Category:Indo-European archaeological artifacts
This category has the following 6 subcategories, out of 6 total.
This category has the following 6 subcategories, out of 6 total.
1. Chariot – A chariot is a type of carriage driven by a charioteer using primarily horses to provide rapid motive power. Chariots were used by armies as transport or mobile platforms, for hunting or for racing. The word chariot comes from the Latin carrus, itself a loanword from Gaulish, a chariot of war or one used in military parades was called a car. In ancient Rome and some other ancient Mediterranean civilizations, a required two horses, a triga three, and a quadriga four. The critical invention that allowed the construction of light, horse-drawn chariots was the spoked wheel, the earliest spoke-wheeled chariots date to ca.2000 BCE. The use of chariots peaked around 1300 BCE, Chariots had lost their military importance by the 1st century CE, but chariot races continued to be popular in Constantinople until the 6th century. The domestication of the horse was an important step toward civilization, an increasing amount of evidence supports the hypothesis that horses were domesticated in the Eurasian Steppes approximately 4000-3500 BCE. The invention of the used in transportation most likely took place in Europe. Evidence of wheeled vehicles appears from the mid 4th millennium BCE near-simultaneously in the Northern Caucasus, the earliest vehicles may have been ox carts. Starokorsunskaya kurgan in the Kuban region of Russia contains a grave of the Maikop Culture. The two solid wooden wheels from this kurgan have been dated to the half of the fourth millennium. Soon thereafter the number of burials in this Northern Caucasus region multiplied. As David Anthony writes in his book The Horse, the Wheel and Language, in Eastern Europe and it is a clay pot excavated in a Funnelbeaker settlement in Swietokrzyskie Voivodeship in Poland. The oldest securely dated real wheel-axle combination in Eastern Europe is the Ljubljana Marshes Wheel, horses were introduced to Transcaucasia at the time of the Kura-Araxes culture, beginning about 3300 BCE. Prior to that, horse bones were not found, during the Kura-Araxes period, horses seem to become rather widespread, with signs of domestication. It is widely believed that wheeled transport was invented in Mesopotamia, nevertheless, recent archaeological evidence seems to indicate otherwise, pointing to Neolithic Europe. At the same time, in Mesopotamia, some intriguing early pictograms of a sled that rests on wooden rollers or wheels have been found and they date from about the same time as the early wheel discoveries in Europe and may indicate knowledge of the wheel. The earliest depiction of vehicles in the context of warfare is on the Standard of Ur in southern Mesopotamia, the hybrids were used by the Eblaite, early Sumerian, Akkadian and Ur III armies
2. Golden hat – Golden hats are a very specific and rare type of archaeological artifact from Bronze Age Europe. So far, four such objects are known, the following Golden Hats are known as of 2012, Golden Hat of Schifferstadt, found in 1835 at Schifferstadt near Speyer, c. Avanton Gold Cone, incomplete, found at Avanton near Poitiers in 1844, Golden Cone of Ezelsdorf-Buch, found near Ezelsdorf near Nuremberg in 1953, c. 1000–900 BC, the tallest known specimen at c.90 cm, Berlin Gold Hat, found probably in Swabia or Switzerland, c. 1000–800 BC, acquired by the Museum für Vor- und Frühgeschichte, the hats are associated with the Proto-Celtic Bronze Age Urnfield culture. A comparable golden pectoral was found at Mold, Flintshire, in northern Wales, the cone-shaped Golden Hats of Schifferstadt type are assumed to be connected with a number of comparable cap or crown-shaped gold leaf objects from Ireland and the Atlantic coast of Spain. The archaeological contexts of the cones are not very clear, at least two of the known examples appear to have been deliberately and carefully buried in antiquity. Although none can be dated precisely, their technology suggests that they were made between 1200 and 800 BC. It is assumed that the Golden Hats served as religious insignia for the deities or priests of a sun cult then widespread in Central Europe, attempts to decipher the Golden Hats ornamentation suggest that their cultic role is accompanied or complemented by their use as complex calendrical devices. Whether they were used for such purposes, or simply presented the underlying astronomical knowledge. The gold cones are covered in bands of ornaments along their whole length, the ornaments - mostly disks and concentric circles, sometimes wheels - were punched using stamps, rolls or combs. The older examples show a more restricted range of ornaments than the later ones and it appears to be the case that the ornaments on all known Golden Hats represent systematic sequences in terms of number and types of ornaments per band. A detailed study of the Berlin example, which is preserved, revealed that the symbols probably represent a lunisolar calendar. The object would have permitted the determination of dates or periods in both lunar and solar calendars, whether the hats themselves were indeed used for determining such dates, or whether they simply represented such knowledge, remains unknown. The functions discovered so far would permit the counting of temporal units of up to 57 months, a simple multiplication of such values would also permit the calculation of longer periods, e. g. metonic cycles. Each symbol, or each ring of a symbol, represents a single day, in principle, starting with zone Zi, a sum is achieved by adding a relevant contiguous number of neighbouring sections, Zi. To reach the equivalent lunar or solar value, from this sum must be subtracted the sum of symbols from the intercalary zone within the area counted. The illustration depicts the solar representation on the left and the one on the right
3. Horned helmet – Horned helmets were worn by many people around the world, but not, contrary to the modern myth, the Vikings. Headpieces mounted with animal horns or replicas were also worn, as in the Mesolithic Star Carr and these were probably used for religious ceremonial or ritual purposes. Much of the evidence for these helmets and headpieces comes from rather than the items themselves. Two bronze statuettes dated to the early 12th century BC, the horned god and ingot god, depicting deities wearing horned helmets, found in Enkomi. In Sardinia dozens of warriors with horned helmets are depicted in bronze figures and in the monte prama gigantic statues, a pair of bronze horned helmets from the later Bronze Age were found near Veksø, Denmark in 1942. Another early find is the Grevensvænge hoard from Zealand, Denmark, the Waterloo Helmet, a Celtic bronze ceremonial helmet with repoussé decoration in the La Tène style, dating to c. 150–50 BC, was found in the River Thames, at London and its abstracted horns, different from those of the earlier finds, are straight and conical. Late Gaulish helmets with horns and adorned with wheels, reminiscent of the combination of a horned helmet. Other Celtic helmets, especially from Eastern Europe, had bird crests, the enigmatic Torrs Pony-cap and Horns from Scotland appears to be a horned champron to be worn by a horse. Depicted on the Arch of Constantine, dedicated in 315 AD, are Germanic soldiers, sometimes identified as Cornuti, shown wearing horned helmets. On the relief representing the Battle of Verona they are in the first lines, a depiction on a Migration Period metal die from Öland, Sweden, shows a warrior with a helmet adorned with two snakes or dragons, arranged in a manner similar to horns. Decorative plates of the Sutton Hoo helmet depict spear-carrying dancing men wearing horned helmets, a diebolt for striking plaques of this kind was found at Torslunda, Sweden. Also, a pendant from Ekhammar in Uppland, features the same figure in the same pose, figures from This headgear, of which only depictions have survived, seems to have mostly fallen out of use with the end of the Migration period. Some have suggested that the figure in question is not even supposed represent an actual headgear, a figure with a similar headgear was found at the sight of the Uppåkra temple, the site of a supposed Odinic-cult. The figure in question lacked an eye, a similar object, from Levide on Gotland, features a one-eyed figure with the headgear. This figure had one eye removed, apparently after its completion and this would link the headgear as a mythological representations rather than depictions of actual helmets. During the High Middle Ages, fantastical headgear became popular among knights, the achievements or representations of some coats of arms, for example that of Lazar Hrebeljanovic, depict them, but they rarely appear as charges depicted within the arms themselves. It is sometimes argued that helmets with large protuberances would not have worn in battle due to the impediment to their wearer
4. Nebra sky disk – The Nebra sky disk is a bronze disk of around 30 centimetres diameter and a weight of 2.2 kilograms, with a blue-green patina and inlaid with gold symbols. These are interpreted generally as a sun or full moon, a lunar crescent, two golden arcs along the sides, marking the angle between the solstices, were added later. A final addition was another arc at the bottom surrounded with multiple strokes, the disk is attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, in Germany, and associatively dated to c.1600 BC. It has been associated with the Bronze Age Unetice culture, the disk is unlike any known artistic style from the period, and initially, was suspected of being a forgery, but now is widely accepted as authentic. The Nebra sky disk features the oldest concrete depiction of the cosmos worldwide, in June 2013 it was included in the UNESCO Memory of the World Register and termed one of the most important archaeological finds of the twentieth century. Archaeological artifacts are the property of the state in Saxony-Anhalt, the hunters were operating without a license and knew their activity constituted looting and was illegal. They damaged the disk with their spade and destroyed parts of the site, the next day, Westphal and Renner sold the entire hoard for 31,000 DM to a dealer in Cologne. The hoard changed hands within Germany over the two years, being sold for up to a million DM. By 2001 knowledge of its existence became public, in February 2002 the state archaeologist Harald Meller acquired the disk in a police-led sting operation in Basel from a couple who had put it on the black market for 700,000 DM. The original finders were eventually traced, in a plea bargain, they led police and archaeologists to the discovery site. Archaeologists opened a dig at the site and uncovered evidence that supports the looters claims, there are traces of bronze artifacts in the ground, and the soil at the site matches soil samples found clinging to the artifacts. The disk and its accompanying finds are now held at the State Museum of Prehistory in Halle, the two looters received sentences of four months and ten months, respectively, from a Naumburg court in September 2003. They appealed, but the court actually raised their sentences to six and twelve months. The discovery site is a prehistoric enclosure encircling the top of a 252 metres elevation in the Ziegelroda Forest, known as Mittelberg, the surrounding area is known to have been settled in the Neolithic era, and Ziegelroda Forest contains approximately 1,000 barrows. The enclosure is oriented in such a way that the sun seems to set every solstice behind the Brocken, the treasure-hunters claimed the artifacts were discovered within a pit inside the bank-and-ditch enclosure. The precise dating of the Nebra skydisk depended upon the dating of a number of Bronze Age weapons and these axes and swords can be dated typologically to the mid 2nd millennium BC. Radiocarbon dating of a birchbark particle found on one of the swords to between 1600 and 1560 BC confirmed this estimate and this corresponds to the date of burial, at which time the disk had likely been in existence for several generations. A more recent analysis found that the used in the first phase was from the river Carnon in Cornwall
5. Artifact (archaeology) – An artifact or artefact is. something made or given shape by man, such as a tool or a work of art, esp an object of archaeological interest. In archaeology, however, the word has become a term of particular nuance and is defined as, an object recovered by archaeological endeavor, which may have a cultural interest. However, modern archaeologists take care to distinguish material culture from ethnicity, examples include stone tools, pottery vessels, metal objects such as weapons, and items of personal adornment such as buttons, jewelry and clothing. Bones that show signs of modification are also examples. Natural objects, such as fire cracked rocks from a hearth or plant material used for food, are classified by archeologists as ecofacts rather than as artifacts, natural objects that humans have moved but not changed are called manuports. Examples include seashells moved inland, or rounded pebbles placed away from the action that made them. For instance, a bone removed from a carcass is a biofact. Similarly there can be debate over early stone objects that could be either crude artifacts or naturally occurring and it can be difficult to distinguish the differences between actual man-made lithic artifacts and geofacts – naturally occurring lithics that resemble man-made tools. It is possible to authenticate artifacts by examining the general attributed to man-made tools. Artifact Collection at the Royal Military College of Canada Museum in Kingston, Ontario
6. Proto-Indo-Europeans – The Proto-Indo-Europeans were the prehistoric people of Eurasia who spoke Proto-Indo-European, the ancestor of the Indo-European languages according to linguistic reconstruction. Knowledge of them comes chiefly from that reconstruction, along with evidence from archaeology. The Proto-Indo-Europeans likely lived during the late Neolithic, or roughly the 4th millennium BCE, mainstream scholarship places them in the forest-steppe zone immediately to the north of the western end of the Pontic-Caspian steppe in Eastern Europe. Some archaeologists would extend the depth of PIE to the middle Neolithic or even the early Neolithic. They had domesticated horses – *eḱwos, the cow played a central role, in religion and mythology as well as in daily life. A mans wealth would have been measured by the number of his animals, as for technology, reconstruction indicates a culture of the late Neolithic bordering on the early Bronze Age, with tools and weapons very likely composed of natural bronze. Silver and gold were known, but not silver smelting, thus suggesting that silver was imported, sheep were kept for wool, and textiles were woven. The wheel was known, certainly for ox-drawn wagons and they practiced a polytheistic religion centered on sacrificial rites, probably administered by a priestly caste. Important leaders would have been buried with their belongings in kurgans, many Indo-European societies know a threefold division of priests, a warrior class, and a class of peasants or husbandmen. Georges Dumézil has suggested such a division for Proto-Indo-European society, if there was a separate class of warriors, it probably consisted of single young men. They would have followed a separate warrior code unacceptable in the society outside their peer-group, traces of initiation rites in several Indo-European societies suggest that this group identified itself with wolves or dogs. Researchers have made attempts to identify particular prehistoric cultures with the Proto-Indo-European-speaking peoples. The scholars of the 19th century who first tackled the question of the Indo-Europeans original homeland, had essentially only linguistic evidence and they attempted a rough localization by reconstructing the names of plants and animals as well as the culture and technology. In the early 20th century, the question became associated with the expansion of a supposed Aryan race, a fallacy promoted during the expansion of European empires, the question remains contentious within some flavours of ethnic nationalism. A series of major advances occurred in the 1970s due to the convergence of several factors, first, the radiocarbon dating method had become sufficiently inexpensive to be applied on a mass scale. Through dendrochronology, pre-historians could calibrate radiocarbon dates to a higher degree of accuracy. The Kurgan hypothesis, as of 2017 the most widely held theory, depends on linguistic and archaeological evidence and it suggests PIE origin in the Pontic-Caspian steppe during the Chalcolithic. A minority of scholars prefer the Anatolian hypothesis, suggesting an origin in Anatolia during the Neolithic, other theories have only marginal scholarly support