celebrations with drums, asserting that no talks should take place between India and Pakistan, activists Hindu Sena allegedly vandalised the regional office of Pakistan International Airlines at Barakhamba Road, New Delhi. Of the four Hindu Sena men who barged into the PIA office and damaged furniture and gadgets, according to the police, they went to all three rooms of the office, located on the fifth floor of Narayan Manzil building, and caused damage all around.
The activists upturned the chair kept at the reception and damaged a replica of the run by PIA. It further warns that the Hindu Sena plans to stop the Delhi-Lahore bus service, deputy Commissioner of Police Jatin Narwal who reached the office after the incident said the arrested person has been identified as Lalit Singh, an alleged member of Hindu Sena. He added that no individual was injured or manhandled, however, a statement issued by Pakistans Ministry of Foreign Affairs from Islamabad said the activists harassed and threatened the PIA staff. We have been assured by the Indian government that it would all the necessary steps for the security of the PIA offices in India. As an added security cover, nearly two dozen men from the Central Reserve Police Force were sent to the PIA office, senior Delhi Police officers said that security would be enhanced around all installations connected to Pakistan if there is a threat perception. The visit, termed as a raid by the AAP government in Delhi, in a related development, Delhi Police Commissioner B S Bassi submitted a report on the incident to the Ministry of Home Affairs
Abul Kalam Azad
Maulana Sayyid Abul Kalam Ghulam Muhiyuddin Ahmed Azad was an Indian scholar and the senior Muslim leader of the Indian National Congress during the Indian independence movement. Following Indias independence, he became the first Minister of Education in the Indian government and he is commonly remembered as Maulana Azad, the word Maulana is an honorific meaning Our Master, and he had adopted Azad as his pen name. His contribution to establishing the foundation in India is recognised by celebrating his birthday as National Education Day across India. As a young man, Azad composed poetry in Urdu language, as well as treaties on religion and he rose to prominence through his work as a journalist, publishing works critical of the British Raj and espousing the causes of Indian nationalism. Azad became the leader of the Khilafat Movement, during which he came into contact with the Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi. Azad became a supporter of Gandhis ideas of non-violent civil disobedience. Azad committed himself to Gandhis ideals, including promoting Swadeshi products, in 1923, at an age of 35, he became the youngest person to serve as the President of the Indian National Congress.
He served as Congress president from 1940 to 1945, during which the Quit India rebellion was launched, Azad was imprisoned, together with the entire Congress leadership, for three years. Amidst communal turmoil following the partition of India, he worked for religious harmony, as Indias Education Minister, Azad oversaw the establishment of a national education system with free primary education and modern institutions of higher education. National Education Day of India is celebrated on 11 November every year in India and he worked for Hindu-Muslim unity through the Al-Hilal newspaper. Azad was born on 11 November 1888 in Mecca, Saudi Arabia and his real name was Sayyid Abul Kalaam Ghulam Muhiyuddin Ahmed who eventually became known as Maulana Azad. Azad began to master several languages, including Urdu, Persian, Bengali and English. He was trained in the Mazahibs of Hanafi, Maliki and Hanbali fiqh, mathematics, world history, at the age of thirteen, he was married to a young Muslim girl, Zulaikha Begum.
Azad compiled many treatises interpreting the Quran, the Hadith, Azad developed political views considered radical for most Akbad Muslims of the time and became a full-fledged Indian nationalist. He fiercely criticised the British for racial discrimination and ignoring the needs of people across India. He criticised Muslim politicians for focusing on issues before the national interest. Azad developed curiosity and interest in the doctrines of Jamal al-Din al-Afghani and visited Afghanistan, Egypt, Syria. But his views changed considerably when he met revolutionary activists in Iraq and was influenced by their fervent anti-imperialism and nationalism, Azads education had been shaped for him to become a cleric, but his rebellious nature and affinity for politics turned him towards journalism
Chandra Shekhar Azad
Azad was born as Chandra Shekhar on 23 July 1906 in Bhabara village, in the present-day Alirajpur district of Madhya Pradesh. His forefathers were from Badarka village near Kanpur and his mother, Jagrani Devi, was the third wife of Sitaram Tiwari, whose previous wives had died young. After the birth of their first son, Sukhdev, in Badarka and his mother wanted her son to be a great Sanskrit scholar and persuaded his father to send him to Kashi Vidyapeeth, Banaras, to study. In December 1921, when Mohandas K. Gandhi launched the Non-Cooperation Movement, Chandra Shekhar, a 15-year-old student, as a result, he was arrested. On being produced before a magistrate, he gave his name as Azad, his fathers name as Swatantrata, from that day he came to be known as Chandra Shekhar Azad among the people. After suspension of the movement in 1922 by Gandhi, Azad became more aggressive. He met a young revolutionary, Pranvesh Chatterji, who introduced him to Ram Prasad Bismil who had formed the Hindustan Republican Association, Bismil was impressed by Azad, when Azad reportedly put his hand over a lamp and did not remove it till his skin burnt.
He became a member of the HRA and started to collect funds for HRA. Most of the collection was through robberies of government property. He wanted to build a new India based on socialist principles, despite being a member of Congress, Motilal Nehru regularly gave money in support of Azad. Azad made Jhansi his organisations hub for some time and he used the forest of Orchha, situated 15 kilometres from Jhansi, as a site for shooting practice and, being an expert marksman, he trained other members of his group. He built a hut near to a Hanuman temple on the banks of the Satar River and he taught children from the nearby village of Dhimarpura ) and thus managed to establish good rapport with the local residents. While living in Jhansi, he learned to drive a car at Bundelkhand Motor Garage in Sadar Bazar. Sadashivrao Malkapurkar, Vishwanath Vaishampayan and Bhagwan Das Mahaur came in contact with him. The congress leaders from Raghunath Vinayak Dhulekar and Sitaram Bhaskar Bhagwat were close to Azad and he stayed for sometime in the house of Rudra Narayan Singh at Nai Basti, as well as Bhagwats house in Nagra.
The Hindustan Republican Association was formed by Bismil, Sachindra Nath Sanyal, in the aftermath of the Kakori train robbery in 1925, the British clamped down on revolutionary activities. Prasad, Ashfaqulla Khan, Thakur Roshan Singh and Rajendra Nath Lahiri were sentenced to death for their participation, Keshab Chakravarthy and Murari Sharma evaded capture. Chandra Shekhar Azad reorganized the HRA with the help of revolutionaries like Sheo Verma, Azad died at Alfred Park in Allahabad on 27 February 1931
Lala Lajpat Rai
Lala Lajpat Rai pronunciation, was an Indian Punjabi author and politician who is chiefly remembered as a leader in the Indian Independence movement. He was popularly known as Punjab Kesari and he was one third of the Lal Bal Pal triumvirate. He was associated with activities of Punjab National Bank and Lakshmi Insurance Company in their early stages and he sustained serious injuries by the police when leading a non-violent protest against the Simon Commission and died less than three weeks later. His death anniversary is one of several days celebrated as Martyrs Day in India, Lajpat Rai was born in Dhudike on 28 January 1865. His father was in the Aggarwal caste, Rai had his initial education in Government Higher Secondary School, Rewari, in the late 1870s and early 1880s, where his father, Radha Krishan, was an Urdu teacher. Rai was influenced by Hinduism and created a career of reforming Indian policy through politics, Hinduism, he believed, led to practices of peace to humanity, and the idea that when nationalist ideas were added to this peaceful belief system, a secular nation could be formed.
This focus on Hindu practices in the subcontinent would ultimately lead him to the continuation of peaceful movements to create successful demonstrations for Indian independence and he was a devotee of Arya Samaj and was editor of Arya Gazette, which he set up during his student time. After joining the Indian National Congress and taking part in agitation in the Punjab, Lajpat Rai was deported to Mandalay, Burma. In November, however, he was allowed to return when the viceroy, Lord Minto, graduates of the National College, which he founded inside the Bradlaugh Hall at Lahore as an alternative to British institutions, included Bhagat Singh. He was elected President of the Indian National Congress in the Calcutta Special Session of 1920. In 1921, He founded Servants of the People Society, a welfare organisation, in Lahore, which shifted based to Delhi after partition. Lajpat Rai travelled to the US in 1907, and returned during World War I and he toured Sikh communities along the US West Coast, visited Tuskegee University in Alabama, and met with workers in the Philippines.
His travelogue, The United States of America, details these travels and features extensive quotations from leading African American intellectuals, the book argues for the notion of color-caste, suggesting sociological similarities between race in the US and caste in India. He was imprisoned from 1921 to 1923 and elected to the assembly on his release. He controversially demanded a clear partition of India into a Muslim India, in 1928, the British government set up the Commission, headed by Sir John Simon, to report on the political situation in India. The Indian political parties boycotted the Commission, because it did not include a single Indian in its membership, when the Commission visited Lahore on 30 October 1928, Lajpat Rai led silent march in protest against it. The superintendent of police, James A. Scott, ordered the police to charge the protesters. Despite being injured, Rai subsequently addressed the crowd and said and he did not fully recover from his injuries and died on 17 November 1928 of a heart attack
Subhas Chandra Bose
Bose had been a leader of the younger, wing of the Indian National Congress in the late 1920s and 1930s, rising to become Congress President in 1938 and 1939. However, he was ousted from Congress leadership positions in 1939 following differences with Mahatma Gandhi and he was subsequently placed under house arrest by the British before escaping from India in 1940. In November 1941, with German funds, a Free India Centre was set up in Berlin, a 3, 000-strong Free India Legion, comprising Indians captured by Erwin Rommels Afrika Korps, was formed to aid in a possible future German land invasion of India. By spring 1942, in light of Japanese victories in southeast Asia and changing German priorities, a German invasion of India became untenable, adolf Hitler, during his only meeting with Bose in late May 1942, suggested the same, and offered to arrange for a submarine. During this time Bose became a father, his wife, or companion, Emilie Schenkl, identifying strongly with the Axis powers, and no longer apologetically, Bose boarded a German submarine in February 1943.
In Madagascar, he was transferred to a Japanese submarine from which he disembarked in Japanese-held Sumatra in May 1943, with Japanese support, Bose revamped the Indian National Army, composed of Indian soldiers of the British Indian army who had been captured in the Battle of Singapore. To these, after Boses arrival, were added enlisting Indian civilians in Malaya, the Japanese had come to support a number of puppet and provisional governments in the captured regions, such as those in Burma, the Philippines and Manchukuo. Before long the Provisional Government of Free India, presided by Bose, was formed in the Japanese-occupied Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Bose had great drive and charisma—creating popular Indian slogans, such as Jai Hind, —and the INA under Bose was a model of diversity by region, religion, Bose was regarded by the Japanese as being militarily unskilled, and his military effort was short-lived. In late 1944 and early 1945 the British Indian Army first halted, almost half the Japanese forces and fully half the participating INA contingent were killed.
The INA was driven down the Malay Peninsula, and surrendered with the recapture of Singapore and he died from third degree burns received when his plane crashed in Taiwan. Some Indians, did not believe that the crash had occurred, with many among them, especially in Bengal, Indian National Congress, the main instrument of Indian nationalism, praised Boses patriotism but distanced itself from his tactics and ideology, especially his collaboration with Fascism. Subhas Chandra Bose was born on 23 January 1897 in Cuttack, Orissa Division, Bengal Province, to Prabhavati Devi and Janakinath Bose and he was the ninth in a family of 14 children. He was admitted to the Protestant European School, like his brothers and sisters and he continued his studies at this school which was run by the Baptist Mission up to 1909 and shifted to the Ravenshaw Collegiate School. The day Subhas was admitted to school, Beni Madhab Das. After securing the position in the matriculation examination in 1913. His nationalistic temperament came to light when he was expelled for assaulting Professor Oaten for the latters anti-India comments and he joined the Scottish Church College at the University of Calcutta and passed his B. A. in 1918 in philosophy.
Bose left India in 1919 for England with a promise to his father that he would appear in the Indian Civil Services examination and he went to study in Fitzwilliam College and matriculated on 19 November 1919
Saunders was felled by a single shot from Rajguru, a marksman. He was several times by Singh, the postmortem report showing eight bullet wounds. Another associate of Singh, Chandra Shekhar Azad, shot dead an Indian police constable, Chanan Singh, Singh was thereafter on the run for many months, and no convictions resulted at the time. Surfacing again in April 1929, he and another associate, Batukeshwar Dutt and they showered leaflets from the gallery on the legislators below, shouted slogans, and allowed the authorities to arrest them. The arrest, and the publicity, had the effect of bringing to light Singhs complicity in the John Saunders case. Singh was convicted and hanged in March 1931, aged 23, Bhagat Singh became a popular folk hero after his death. In still years, Singh, an atheist and socialist in life, won admirers in India from among a political spectrum that included both Communists and right-wing Hindu nationalists. Bhagat Singh, a Sandhu Jat, was born in 1907 to Kishan Singh and Vidyavati at Chak No.105 GB, Banga village and his birth coincided with the release of his father and two uncles, Ajit Singh and Swaran Singh, from jail.
His family members were Sikhs, some had been active in Indian Independence movements and his ancestral village was Khatkar Kalan, near the town of Banga, India in Nawanshahr district of the Punjab. His grandfather, Arjun Singh followed Swami Dayananda Saraswatis Hindu reformist movement, Arya Samaj and his father and uncles were members of the Ghadar Party, led by Kartar Singh Sarabha and Har Dayal. Ajit Singh was forced into exile due to pending court cases against him while Swaran Singh died at home in Lahore in 1910 following his release from jail, unlike many Sikhs of his age, Singh did not attend the Khalsa High School in Lahore. His grandfather did not approve of the school officials loyalty to the British government and he was enrolled instead in the Dayanand Anglo-Vedic High School, an Arya Samaji institution. In 1919, when he was 12 years old, Singh visited the site of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre hours after thousands of unarmed people gathered at a meeting had been killed. When he was 14 years old, he was among those in his village who welcomed protesters against the killing of a number of unarmed people at Gurudwara Nankana Sahib on 20 February 1921.
Singh became disillusioned with Mahatma Gandhis philosophy of non-violence after he called off the non-co-operation movement, Gandhis decision followed the violent murders of policemen by villagers who were reacting to the police killing three villagers in the 1922 Chauri Chaura incident. Singh joined the Young Revolutionary Movement and began to advocate for the violent overthrow of the British Government in India, in 1923, Singh joined the National College in Lahore, where he participated in extra-curricular activities like the dramatics society. In 1923, he won a competition set by the Punjab Hindi Sahitya Sammelan. Inspired by the Young Italy movement of Giuseppe Mazzini, he founded the Indian nationalist youth organisation Naujawan Bharat Sabha in March 1926 and he joined the Hindustan Republican Association, which had prominent leaders, such as Chandrashekhar Azad, Ram Prasad Bismil and Shahid Ashfaqallah Khan
B. R. Ambedkar
He was Independent Indias first law minister and the principal architect of the Constitution of India. In his early career he was an economist, professor, in 1956 he converted to Buddhism, initiating mass conversions of Dalits. In 1990, the Bharat Ratna, Indias highest civilian award, was conferred upon Ambedkar. Ambedkars legacy includes numerous memorials and depictions in popular culture, Ambedkar was born on 14 April 1891 in the town and military cantonment of Mhow in the Central Provinces. He was the 14th and last child of Ramji Maloji Sakpal, an officer who held the rank of Subedar. His family was of Marathi background from the town of Ambavade in Ratnagiri district of modern-day Maharashtra, Ambedkar was born into a poor low Mahar caste, who were treated as untouchables and subjected to socio-economic discrimination. Ambedkars ancestors had long worked for the army of the British East India Company, although they attended school and other untouchable children were segregated and given little attention or help by teachers.
They were not allowed to sit inside the class, when they needed to drink water, someone from a higher caste had to pour that water from a height as they were not allowed to touch either the water or the vessel that contained it. He was required to sit on a sack which he had to take home with him. Ramji Sakpal retired in 1894 and the moved to Satara two years later. Shortly after their move, Ambedkars mother died, the children were cared for by their paternal aunt and lived in difficult circumstances. Three sons – Balaram and Bhimrao – and two daughters – Manjula and Tulasa – of the Ambedkars survived them, of his brothers and sisters, only Ambedkar passed his examinations and went to high school. His original surname Ambavadekar comes from his native village Ambavade in Ratnagiri district and his teacher, Mahadev Ambedkar, who was fond of him, changed his surname from Ambavadekar to his own surname Ambedkar in school records. In 1897, Ambedkars family moved to Bombay where Ambedkar became the only untouchable enrolled at Elphinstone High School, in 1906, when he was about 15 years old, his marriage to a nine-year-old girl, was arranged.
In 1907, he passed his examination and in the following year he entered Elphinstone College. This success evoked much celebration among untouchables and after a ceremony, he was presented with a biography of the Buddha by Dada Keluskar, the author. By 1912, he obtained his degree in economics and political science from Bombay University and his wife had just moved his young family and started work when he had to quickly return to Mumbai to see his ailing father, who died on 2 February 1913. In 1913, Ambedkar moved to the United States at the age of 22, soon after arriving there he settled in rooms at Livingston Hall with Naval Bhathena, a Parsi who was to be a lifelong friend
Abdul Ghaffār Khān, nicknamed Bāchā Khān or Pāchā Khān, was a Pashtun independence activist against the rule of the British Raj. He was a political and spiritual leader known for his nonviolent opposition, a close friend of Mohandas Gandhi, Bacha Khan was nicknamed the Frontier Gandhi in British India. Badshah Khan strongly opposed the All-India Muslim Leagues demand for the partition of India, Badshah Khan spent much of the 1960s and 1970s either in jail or in exile. Upon his death in 1988 in Peshawar under house arrest, following his will, he was buried at his house in Jalalabad, Afghanistan. Tens of thousands of mourners attended his funeral, marching through the Khyber Pass from Peshawar to Jalalabad, despite the heavy fighting at the time, both sides of the Soviet war in Afghanistan, the communist army and the mujahideen, declared a ceasefire to allow his burial. Ghaffar Khan was born on 6 February 1890 into a generally peaceful and his father, Bahram Khan, was a land owner in the area commonly referred to as Hashtnaghar.
Ghaffar was the son of Bahram to attend the British run Edwards mission school. At school the young Ghaffar did well in his studies, and was inspired by his mentor Reverend Wigram to see the importance of education in service to the community. In his 10th and final year of school, he was offered a highly prestigious commission in The Guides. Young Ghaffar refused the commission after realising that even The Guides officers were still second-class citizens in their own country and he resumed his intention of university study, and Reverend Wigram offered him the opportunity to follow his brother, Dr. Khan Sahib, to study in London. An alumnus of Aligarh Muslim University, Ghaffar eventually received the permission of his father, ghaffars mother wasnt willing to lose another son to London. So Ghaffar began working on his fathers lands, while attempting to discern what more he might do with his life, in 1910, at the age of 20, Badshah Khan opened a mosque school at his hometown Utmanzai. In 1911, he joined independence movement of the Pashtun independence activist Haji Sahib of Turangzai, however, in 1915, the British authorities banned his mosque school.
Having witnessed the repeated failure of revolts against the British Raj, Bacha Khan decided that social activism and this led to the formation of Anjuman-e Islāh-e Afāghina in 1921, and the youth movement Pax̌tūn Jirga in 1927. After Bacha Khans return from the Hajj pilgrimage at Mecca in May 1928, finally, in November 1929, Bacha Khan founded the Khudāyī Khidmatgār movement, whose success triggered a harsh crackdown by the British Empire against him and his supporters. They suffered some of the most severe repression of the Indian independence movement from the British Raj, in response to his inability to continue his own education, Ghaffar Khan turned to helping others start theirs. At 20 years of age, Ghaffar opened his first school in Utmanzai and it was an instant success and he was soon invited into a larger circle of progressively minded reformers. While he faced opposition and personal difficulties, Ghaffar Khan worked tirelessly to organise and raise the consciousness of his fellow Pushtuns
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was the preeminent leader of the Indian independence movement in British-ruled India. Employing nonviolent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights, the honorific Mahatma —applied to him first in 1914 in South Africa—is now used worldwide. In India, he is called Bapu and Gandhiji and he is unofficially called the Father of the Nation. After his return to India in 1915, he set about organising peasants, Gandhi famously led Indians in challenging the British-imposed salt tax with the 400 km Dandi Salt March in 1930, and in calling for the British to Quit India in 1942. He was imprisoned for years, upon many occasions, in both South Africa and India. Gandhi attempted to practise nonviolence and truth in all situations, and he lived modestly in a self-sufficient residential community and wore the traditional Indian dhoti and shawl, woven with yarn hand-spun on a charkha. He ate simple food, and undertook long fasts as a means of both self-purification and social protest.
Eventually, in August 1947, Britain granted independence, but the British Indian Empire was partitioned into two dominions, a Hindu-majority India and Muslim-majority Pakistan. As many displaced Hindus and Sikhs made their way to their new lands, religious violence broke out, especially in the Punjab, eschewing the official celebration of independence in Delhi, Gandhi visited the affected areas, attempting to provide solace. In the months following, he undertook several fasts unto death to promote religious harmony, the last of these, undertaken on 12 January 1948 when he was 78, had the indirect goal of pressuring India to pay out some cash assets owed to Pakistan. Some Indians thought Gandhi was too accommodating, among them was Nathuram Godse, a Hindu nationalist, who assassinated Gandhi on 30 January 1948 by firing three bullets into his chest. Mahatma Gandhis birthday,2 October, is commemorated in India as Gandhi Jayanti, a national holiday and his father, Karamchand Uttamchand Gandhi, served as the diwan of Porbandar state.
The Gandhi family originated from the village of Kutiana in what was Junagadh State, in the late 17th or early 18th century, one Lalji Gandhi moved to Porbandar and entered the service of its ruler, the Rana. In 1831, Rana Khimojiraji died suddenly and was succeeded by his 12-year-old only son, as a result, Rana Khimojirajjis widow, Rani Rupaliba, became regent for her son. She soon fell out with Uttamchand and forced him to return to his village in Junagadh. While in Junagadh, Uttamchand appeared before its Nawab and saluted him with his hand instead of his right. In 1841, Vikmatji assumed the throne and reinstated Uttamchand as his diwan, in 1847, Rana Vikmatji appointed Uttamchands son, Karamchand, as diwan after disagreeing with Uttamchand over the states maintenance of a British garrison. Although he only had an education and had previously been a clerk in the state administration
Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Bal Gangadhar Tilak, born as Keshav Gangadhar Tilak, was an Indian nationalist, social reformer, lawyer and an independence activist. He was the first leader of the Indian Independence Movement, the British colonial authorities called him Father of the Indian unrest. He was conferred with the title of Lokmanya, which means accepted by the people, Tilak was one of the first and strongest advocates of Swaraj and a strong radical in Indian consciousness. He is known for his quote in Marathi, स्वराज्य हा माझा जन्मसिद्ध हक्क आहे आणि तो मी मिळवणारच in India. He formed an alliance with many Indian National Congress leaders including Bipin Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai, Aurobindo Ghose, V. O. Chidambaram Pillai. Tilak was born in a Marathi Chitpavan Brahmin family in Ratnagiri as Keshav Gangadhar Tilak, in headquarters of the eponymous district of present-day Maharashtra on 23 July 1856. His father, Gangadhar Tilak was a teacher and a Sanskrit scholar who died when Tilak was sixteen. Tilak graduated from Deccan College, Pune in 1877, Tilak was amongst one of the first generation of Indians to receive a college education.
In 1871 Tilak was married to Tapibai when he was sixteen, after marriage, her name was changed to Satyabhamabai. He obtained his Bachelor of Arts in first class in Mathematics from Deccan College of Pune in 1877. He left his M. A. course of study midway to join the L. L. B course instead, after graduating, Tilak started teaching mathematics at a private school in Pune. Later, due to differences with the colleagues in the new school, he withdrew. Tilak actively participated in public affairs and he stated and practical life are not different. To take Sanyas is not to abandon life, the real spirit is to make the country your family work together instead of working only for your own. The step beyond is to humanity and the next step is to serve God. He organised the Deccan Education Society with a few of his friends, including Gopal Ganesh Agarkar, Mahadev Ballal Namjoshi. Their goal was to improve the quality of education for Indias youth, the Deccan Education Society was set up to create a new system that taught young Indians nationalist ideas through an emphasis on Indian culture.
The Society established the New English School for secondary education and Fergusson College in 1885 for post-secondary studies, Tilak taught mathematics at Fergusson College