Pages in category "Indo-Greek kings"
The following 37 pages are in this category, out of 37 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 37 pages are in this category, out of 37 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Hellenistic period – It is often considered a period of transition, sometimes even of decadence or degeneration, compared to the enlightenment of the Greek Classical era. The Hellenistic period saw the rise of New Comedy, Alexandrian poetry, the Septuagint, Greek science was advanced by the works of the mathematician Euclid and the polymath Archimedes. The religious sphere expanded to include new gods such as the Greco-Egyptian Serapis, eastern deities such as Attis and Cybele, the Hellenistic period was characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization which established Greek cities and kingdoms in Asia and Africa. This resulted in the export of Greek culture and language to new realms. Equally, however, these new kingdoms were influenced by the cultures, adopting local practices where beneficial, necessary. Hellenistic culture thus represents a fusion of the Ancient Greek world with that of the Near East, Middle East and this mixture gave rise to a common Attic-based Greek dialect, known as Koine Greek, which became the lingua franca through the Hellenistic world. Scholars and historians are divided as to what event signals the end of the Hellenistic era, Hellenistic is distinguished from Hellenic in that the first encompasses the entire sphere of direct ancient Greek influence, while the latter refers to Greece itself. The word originated from the German term hellenistisch, from Ancient Greek Ἑλληνιστής, from Ἑλλάς, Hellenistic is a modern word and a 19th-century concept, the idea of a Hellenistic period did not exist in Ancient Greece. Although words related in form or meaning, e. g, the major issue with the term Hellenistic lies in its convenience, as the spread of Greek culture was not the generalized phenomenon that the term implies. Some areas of the world were more affected by Greek influences than others. The Greek population and the population did not always mix, the Greeks moved and brought their own culture. While a few fragments exist, there is no surviving historical work which dates to the hundred years following Alexanders death. The works of the major Hellenistic historians Hieronymus of Cardia, Duris of Samos, the earliest and most credible surviving source for the Hellenistic period is Polybius of Megalopolis, a statesman of the Achaean League until 168 BC when he was forced to go to Rome as a hostage. His Histories eventually grew to a length of forty books, covering the years 220 to 167 BC, another important source, Plutarchs Parallel Lives though more preoccupied with issues of personal character and morality, outlines the history of important Hellenistic figures. Appian of Alexandria wrote a history of the Roman empire that includes information of some Hellenistic kingdoms, other sources include Justins epitome of Pompeius Trogus Historiae Philipicae and a summary of Arrians Events after Alexander, by Photios I of Constantinople. Lesser supplementary sources include Curtius Rufus, Pausanias, Pliny, in the field of philosophy, Diogenes Laertius Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers is the main source. Ancient Greece had traditionally been a collection of fiercely independent city-states. After the Peloponnesian War, Greece had fallen under a Spartan hegemony, in which Sparta was pre-eminent but not all-powerfulHellenistic period – The Nike of Samothrace is considered one of the greatest masterpieces of Hellenistic art.
2. Indo-Greek Kingdom – The kingdom was founded when the Graeco-Bactrian king Demetrius invaded the subcontinent early in the 2nd century BC. The Greeks in South Asia were eventually divided from the Graeco-Bactrians centered in Bactria, but the Greeks failed to establish united rule in present-day north-western South Asia. The most famous Indo-Greek ruler was Menander and he had his capital at Sakala in the Punjab. The expression Indo-Greek Kingdom loosely describes a number of various polities, traditionally associated with a number of regional capitals like Taxila, Pushkalavati. Euthydemus I was, according to Polybius a Magnesian Greek and his son, Demetrius, founder of the Indo-Greek kingdom, was therefore of Greek descent from his father at minimum. A marriage treaty was arranged for Demetrius with a daughter of Antiochus III the Great, the ethnicity of later Indo-Greek rulers is less clear. The diffusion of Indo-Greek culture had consequences which are still felt today, after 321 BC Eudemus toppled Taxiles, until he left India in 316 BC. To the south, another general also ruled over the Greek colonies of the Indus, Peithon, son of Agenor, in 305 BC, Seleucus I led an army to the Indus, where he encountered Chandragupta. The confrontation ended with a treaty, and an intermarriage agreement. But Seleucus Nicator gave them to Sandrocottus in consequence of a marriage contract, also several Greeks, such as the historian Megasthenes, followed by Deimachus and Dionysius, were sent to reside at the Mauryan court. Presents continued to be exchanged between the two rulers, on these occasions, Greek populations apparently remained in the northwest of the Indian subcontinent under Mauryan rule. It is also thought that Greeks contributed to the work of the Pillars of Ashoka. 1 That is the Caucasus Indicus or Paropamisus, mod, Alexander had also established several colonies in neighbouring Bactria, such as Alexandria on the Oxus and Alexandria of the Caucasus. After Alexanders death in 323 BC, Bactria came under the control of Seleucus I Nicator, the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom was founded when Diodotus I, the satrap of Bactria seceded from the Seleucid Empire around 250 BC. The preserved ancient sources are contradictory and the exact date of Bactrian independence has not been settled. Somewhat simplified, there is a chronology and a low chronology for Diodotos’ secession. The high chronology has the advantage of explaining why the Seleucid king Antiochus II issued very few coins in Bactria, as Diodotos would have become independent there early in Antiochus reign. On the other hand, the low chronology, from the mid-240s BC, has the advantage of connecting the secession of Diodotus I with the Third Syrian War, a catastrophic conflict for the Seleucid EmpireIndo-Greek Kingdom – Indo-Greek Kingdoms in 100 BC.
3. Indian subcontinent – Geologically, the Indian subcontinent is related to the land mass that rifted from Gondwana and merged with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago. Geographically, it is the region in south-central Asia delineated by the Himalayas in the north, the Hindu Kush in the west. Politically, the Indian subcontinent usually includes Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, sometimes, the term South Asia is used interchangeably with Indian subcontinent. There is no consensus about which countries should be included in each and it is first attested in 1845 to refer to the North and South Americas, before they were regarded as separate continents. Its use to refer to the Indian subcontinent is seen from the twentieth century. It was especially convenient for referring to the region comprising both the British India and the states under British Paramountcy. The term Indian subcontinent also has a geological significance and it was, like the various continents, a part of the supercontinent of Gondwana. A series of tectonic splits caused formation of basins, each drifting in various directions. The geological region called the Greater India once included the Madagascar, Seychelles, Antartica, as a geological term, Indian subcontinent has meant that region formed from the collision of the Indian basin with Eurasia nearly 55 million years ago, towards the end of Paleocene. The Indian subcontinent has been a particularly common in the British Empire. The region, state Mittal and Thursby, has also labelled as India, Greater India. The BBC and some sources refer to the region as the Asian Subcontinent. Some academics refer to it as South Asian Subcontinent, the terms Indian subcontinent and South Asia are sometimes used interchangeably. There is no accepted definition on which countries are a part of South Asia or Indian subcontinent. In dictionary entries, the term subcontinent signifies a large, distinguishable subdivision of a continent, the region experienced high volcanic activity and plate subdivisions, creating Madagascar, Seychelles, Antartica, Austrolasia and the Indian subcontinent basin. The Indian subcontinent drifted northeastwards, colliding with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago and this geological region largely includes Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The zone where the Eurasian and Indian subcontinent plates meet remains one of the active areas. The English term mainly continues to refer to the Indian subcontinent, physiographically, it is a peninsular region in south-central Asia delineated by the Himalayas in the north, the Hindu Kush in the west, and the Arakanese in the eastIndian subcontinent – Indian subcontinent
4. Agathokleia – For the 3rd century BC mistress of Ptolemy IV Philopator, see Agathoclea. Agathokleia Theotropos was an Indo-Greek queen who ruled in parts of northern India in the 2nd-century BC as regent for her son Strato I, the traditional view, introduced by Tarn and defended as late as 1998 by Bopearachchi, is that Agathokleia was the widow of Menander I. In the civil wars after Menanders death, the Indo-Greek empire was divided, with Agathokleia and her young son Strato maintaining themselves in the territories of Gandhara. The modern view, embraced by R. C, senior and probably more solid since it is founded on numismatical analyses, suggests that Agathokleia was a later queen, perhaps ruling from 110 BC–100 BC or slightly later. In this case, Agathokleia was likely the widow of another king, in either case, Agathokleia was among the first women to rule a Hellenistic Kingdom, in the period following the reign of Alexander the Great. Some of her subjects may have been reluctant to accept an infant king with a regent, unlike the Seleucid and Ptolemaic Kingdoms. This was probably because the kings were required to command armies, as can be seen on their coins where they are depicted with helmets. Agathokleia seems to have associated herself with Athena, the goddess of war, the coins of Agathokleia and Strato were all bilingual, and Agathokleias name appears more often in the Greek legend than in the Indian. Most of Agathokleias coins were struck jointly with her son Strato, though on their first issues, the Greeks in Bactria and IndiaAgathokleia – Coin of Agathokleia. Obv: Queen Agathokleia in profile. Rev:: Greek straight bow and arrow container.
5. Amyntas Nikator – Amyntas Nikator was an Indo-Greek king. His coins have found both in eastern Punjab and Afghanistan, indicating that he ruled a considerable territory. 95–90 BCE, whereas Senior places him c, Amyntas struck bilingual silver coins with a variety of portraits. Some of his coins feature the reverse of fighting Athena typical for Menanders descendants, the epithet Nikator was previously only used on the Bactrian coins of Agathocles, a century before Amyntas reign. His bronzes feature the syncretic deity Zeus-Mithra wearing a cap and Athena standing at rest. Amyntas also minted some spectacular Attic coins, the largest silver coins of Antiquity, double-decadrachms and these huge coins were found on the archeological site of Qunduz in Afghanistan. Some of these coins use his ordinary Zeus reverse, but some of them used Tyche in an identical position, Amyntas is known to have overstruck coins of Heliokles II. Greco-Bactrian Kingdom Seleucid Empire Greco-Buddhism Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthian Kingdom Kushan Empire ^ Bopearachchi, De lIndus à lOxus, p129 Tarn, the Greeks in Bactria and India. The Coin Types of the Indo-Greek Kings, 256-54 B. C, De lIndus à lOxus, Archéologie de lAsie CentraleAmyntas Nikator – Coin of Amyntas Nikator. Obv: Bust of king. Rev: Seated Zeus.
6. Antialcidas – Antialcidas Nikephoros was a Greek king of the Indo-Greek Kingdom, king of the Eucratid Dynasty, who reigned from his capital at Taxila. Bopearachchi has suggested that he ruled from ca.115 to 95 BCE in the parts of the Indo-Greek realms. Senior places him around 130 to 120 BCE and also in eastern Punjab, senior does however believe that he ruled in tandem with King Lysias. Antialcidas may have been a relative of the Bactrian king Heliocles I, several later kings may have been related to Antialcidas, Heliokles II, Amyntas, Diomedes and Hermaeus all struck coins with similar features. It states that he was a devotee of Vishnu, the Hindu god, a part of the inscriptions says, This Garuda-standard was made by order of the Bhagavata. Otherwise, Antialcidas is also known through his plentiful coins and he issued a number of bilingual Indian silver types, diademed, wearing a helmet with bulls horns or a flat kausia. He also appears throwing a spear, in that case the coin scene would represent a victory of Buddhism. According to other interpretations the elephant was the symbol of the city of Taxila, there is a bronze which features the obverse of Lysias and the reverse of Antialcidas. This was interpreted by Tarn and other scholars as though the two kings might have forged some kind of alliance, but later, a bronze with the opposite arrangement was found. The Indo-Greeks, A. K. Narain, B. R Publications The Decline of the Indo-Greeks, senior & D. MacDonald, the Hellenistic Numismatic Society Coins of Antialcidas More coins of Antialcidas Catalog of the coins of AntialcidasAntialcidas
7. Apollodotus II – Apollodotus II was an Indo-Greek king who ruled in the western and eastern parts of Punjab. Apollodotos II was an important ruler who seems to have re-established the Indo-Greek kingdom to some extent of its former glory, Taxila in western Punjab was reconquered from nomad Scythian rule, and according to Bopearachchi, eastern territory was taken back from Indian kingdoms. Apollodotus II seems to have been a member of the dynasty of Menander I, since he used their typical deity Athena Alkidemos on most of his silver, on some coins, he also calls himself Philopator, which proves that his father had been king before him. R C Senior guesses that Amyntas or Epander could have been his father, Apollodotus reign possibly began in the Punjab, when the Scythian king Maues ruled in Gandhara and its capital Taxila. The late Indo-Greeks may have been mixed with both Indians and Scythians. R C Senior suggests that Apollodotus had struck an alliance with another Scythian king, Azes I. The Scythian hold of Gandhara loosened after the death of Maues and these kings posed no threat to Apollodotus II, who on some of his coins assumed the title Basileus Megas, in echo of Maues boastful title Great King of Kings. After the death of Apollodotus II, the Indo-Greek kingdom fragmented once more, Apollodotus II issued a large number of coins. He struck bronzes with Apollo/tripod, an introduced by his namesake Apollodotus I. The coins of Apollodotus II are of different qualities, some still have the realistic portraits characteristic of the earlier Indo-Greek coins, and Bopearachchi attributes these series to the western part of his kingdom. On some of his coins there are both extra monograms in shape of Kharosthi letters and these monograms are interpreted, which was suggested already by W. W. Tarn, to have belonged to officials with Indian names, the coins therefore indicate that Apollodotus II relied more on his Indian subjects than earlier kings, and also opened new mints in eastern Punjab where Greek presence was scarce. Apollodotus II overstruck a bronze of Maues, zoilos II overstruck some of the coins of Apollodotus II, as did Azes I. Comparative studies in Greek and Indian Philosophies by Thomas McEvilley ISBN 1-58115-203-5 The Greeks in Bactria and India, coins of Apollodotus II More coins of Apollodotus IIApollodotus II – Indo-Greek king Apollodotus II (80–65 BC). Obv.: Bust of king Apollodotus II. Greek legend ΑΠΟΛΛΟΔΟΤΟΥ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΚΑΙ ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ "Of Apollodotus the Great, Saviour & Fatherloving King". Rev.: Athena Alkidemos standing left, thunderbolt in raised right hand, holding out aegis with left arm. Legend in Kharoshthi script Tratarasa Maharajasa Apalatasa "Saviour King Appolodotus".
8. Apollodotus I – Apollodotus was not the first to strike bilingual coins outside Bactria, but he was the first king who ruled in India only, and therefore the founder of the proper Indo-Greek kingdom. According to W. W. Tarn, Apollodotus I was one of the generals of Demetrius I of Bactria, Tarn was uncertain whether he was a member of the royal house. Later authors largely agree with Tarns analysis, though with even more uncertainty regarding who the king was. Apollodotus was either succeeded in India by Antimachus II, or the two kings were contemporary, Antimachus II ruling the more western territories closer to Bactria, eventually Apollodotus I was succeeded by Menander I, and the two kings are mentioned by Pompejus Trogus as important Indo-Greek rulers. The coinage of Apollodotus is, together with that of Menander and it is found mainly in the provinces of Punjab, Sindh and Gujarat, indicating the southern limit of the Indo-Greek expansion in India. This is also suggested by the Periplus, a 1st-century CE document on trade in the Indian Ocean, strabo also describes the occupation of Patalene. While Sindh may have come under his possession, it is not known as to whether Apollodotus advanced to Gujarat, Apollodotus also issued a great number of bilingual Indian-standard square coins. Beside the usual title, the exact significance of the animals depicted on the coins is unclear. Similarly, the bull on the reverse may be a symbol of a city, or a depiction of Shiva, making it a symbol of Hinduism. The bull is often represented in an erectile state, which reinforces its interpretation as a representation of Shiva. Conversely, this reinforces the interpretation of the elephant as a religious symbol. The enlightenment and passing of the Buddha also occurred during the Taurus full moon, the nandipada and the zebu bull are generally associated with Nandi, Shiva s humped bull in Hinduism. The same association was later on coins of Zeionises or Vima Kadphises. He issued a number of bronzes with Apollo /tripod, that also were repeated for centuries, Apollodotus also issued a small series of monolingual Attic tetradrachms, intended for export into Bactria. On these coins, he used no epithet, Greco-Bactrian Kingdom Seleucid Empire Greco-Buddhism Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthian Kingdom Kushan Empire Tarn, William Woodthorpe. The Greeks in Bactria and India, coins of Apollodotus More coins of ApollodotusApollodotus I
9. Apollophanes – Apollophanes Soter was an Indo-Greek king in the area of eastern and central Punjab in modern India and Pakistan. Little is known about him, except for some of his remaining coins, the dating is Osmund Bopearachchis, but R. C. Senior suggests approximately the same dates, earlier scholars, such as Professor Ahmed Hasan Dani, W. W. He may have been a relative of Apollodotus II Soter since both share the epithet Soter, have names related to Apollo and use Pallas Athene as their reverse. Apollophanes issued a few debased silver drachms of the type seen above, struck with a single monogram and he seems to have been an insignificant local ruler. Apollophanes wears what appears to be a Macedonian helmet of the type seen on the Alexander Mosaic which he was the last Indo-Greek ruler to use, apollophanes used exclusively a single boxy mint-mark, which he had in coming with late Indo-Greek kings. Greco-Bactrian Kingdom Seleucid Empire Greco-Buddhism Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthian Kingdom Kushan Empire The Greeks in Bactria and India, the Bactrian and Indus Greeks, Ahmed Hasan Dani, Lahore Museum The Indo-Greeks - Revisited and Supplemented, A. K. Narain, BR Publishing Corporation Monnaies Gréco-Bactriennes et Indo-Grecques, Osmund Bopearachchi, Bibliothèque Nationale de FranceApollophanes – Silver drachm of king Apollophanes (r. 35-25 BCE). Obv: Helmeted bust of king. Greek legend: BASILEOS SOTEROS APOLLOPHANOU "Of Saviour King Apollophanes". Rev: Pallas with aegis and thunderbolt. Kharoshthi legend: MAHARAJASA TRATARASA APALAVINASA "Saviour king Apollophanes".
10. Archebius – Archebius Dikaios Nikephoros was an Indo-Greek king who ruled in the area of Taxila. Osmund Bopearachchi dates him to c, senior to about the same period. He was probably one of the last Indo-Greek kings before the Saka king Maues conquered Taxila, and he may have been a relative of Heliokles II, who used a similar reverse and also the title Dikaios. Archebius issued silver with diademed or helmeted king, sometimes in spear-throwing pose, on the reverse is Zeus standing facing, holding a thunderbolt or on some issues an aegis. Archebius also struck a series of Attic tetradrachms, found in Bactria. He issued bronzes with an owl / Nike, Archebius overstruck two coins of Peukolaos. Coins of Archebius More Coins of ArchebiosArchebius – Coin of Archebios. Obv: Helmetted king Archebius. Greek legend: ARCHEBIOU DIKAIOU NIKEPHOROU "Of Archebius the Just and Victorious" Rev: Zeus, with Kharoshthi legend: MAHARAJASA DHRAMIKASA JAYADHARASA ARKHEBIYASA "Archebios, the victorious king of the Dharma.
11. Artemidoros Aniketos – Artemidoros Aniketos was a king who ruled in the area of Gandhara and Pushkalavati in modern northern Pakistan and Afghanistan. Artemidoros has a Greek name and has traditionally seen as an Indo-Greek king. His remaining coins generally feature portraits of Artemidoros and Hellenistic deities and are typical of Indo-Greek rulers, Senior, Artemidoros seems to claim to be the son of the Indo-Scythian king Maues. Not only does this coin enable a closer dating of Artemidoros, while Maues was Great King of Kings, Artemidoros only styled himself King, it appears as though he ruled only a smaller part of his fathers dominions. He was either challenged by or ruled in tandem with other such as Menander II, whose coins have been found alongside his. In a 2009 article however, Bopearachchi disputes the interpretation of the according to which Artemidoros would be son of Maues. This would suggest that the son of Artemidoros would have issued coins in the name of his father, in that case, Artemidoros would have been a regular Indo-Greek king, whose son simply made a transition with the rule of Maues. Bopearachchi has suggested a date of c, 85-80 BCE, but this was before the appearance of the Maues coin. 100–80 BCE, because Senior has given Maues an earlier date, during the 1990s, several new types of Artemidoros coins appeared, of variable quality. Senior has suggested that Artemidoros relied mostly on temporary mints, perhaps because he held no major cities, all his coins were Indian bilinguals. Silver, Obverse, diademed or helmeted bust of king, reverse, Artemis facing left or right, Nike facing left or right, or king on horseback. Artemis, the goddess of hunting, is seen using a curved bow. Bronzes, Artemis / humped bull or Artemis / lion, greco-Bactrian Kingdom Seleucid Empire Greco-Buddhism Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthian Kingdom Kushan Empire The Shape of Ancient Thought. Comparative studies in Greek and Indian Philosophies by Thomas McEvilley ISBN 1-58115-203-5 The Greeks in Bactria and India, W. W. Tarn, Coins of Artemidoros More Coins of ArtemidorosArtemidoros Aniketos – Coin of Artemidoros. Obverse: diademed bust of king. Reverse: Artemis, the eponymous goddess of hunting, using a curved bow.
12. Agathocles of Bactria – Agathocles Dikaios was a Greco-Bactrian/ Indo-Greek king, who reigned between around 190 and 180 BC. He might have been a son of Demetrius and one of his sub-kings in charge of the Paropamisade between Bactria and India, in that case, he was a grandson of Euthydemus whom he qualified on his coins as Βασιλεὺς Θεός, Basileus Theos. Agathocles was contemporary with or a successor of king Pantaleon and he seems to have been attacked and killed by the usurper Eucratides, who took control of the Greco-Bactrian territory. Little is known about him, apart from his extensive coinage, on these coins, Agathocles labels himself ΔΙΚΑΙΟΥ, The Just. The pedigree coinage has been seen as a token of his ancestry, all the associations provide a contradictory image. The Euthydemid kings are not known to be related to Diodotus – in fact, the Seleucids were enemies of the Euthydemids as well – king Antiochus III had besieged Bactra for almost three years before claiming victory over Euthydemus I. Nevertheless, Antiochus III is known to have used the epithet Nikator, finally, the association with Alexander was a standard move for usurpers in the Hellenistic world, such as the pseudo-Seleucids Alexander Balas and the Syrian general Diodotus Tryphon. All in all, the coins might well support the view of a usurper, or more probable a member of a branch of a dynasty. However, the similarities between his coinage and that of Pantaleon make it probable that Agathocles was indeed a relative of the latter, i) Pedigree coin of Agathocles with Alexander the Great. Obverse – Greek inscription reads, ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ ΤΟΥ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ i. e. of Alexander son of Philip. Reverse – Greek inscription reads, iI) Pedigree coin of Agathocles with Diodotus the Saviour. Obverse – Greek inscription reads, ΔΙΟΔΟΤΟΥ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ i. e. of Diodotus the Saviour. Reverse – Greek inscription reads and these coins are indicative of the existence of trade links with China around that time. Copper-nickel would not be used again in coinage until the 19th century in the United States, at the same time, Agathocles issued an intriguing range of bilingual coinage, displaying what seems to be Buddhist as well as Hindu symbolism. The Buddhist coinage of Agathocles is in the Indian standard and depicts Buddhist symbols such as the stupa and these coins sometimes use Brahmi, and sometimes Kharoshthi, whereas later Indo-Greek kings only used Kharoshthi. The Hinduist coinage of Agathocles is few but spectacular, six Indian-standard silver drachmas were discovered at Ai-Khanoum in 1970, which depict Hindu deities. According to Bopearachchi, the headdress is actually a misrepresentation of a shaft with a half-moon parasol on top and it is therefore thought that sculptures or images, predating the coins but now lost, served as models to the engravers. The frontal pose of these deities is totally uncharacteristic of the depiction of Gods on Greek coins. The sideways disposition of the feet is also characteristic of early India sculptures and this leads specialists to think that these images are the work of Indian engravers, who were familiar with the style and conventions of archaic Indian art. She is also seen in the Post-Mauryan coinage of Gandhara, on Taxila coin which is thought were minted by Demetrius I following his invasionAgathocles of Bactria – Coin of Agathocles.
13. Demetrius III Aniketos – Demetrius III Aniketos is an Indo-Greek king who reigned in the area of Gandhara and Punjab. The coins of Demetrius III are few and rather crude and he copies some of his imagery from the renowned Bactrian king Demetrius I. The two namesakes share the war-like epithet The Invincible and wear elephant-crowns, the symbol that Alexander the Great used to celebrate his conquest of the Indus Valley. The historical sources of the Indo-Greek kingdom are very few, numismatician Osmund Bopearachchi identifies three kings named Demetrius, placing the third around 100 BCE due to mintmarks and style of the coins. R C Senior agrees with this reconstruction, even though their dates are different, according to Bopearachchi he ruled around 100 BCE. Senior places him circa 70 BCE, in cases as successor of Heliokles II. This Demetrius is said to have fought with the Bactrian king Eucratides during the part of Eucratides rule. Bopearachchi nevertheless identifies Justins Demetrius with the king Demetrius II even though he only struck Greek coins, in addition, Bopearachchis early dating of Demetrius II has been challenged (see discussion under Demetrius II. Yet other authors have identified Justins Demetrius with Demetrius I of Bactria, earlier authors such as Tarn and Narain thought that the Demetrius who struck the coins now identified with Demetrius III was the king who fought Eucratides, and saw him as a son of Demetrius I. If Demetrius III ruled around 100 or 70 BCE, he seems to have been a relative of Heliokles II, though his title, if he ruled around 150 BCE, he was very likely a surviving Euthydemid prince like Tarn and Narain assumed. The actual coins of Demetrius III are very few and struck with a single and this suggests a short and insignificant reign. On his silver, Demetrius III appears in the hat or diademed. His bronzes feature a king in elephants crown, either Demetrius III or Demetrius I, with thunderbolt on the reverseDemetrius III Aniketos – Copper coins of Demetrius Aniketos. Obv: Bust of king, wearing an elephant's scalp, with Greek legend: BASILEOS ANIKETOU DEMETRIOU "Of Invincible King Demetrius". Rev: Winged thunderbolt. Kharoshthi legend: MAHARAJASA APARAJITASA DIMETRIA (Invincible king Demetrius).
14. Demetrius I of Bactria – Demetrius I was a Greek king of Gandhara. He was never defeated in battle and was qualified as the Invincible on the pedigree coins of his successor Agathocles. Demetrius I may have been the initiator of the Yavana era, starting in 186-185 BC, Demetrius was the name of at least two and probably three Greek kings of Bactria. The much debated Demetrius II was a relative, whereas Demetrius III, is known only from numismatic evidence. Demetrius I was also known as the second Alexander, the father of Demetrius, Euthydemus, was attacked by the Seleucid ruler Antiochus III around 210 BC. Although he commanded 10,000 horsemen, Euthydemus initially lost a battle on the Arius and had to retreat and he then successfully resisted a three-year siege in the fortified city of Bactra, before Antiochus finally decided to recognize the new ruler. The final negotiations were made between Antiochus III and Demetrius, polybius 11.34 The term used for young prince is neaniskos, suggesting an age around 16, which in turn gives a birth date for Demetrius around 222 BC. Demetrius started the invasion of northwestern India in 180 BC, following the destruction of the Mauryan dynasty by the general Pushyamitra Shunga, the Mauryans had diplomatic alliances with the Greeks, and they may have been considered as allies by the Greco-Bactrians. The Greco-Bactrians may also have invaded India in order to protect Greek populations in the subcontinent, in his Parthian stations, Isidorus of Charax mentions a colony named Demetrias, supposedly founded by Demetrius himself, Beyond is Arachosia. As far as this place the land is under the rule of the Parthians and it is generally considered that Demetrius ruled in Taxila. The Indian records also describes Greek attacks on Saketa, Panchala, however, the campaigns to Pataliputra are generally attested to the later king Menander I and Demetrius I probably only invaded areas in Pakistan. Other kings may have expanded the territory as well, by c.175 BC, the Indo-Greeks ruled parts of northwestern India, while the Shungas remained in the Gangetic, Central, and Eastern India. The Hathigumpha inscription of the Kalinga king Kharavela mentions that fearing him, the name of the Yavana king is not clear, but it contains three letters, and the middle letter can be read as ma or mi. Some historians, such as R. D. Banerji and K. P, jayaswal reconstructed the name of the Yavana king as Dimita, and identified him with Demetrius. However, several historians, such as Ramaprasad Chanda, Sailendra Nath Sen. At the same time coinage technology also evolved, as double-die coins started to appear, the archaeological excavations of coins have shown that these coins, as well as the new double die coins, were contemporary with those of the Indo-Greeks. According to Osmund Bopearachchi these coins, and particularly those depicting the goddess Lakshmi, were minted by Demetrius I following his invasion of Gandhara. Demetrius I died of unknown reasons, and the date 180 BC is merely a suggestion aimed to allow suitable regnal periods for subsequent kings, even if some of them were co-regents, civil wars and temporary divisions of the empire are most likelyDemetrius I of Bactria – Coin of Demetrius I. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
15. Demetrius II of India – Demetrius II was a Greco-Bactrian/Indo-Greek king who ruled brieftly during the 2nd century BC. Little is known about him and there are different views about how to date him, earlier authors such as Tarn and Narain saw him as a son and sub-king of Demetrius I, but this view is now abandoned. Osmund Bopearachchi has suggested that he ruled in Bactria and Arachosia c, 175–170 BC, but this has been challenged by later authors. 175–140 BC, and this is supported by L M Wilson who also assumes from numismatical clues and portrait likeness that Demetrius II was a relative of Eucratides the Great. The later dating is supported by the circumstance that no coins of Demetrius II have been found in the ruins of Ai Khanoum, history records keep one reference to a king Demetrius contemporary with Eucratides, and this reference is highly problematic. Roman historian Justin names a Demetrius, king of the Indians and this episode is referred to as occurring at the end of the reign of Eucratides, hence dating the death of Justins Demetrius around 150 BC. Justins Demetrius may have been a relative of the Indian king Apollodotus I or a prince of the Euthydemid dynasty. However, the king of Justins quote is not easily reconciled with the numismatical evidence, Bopearachchi has singled out three kings named Demetrius. 200-185 BC, well before the rise of Eucratides, and Demetrius III was an Indian king who is thought to have ruled much later, there remains Demetrius II, who Bopearachchi suggested reigned around 170 BC. Bopearachchi continues to identify Demetrius II with Justin’s Demetrius of India, furthermore, Bopearachchi’s Demetrius II reigned in Bactria and not in India, as he struck no coins with Indian legends. Therefore, the identity of Justins Demetrius, king of the Indians, remains uncertain, the following hypotheses may be considered, The account of Justin, who is a second-hand source, is confused. Bopearachchis Demetrius III could be placed earlier - this kings coins are few and rather peculiar -, even if Justins Demetrius, king of the Indians existed, this does not exclude that Eucratides also had a son named Demetrius, which was a common dynastic name at the time. The prince may have named after the Seleucid Demetrius I Soter. Demetrius II issued only silver and mostly tetradrachms, another trait which he has in common with the last Bactrian kings, the obverse shows a diademed portrait, with a standing Pallas Athene holding a spear on the reverse. Unlike most of his contemporaries, he has no epithet, Demetrius II is depicted as a young man, though his features differs considerably between different issued. Several coins are struck off-center and crude, this suggests that Demetrius II used a number of temporary mints, indo-Greek Kingdom Seleucid Empire Greco-Buddhism Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthian Kingdom Kushan Empire The Greeks in Bactria and India, W. WDemetrius II of India – Coin of Demetrius II. Obv: Profile of Demetrius II. Rev: Standing Athena with legend "(of) King Demetrius".
16. Diomedes Soter – Diomedes Soter was an Indo-Greek king. The places where his coins have been found seem to indicate that his rule was based in the area of the Paropamisadae, Diomedes depicted the Dioscurion his coins, either on horseback or standing, both types were previously used by Eucratides I. It is however uncertain how the two were related, since Eucratides I died long before Diomedes, Diomedes minted both Attic-type coins, and bilingual coins, indicating that he was ruling in the western part of the Indo-Greek territory. One overstrike is known, of a coin of Strato and Agathokleia over a coin of Diomedes and this overstrike could indicate that Diomedes fought over the central areas of the Indo-Greek territories with Strato and Agathokleia. Greco-Bactrian Kingdom Greco-Buddhism Indo-Parthian Kingdom Indo-Scythians Kushan Empire Seleucid Empire Tarn, the Greeks in Bactria and India. De lIndus à lOxus, Archéologie de lAsie Centrale, coins of Diomedes Other coins of Diomedes Le roi DiomèdeDiomedes Soter – Coin of Diomedes. Obv: Helmetted king Diomedes. Greek legend: BASILEOS SOTEROS DIOMEDOY "Of King Diomedes, The Saviour". Rev: Dioscuri. Kharoshti translation of legend.
17. Dionysios Soter – Dionysios Soter was an Indo-Greek king in the area of eastern Punjab. According to Osmund Bopearachchi, he reigned ca circa 65–55 BCE, senior dates him approximately ten years later. Dionysios name echoes the Olympic wine-god Dionysos, who according to Greek mythology was also an ancient king of India, Dionysios was the first in the line of late kings who issued only silver drachms, but no tetradrachms, which was likely due to his limited resources. On their obverse is a portrait of the king, with Athena Alkidemos on the reverse. He also issued bronzes with Apollo on the reverse and a tripod on the obverse, both these types were inherited from Apollodotus II. The quality of the portraits is inferior to most earlier kings, according to Bopearachchi, Dionysios inherited only the inferior celators of Apollodotus II, which he associates with mints in eastern Punjab. He is also the first king known to have used this mint-mark, the Bactrian and Indus-Greeks, Ahmed Hasan Dani, Lahore Museum. The Indo-Greeks Revisited and Supplemented, A. KDionysios Soter – Coin of Dionysios Soter
18. Epander – Epander was one of the Indo-Greek kings. He may have been a relative of Menander I, and the findplaces of his coins seem to indicate that he ruled in the area of Punjab, the scarcity of his coins indicate that his reign was short and/or his territory limited. Epanders silver drachms portray the king in diadem with a reverse of Athena fighting which was the type of Menander I, epander probably claimed ancestry from this important king, but his epithet Nikephoros was unique to kings using this reverse, their title was usually Soter. Epander overstruck coins of Strato I and Philoxenus, greco-Bactrian Kingdom Seleucid Empire Greco-Buddhism Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthian Kingdom Kushan Empire Le Roi Indo-Grec Epandre The Greeks in Bactria and India, W. WEpander – Coin of Epander.
19. Heliokles II – Heliocles II Dikaios is thought to have been one of the later Indo-Greek kings and a relative of the Bactrian king Heliocles I. Senior seem to agree that he ruled ca 95–80 BCE, Heliocles II seems to have been engaged in a series of wars with Strato I in Gandhara and Punjab, the two share several mintmarks and Heliocles II overstruck many of his coins. During this period, a number of kings fought for hegemony in the Indo-Greek territories, some of them were likely supported by nomad Saka rulers such as Maues. Heliocles II used a reverse of standing Zeus, who was a common deity among the later Indo-Greek kings, J. Jakobsson sees Heliocles as the son of the important king Antialcidas Nikephoros and perhaps the grandson of Heliocles I. He goes on to suggest that Heliocles was the brother of the king Archebius Nikephoros Dikaios. Archebius uses a similar reverse and combines the epithets of Heliocles II and Antialcidas, in addition, their coin portraits are similar, with hooked noses. Senior has instead suggested a connection with Demetrius III, who used a reverse of standing Zeus. Heliocles II issued Indian silver with portrait / standing Zeus and bronzes with bearded diademed portrait / elephant and it is uncertain whether he struck Attic coins. A number of coins for Heliocles I have been found in Bactria, possibly some of these may have been struck by Heliocles II. The existence of numerous overstrikes helps locate the reign of Heliokles II in relation to other Indo-Greek kings, Heliokles overstruck coins of Agathokleia, Strato I, and Hermaeus. Conversely, Amyntas overstruck coins of Heliokles II, the Greeks in Bactria and India. The Coin Types of the Indo-Greek Kings, 256-54 B. C, de lIndus à lOxus, Archéologie de lAsie CentraleHeliokles II – Bronze coin of Heliocles II Obv: Bust of diademed king. Greek legend: BASILEOS DIKAIOU HELIOKLEOUS "Of King Heliocles the Just" Rev: Kharoshti (Indian) translation, elephant holding victory wreath.
20. Hermaeus – 95–80 BCE but concedes that Bopearachchis later date could be correct. Hermaeus seems to have been successor of Philoxenus or Diomedes, according to Bopearachchi, these nomads were the Yuezhi, the ancestors of the Kushans, whereas Senior considers them Sakas. Following his reign, it is considered that Greek communities remained under the rule of these Hellenized nomads. Some parts of his kingdom may have taken over by later kings. The coinage of Hermaeus was copied widely, in increasingly barbarized form by the new nomad rulers down to around 40 CE, in any case, the Yuezhi-Kushan preserved a close cultural interaction with the Greeks as late as the 3rd century CE. Given the importance of Hermaeus to the rulers, it is possible that Hermaeus himself was partially of nomad origin. Hermaeus issued Indian silver coins of three types, the first type has diademed or sometimes helmeted portrait, with reverse of sitting Zeus making benediction gesture. Hermaeus also issued a series of Attic silver tetradrachms of this type. The second type was a joint series of Hermaeus with his queen Kalliope, the reverse departs from the traditional Hermaeus format, in that it shows the king on a prancing horse. The horseman on Hermaeus version is portrayed somewhat different, being equipped with a typic Scythian longbow. The third series combined the reverses of the first series, without portrait, Hermaeus also issued bronze coins with head of Zeus-Mithras and a prancing horse on the reverse. A Chinese historical record from the Hanshu Chap, 96A could possible be related to Hermaeus, even though this is very speculative and the record more likely refers to later Saka kings. The Chinese records would put Hermaeuss dates later, with his reign ending around 40 BCE, 96A, Wutoulao, king of Jibin, killed some Chinese envoys. After the death of the king, his son sent an envoy to China with gifts, the Chinese general Wen Zhong, commander of the border area in western Gansu, accompanied the escort back. Wutoulaos son plotted to kill Wen Zhong, when Wen Zhong discovered the plot, he allied himself with Yinmofu, son of the king of Rongqu. They attacked Jibin and killed Wutoulaos son, Yinmofu was then installed as king of Jibin, as a vassal of the Chinese Empire, and receiving the Chinese seal and ribbon of investiture. Later Yinmofu himself is recorded to have killed Chinese envoys in the reign of Emperor Yuandi, then sent envoys to apologize to the Chinese court, during the reign of Emperor Chengdi other envoys were sent, but they were rejected as simple traders. Greco-Bactrian Kingdom Seleucid Empire Greco-Buddhism Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthian Kingdom Kushan Empire The Greeks in Bactria and India, W. W. Tarn, Cambridge University PressHermaeus – Coin of Hermaeus. Greek legend: BASILEOS SOTĒROS HERMAIOU "Of the Saviour King Hermaeus". British Museum.
21. Hippostratos – Hippostratos was an Indo-Greek king who ruled central and north-western Punjab and Pushkalavati. Bopearachchi dates Hippostratos to 65 to 55 BCE whereas R. C, senior suggests 60 to 50 BCE. In Bopearachchis reconstruction Hippostratos came to power as the successor to Apollodotus II, in the part of his kingdom. Senior assumes that the reigns of Apollodotus II and Hippostratos overlapped somewhat, just like Apollodotus II, Hippostratos calls himself Soter, Saviour, on all his coins, and on some coins he also assumes the title Basileos Megas, Great King, which he inherited from Apollodotus II. This may support Seniors scenario that Hippostratos extended his kingdom after Apollodotus death, the relationship between these two kings remains uncertain due to lack of sources. Hippostratos did however not use the symbol of standing Athena Alkidemos, the two kings share only one monogram. The quantity and quality of the coinage of Hippostratos indicate a powerful king. Hippostratos seems to have fought rather successfully against the Indo-Scythian invaders, led by the Scythian king Azes I, Hippostratos issued silver coins with a diademed portrait on the obverse, and three reverses. The first is the image of a king on prancing horse, the second reverse also portrays a king on horseback, but the horse is walking and the king making a benediction gesture - this type resembles a rare type of Apollodotus II. The third is a goddess, perhaps Tyche. Hippostratos struck several bronzes of types used by kings, Serpent-legged deity / standing goddess. Apollo/tripod Sitting Zeus-Mithras / horse, reminiscent of coins of Hermaeus, Azes I overstruck several of Hippostratos coins. Indo-Greek Kingdom Greco-Buddhism Indo-Scythians The Greeks in Bactria and India, W. W, tarn, Cambridge University Press Main coins of HippostratosHippostratos – Tetradrachm of Hippostratos. Obv: Bust of Hippostratos with Greek legend BASILEOS MEGALOU SOTEROS / HIPPOSTRATOU "Of Great Saviour King Hippostratos". Rev: King on horseback, galloping. Kharoshthi legend: MAHARAJASA TRATASA MAHATASA JAYAMTASA HIPUSTRATASA "King Hippostratos, the Great Saviour and Conqueror.
22. Lysias Anicetus – Lysias Anicetus was an Indo-Greek king. According to numismatist Bopearachchi, Lysias was a successor to Menander I and Zoilos I. A similar reverse was used by Zoilus I, who may have ruled some decade earlier and was likely an enemy of Menander. Lysias rule seems to have begun after the murder of Menanders infant son Thrason, despite his magnificent coinage, his policies were probably rather defensive. The Bactrian kingdom had fallen to invading nomads and though the Indo-Greeks managed to avoid the same fate. Lysias issued a number of bilingual Indian coins and he also appeared throwing a spear. The reverse is always Herakles crowning himself, and holding his club and he also issued a series of Attic tetradrachms, and even smaller denominations for circulation in Bactria. His Indian type square bronzes show a bust of Herakles/elephant, there is a bronze which features the obverse of Lysias and the reverse of Antialcidas. This was interpreted by Tarn and other scholars as though the two kings might have forged some kind of alliance, but later, a bronze with the opposite arrangement was found. The modern view is that these coin were mules, in other words, while not signs of an alliance, they still suggest that Lysias and Antialcidas reigns were adjacent. Indo-Greek Kingdom Greco-Buddhism Indo-Scythians The Greeks in Bactria and India, W. W. Tarn, Cambridge University Press Coins of Lysias More coins of Lysias Catalog of the coins of LysiasLysias Anicetus – Coin of king Lysias (r. c. 120–110 BCE). Obv. King Lysias with elephant head. Greek legend BASILEOS ANIKETOU LYSIOU "Of Invincible King Lysias". Rev. Nude Herakles standing facing, crowning himself, holding club, lion's skin, and palm (variation of Demetrius I type. Monograms. Kharoshti legend, translation of the Greek.
23. Menander I – Menander I Soter was an Indo-Greek King of the Indo-Greek Kingdom who established a large empire in Northwestern regions of South Asia and became a patron of Buddhism. Menander was initially a king of Bactria, large numbers of Menander’s coins have been unearthed, attesting to both the flourishing commerce and duration of his realm. Menander was also a patron of Buddhism, and his conversations with the Buddhist sage Nagasena are recorded in the important Buddhist work, after his death in 130 BC, he was succeeded by his wife Agathokleia who ruled as regent for his son Strato I. Menander was born to a Greek family in a village called Kalasi adjacent to Alexandria of the Caucasus and his territories covered the eastern dominions of the divided Greek empire of Bactria and extended to India. His capital is supposed to have been Sagala, a city in northern Punjab. He subsequently travelled across northern India and visited the Maurayan capital of Patna, any plans of conquering the capital were put aside as Eucratides I king of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom began warring with the Indo-Greeks in the north-western frontier. In short, Apollodorus says that Bactriana is the ornament of Ariana as a whole, and, more than that, they extended their empire even as far as the Seres, the thick mud-fortifications at Pataliputra being reached, all the provinces will be in disorder, without doubt. Ultimately, a battle will follow, with tree-like engines. The Milinda Panha gives some glimpses of his methods, His reign was long. Generous findings of coins testify to the prosperity and extension of his empire, the finds of his coins are the most numerous, precise dates of his reign, as well as his origin, remain elusive however. Menanders predecessor in Punjab seems to have been the king Apollodotus I, Menanders empire survived him in a fragmented manner until the last Greek king Strato II disappeared around 10 AD. Menander was the first Indo-Greek ruler to introduce the representation of Athena Alkidemos on his coins, probably in reference to a statue of Athena Alkidemos in Pella. This type was used by most of the later Indo-Greek kings. According to tradition, Menander embraced the Buddhist faith, as described in the Milinda Panha and he is described as constantly accompanied by a guard of 500 Greek soldiers, and two of his counsellors are named Demetrius and Antiochus. As a disputant he was hard to equal, harder still to overcome, and as in wisdom so in strength of body, swiftness, and valour there was found none equal to Milinda in all India. He was rich too, mighty in wealth and prosperity, there is however little besides this testament to indicate that Menander in fact abdicated his throne in favour of his son. Based on numismatic evidence, Sir William Tarn believes that he in fact died, leaving his wife Agathocleia to rule as a regent, until his son Strato could rule properly in his stead. Despite the success of his reign, it is clear that after his death, his loosely hung empire splintered into a variety of Indo-Greek successor kingdoms, of various size, in his right hand, he holds a branch of ivy, symbol of DionysosMenander I – Silver coin of Menander Greek legend: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΜΕΝΑΝΔΡΟΥ (BASILEOS SOTEROS MENANDROU) lit. "Of Saviour King Menander". British Museum.
24. Menander II – Menander II Dikaios was an Indo-Greek King who ruled in the areas of Arachosia and Gandhara in the north of modern Pakistan. Bopearachchi has suggested that Menander II reigned c, senior has suggested c.65 BCE. In that case, Menander II ruled remaining Indo-Greek territories in Gandhara after the invasion of Maues, Menander II Dikaios may have belonged to the dynasty of Menander I Soter, the greatest of the Indo-Greek kings. Senior links Menander II with the Indo-Greek king Amyntas, with whom he shares several monograms and also features such as a pointed nose. He also suggests a relation to the semi-Scythian king Artemidorus, son of Maues. There is a possibility that Menander II, rather than Menander I, is actually the Buddhist Greek king referred to in the Milinda Panha. This point is unsolved however, since Greek sources relate that the great conqueror Menander I is the one who received the honour of burial in what could be interpreted as Buddhist stupas. The coins of Menander II bear the mention Menander the Just, Menander II struck only Indian silver. His bronzes feature Athena standing, with spear and palm-branch, shield at her feet, making a gesture with the right hand. Other varieties feature a king performing the same gesture, on the reverse is a lion, symbol of Buddhism, as also seen on the pillars of the Mauryan King Ashoka. In general, the coins of Menander II are quite few, a contemporary king to represent the Buddhist lion on his coins is the Indo-Scythian king Maues, around 85 BCE. Comparative studies in Greek and Indian Philosophies by Thomas McEvilley ISBN 1-58115-203-5 Buddhism in Central Asia by B. N, puri ISBN 81-208-0372-8 The Greeks in Bactria and India, W. W. Coin India gallery Coins of Menander II Le roi Ménandre IIMenander II – Coin of Menander II. Obv: Menander wearing a diadem. Greek legend: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΙΚΑΙΟΥ ΜΕΝΑΝΔΡΟΥ (BASILEOS DIKAIOU MENANDROU) "Of King Menander the Just". Rev: Winged figure bearing wreath and palm, probably Nike. The Kharoshthi legend reads MAHARAJASA DHARMIKASA MENADRASA (Menander, King of the Dharma).
25. Nicias (Indo-Greek king) – Nicias was an Indo-Greek king who ruled in the Paropamisade. Most of his relatively few coins have found in northern Pakistan. He was possibly a relative of Menander I, bopearachchi suggests that Nikias ruled c. This late date is supported by the absence of Attic coins, senior on the other hand places him as a successor of Menander, c. 135–125 BCE, according to his interpretation of hoard findings, regardless of which period is correct, the fact that Nicias ages visibly on his coins seems to indicate some longevity to his rule. Nicias struck Indian silver drachms of diademed or helmeted king with three reverses, A walking king, as seen above right, found on several drachms, an en face version of Menanders Athena with thunderbolt is found on a unique tetradrachm. The third reverse is the king on a prancing horse. His bronzes feature Zeus/dolphin or portrait / king on prancing horse, some varieties are crude with lunate sigmas and square omicrons. Even though Nikias ruled in the parts of the Indo-Greek realm. His monograms generally match those of the kings Theophilus and Philoxenus, though one is shared with Thrason, Greco-Bactrian Kingdom Seleucid Empire Greco-Buddhism Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthian Kingdom Kushan Empire The Shape of Ancient Thought. Comparative studies in Greek and Indian Philosophies by Thomas McEvilley ISBN 1-58115-203-5 The Greeks in Bactria and India, Indo-Greek history and coins Ancient coinage of the Greco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek kingdoms Le Roi indo-grec Nicias Le SauveurNicias (Indo-Greek king) – Coin of king Nicias (c. 90–85 BCE) Obv: Bust of Nicias with Greek legend BASILEOS SOTEROS NIKIOU "Of Saviour King Nicias". Rev: King in armour, holding a palm of victory in his left hand, and making a gesture of benediction with his right hand, similar to the Buddhist vitarka mudra. Kharoshti legend MAHARAJA TRATARASA NIKIASA "Saviour King Nicias".
26. Pantaleon – Pantaleon was a Greek king who reigned some time between 190–180 BCE in Bactria and India. He was a contemporary or successor of the Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius. The limited size of his coinage indicates a short reign, known evidence suggests that he was replaced by his brother or son Agathocles, by whom he was commemorated on a pedigree coin. This suggests that exchanges of the alloy or technicians happened between China and the region of Bactria. Coins of Pantaleon Catalogue of coins of PantaleonPantaleon – King Pantaleon in profile, with Zeus on the reverse.
27. Peukolaos – Peucolaus Soter Dikaios was an Indo-Greek king who ruled in the area of Gandhara c.90 BCE. His reign was short and insignificant, since he left only a few coins. His name could be interpreted as The man from Pushkalavati, an important Indo-Greek city east of Kabul, Peucolaos struck rare Indian standard silver coins with portrait in diadem, and a reverse of a standing Zeus, which resemble the reverse of contemporary kings Heliokles II and Archebios. The latter has overstruck two coins of Peucolaos and he also issued bilingual bronzes with Artemis and a crowned woman with a palm branch, perhaps a city-goddess or a personification of Tyche, the deity for good luck. Greco-Bactrian Kingdom Seleucid Empire Greco-Buddhism Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthian Kingdom Kushan Empire The Greeks in Bactria and India, W. W. Tarn, the Coin Types of the Indo-Greek Kings, 256-54 B. C. A. K. NarainPeukolaos – Coin of Peukalaos.
28. Philoxenus Anicetus – Philoxenus Anicetus was an Indo-Greek king who ruled in the region spanning the Paropamisade to Punjab. Philoxenus seems to have quite an important king who might briefly have ruled most of the Indo-Greek territory. Historians have not yet connected Philoxenus with any dynasty, but he could have been the father of the princess Kalliope, whether the horseman was a dynastic emblem or a portrait of the king as a cavalleryman is unclear. Several Saka kings used similar horsemen on their coinage and his drachms were square, another feature that was rare among Indo-Greeks but standard for Sakas, and this indicates that Philoxenus had connections with the nomads that had conquered Bactria. Philoxenus struck bronzes with female deity/bull, or Helios/Nike, Philoxenus also minted some Attic-type tetradrachms, meant for circulation in Bactria. One overstrike is known, of Epander over Philoxenus, greco-Bactrian Kingdom Seleucid Empire Greco-Buddhism Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthian Kingdom Kushan Empire The Greeks in Bactria and India, W. W. Tarn, Cambridge University PressPhiloxenus Anicetus – Silver tetradrachm of king Philoxenus. Obv: Helmetted, diademed and draped bust of Philoxenus. Greek legend BASILEOS ANIKETOU PHILOXENOU "Of the Invincible King Philoxenus" Rev: King on prancing horse in military dress. Kharoshti legend MAHARAJASA APADIHATASA PHILASINASA "Undefeatable King Philoxenus".
29. Polyxenos Epiphanes Soter – Polyxenos Epiphanes Soter was an Indo-Greek king who ruled briefly in western Punjab or Gandhara. Bopearachchi places Polyxenos c.100 BCE and R. C, Polyxenos, whose portraits depict a diademed young man, struck silver coins which closely resemble those of Strato I. Both kings used the epithets Soter Epiphanes and the reverse of Athena Alkidemos, Polyxenos also struck bronzes with Athena on the obverse and her aegis on the reverse. His bronzes depict the head of Athena with a reverse of her aegis, Polyxenos coins are few and feature only three monograms, these he shares with Straton I as well as the kings Heliokles II and Archebios, according to Bopearachchi and RC Senior. He was therefore likely to have been a contestant for power in the central Indo-Greek kingdom after the presumably violent death of Straton I. Osmund Bopearachchi, Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, American Numismatic Society, part 9, Graeco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek Coins,1998, American Numismatic Society, ISBN 0-89722-273-3Polyxenos Epiphanes Soter – Coin of Polyxenus.
30. Strato I – Until recently, consensus was that he ruled between c. 130–110 BCE in Northern India and that his father was the great king Menander I and this view was introduced by Tarn and defended as recently as 1998 by Bopearachchi. The modern view, embraced by R. C, senior and probably more solid since it is founded on numismatical analyses, suggests that Strato I was a later king, perhaps ruling from 110–85 BCE, though perhaps still a descendant of Agathokleia. In this case, Agathokleia was the widow of another king, a third hypothesis was presented in 2007 by J. Strato Epiphanes Soter, was a middle-aged king who may have been Agathokleias brother and ruled in western Punjab. This theory was based on difference in titles, in monograms, agathocleias importance was gradually downplayed on the coins, so presumably her guardianship ended when Strato came of age. Strato I was also the only Indo-Greek king to appear bearded, Strato I, or the two Stratos, fought for hegemony in Punjab with the king Heliokles II, who overstruck several of their coins. There were very likely wars with other kings as well, the middle-aged Strato, according to the third theory, was succeeded by his son Polyxenios, who ruled only for a short time. A hoard of Stratos coins was found in Mathura outside New Delhi, the coins of Strato show portraits aging from a youth to middle-aged. They have been divided into the periods, where period 8 may belong to the second king. ^ Period 1, Bronzes, Athena / seated Heracles. W, Tarn, Cambridge University Press Coins of Strato I More coins of Strato IStrato I – Coin of Strato I and Agathokleia. Obv: Conjugate busts of Strato and Agathokleia. Greek legend: BASILEOS SOTΕROS STRATONOS KAI AGATOKLEIAS "Of Saviour King Strato, and Agathokleia". Rev: Athena throwing thunderbolt. Kharoshthi legend: MAHARAJASA TRATASARA DHARMIKASA STRATASA "King Strato, Saviour and Just (="of the Dharma")".
31. Strato II – Strato II Soter was an Indo-Greek king. He ruled c.25 BCE to 10 CE according to Bopearachchi, senior suggests that his reign ended perhaps a decade earlier. He may have been supplanted by the Indo-Scythian Northern Satraps, particularly Rajuvula and Bhadayasa, Strato II ruled in the eastern Punjab, probably retaining the capital of Sagala, or possibly to the city of Bucephala. A few silver coins with a different portrait and the inscription Strato Soter Dikaios may also belong to Strato III as sole ruler, or to a fourth king named Strato. Just like the earlier king Strato I, the last Stratos are thought to belong to the dynasty of Menander I, who used the epithet Soter. The chronology of the late Indo-Greek kingdom has been established by Bopearachchi, the coins deteriorated continuously, the Strato coins being the most debased and crude in style, a striking contrast to earlier kings who struck some of the most beautiful coins of antiquity. The decay was due to the pressure of the Indo-Scythian nomads on the remaining Greek pockets. Strato II and III used exclusively a single boxy mint-mark, which they had in common with late Indo-Greek kings such as Apollophanes and was initiated by Dionysios Soter, Strato II, Strato III and Strato Dikaios struck debased silver drachms, which as mentioned portray Pallas on the reverse. Strato II appears as an old man with a jaw on some of his coins. Strato II also issued bronzes and even lead coins of the common type Apollo/tripod, on some of Strato IIs silver drachms the letter sigma is written as C, a not uncommon trait on late Hellenistic coins in the east. Subsequent Indo-Scythian rulers, who replaced the Stratos in their territories and this is the case of the Northern Satraps, who ruled in the territories from Sagala in Eastern Punjab to Mathura, such as Rajuvula, Bhadayasa. The fact that new rulers such as Rajuvula adopted extensively these coin designs tends to suggest that Strato II had been quite a significant ruler in his eyes. Indo-Greek Kingdom Greco-Buddhism Indo-Scythians Notes References Whitehead, R. B, catalogue of coins in the Punjab museum, Lahore. Straton II, roi indo-grec Coin India Strato II and IIIStrato II – Coin of Strato II. Obv: Probable bust of Strato II. Greek legend: BASILEOS SOTEROS STRATONOS "Of King Strato the Savior". Rev: Athena holding a thunderbolt. Kharoshthi legend: MAHARAJASA TRATARASA STRATASA "King Strato the Saviour".
32. Telephos Euergetes – Telephos Euergetes was a late Indo-Greek king who seem to have been one of the weak and brief successors of Maues. Bopearachchi dates Telephos between 75–70 BCE and places him in Gandhara, Senior to c.60 BCE and suggests that he ruled in parts of Pushkalavati or even further west. Nothing is known about his dynastic connections and his few coins are rather singular and none of them bear his likeness, a rare occurrence in Indo-Greek coinage. Despite his Greek name, Telephos might therefore have been a ruler of Saka origin, the silver of Telephos is rare and mostly consists of drachms, only a few tetradrachms are known. On the Greek side is a monster holding the stems of two plants, and on the Kharoshthi side two deities that probably should be identified with Helios and Selene, the sun and moon. Both types were unique in the area, though the monster would appear on bronzes of Hippostratos. Telephos used only two monograms, which he inherited from Maues, Telephos overstruck the earlier king Archebius. Greco-Bactrian Kingdom Seleucid Empire Greco-Buddhism Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthian Kingdom Kushan Empire The Greeks in Bactria and India, W. W. Tarn, the Coin Types of the Indo-Greek Kings, 256-54 B. C. A. K. NarainTelephos Euergetes – Bronze coin of king Telephos. Obv: Zeus seated on a throne, scepter in left hand, forming a benediction gesture with the right hand, similar to the Buddhist vitarka mudra. Greek legend: BASILEOS EUERGETOU TELEPHOU Rev: Squatting man, right hand forward. Kharoshthi legend: MAHARAJASA KALAKRAMASA TELIPHASA.
33. Theophilos (king) – Theophilos was a minor Indo-Greek king who ruled for a short time in the Paropamisadae. He was possibly a relative of Zoilos I and is known from coins. It is possible some of Theophilos coins in fact belong to another ruler, in Greek Bactria. While Bopearachchi suggests c.90 BCE, R. C, senior believes that Theophilos ruled in the 130s BCE. Both numismatics do however suggest that the reigns of Theophilos and Nicias were adjacent, just like Zoilos I, Theophilos struck Indian silver coins with Herakles, a common symbol of the house of Euthydemus I, and the epithet Dikaios/Dhramikasa The Just/Follower of the Dharma. The monograms are mostly the same as those of Nicias, bronzes of Theophilos, However, there is a wholly different, and very rare, Attic coinage of a king Theophilos. Found in Bactria, these feature a reverse with a seated Athena with Nike, a different title Autokrator Autocrat King. Although this is not a common occurrence on Indo-Greek coins. Bopearachchi has supported this proposition by pointing at the similarity between the portraits and the treatment of the diadem. Against this, Jakobsson argues that the coins issued by the later Indo-Greek kings for export into Bactria were consistently similar to these kings regular Indian coinage, consequently, the coins of Theophilos Autokrator were not such export issues, but should belong to a Bactrian ruler. Greco-Bactrian Kingdom Seleucid Empire Greco-Buddhism Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthian Kingdom Kushan Empire The Greeks in Bactria and India, W. WTheophilos (king) – Herakles with lion skin, and his club on the reverse.
34. Zoilos I – Zoilus I Dikaios was an Indo-Greek king who ruled in Afghanistan and Pakistan and occupied the areas of the Paropamisade and Arachosia previously held by Menander I. He may have belonged to the dynasty of Euthydemus I, Zoilos used to be dated after the death of Menander, c. Two coins of Zoilus I were however overstruck by Menander I so Zoilos came to power while Menander was still alive and was perhaps his enemy, senior has suggested some time between 150–135 BCE. On some of the coins, which are of artistic quality. Zoilos I also struck rare gold-plated silver coins with portrait and Heracles, the Indian-standard coins of Zoilos I also bear the Pali title Dhramikasa, probably related to Buddhism, appearing for the first time on Indo-Greek coinage. A few monolingual Attic tetradrachms of Zoilos I have been found, Zoilos inherited several monograms from Menander I. This bow can be contrasted to the traditional Hellenistic long bow depicted on the coins of the eastern Indo-Greek queen Agathokleia. Indo-Greek Kingdom Greco-Buddhism Indo-Scythians The Greeks in Bactria and India, W. W. Tarn, Cambridge University Press Main coins of Zoilus I Catalog of the coins of Zoilus IZoilos I – Coin of Zoilos I. Profile of the ruler, with Greek legend BASILEOS DIKAIOU ZOILOU "Of King Zoilos the Just".
35. Zoilos II – Zoilos II Soter was an Indo-Greek king who ruled in eastern Punjab. Bopearachchi dates his reign to c, 55–35 BCE, a date approximately supported by R. C. The name is often Latinized as Zoilus and it is possible that some of his coins were issued by a separate king, Zoilos III. He seems to have one of the rulers who succeeded the last important Indo-Greek king Apollodotus II the Great in the eastern parts of his former kingdom. All these kings use the symbol as Apollodotus II, the fighting Pallas Athene introduced by Menander I. The portraits attributed to Zoilos II could be divided into two groups, one depicting a man with hollow cheeks, the other a seemingly younger man with a fringe. This mint-mark however was never used by the balding Zoilos II, the Indo-Scythian king Bhadayasa also copied coins of the Zoilos II, or the hypothetical Zoilos III, only mentioning his own name on the Kharoshthi legend of his coins. Many of the monograms on the coins of Zoilos II are in Kharoshti and this is a characteristic of several of the Indo-Greek kings of the eastern Punjab, such as Strato I, Apollodotus II, and sometimes Apollophanes and Dionysios. Furthermore, the monogram is often identical on their coins, indicating that the moneyer, the coins of Zoilos II combine Greek monograms with Kharoshthi ones, indicating that some of the celators may have been native Indians. The Kharoshthi monograms are the letters for, sti, ji, ra, ga, gri, ha, stri, ri, bu, a, di, stra, and śi. The Apollo and tripod and Elephant and tripod types only have Kharoshthi monograms, while the portrait types usually have combinations of Greek, the monogram 62 has been shown to be the last Indo-Greek monogram, and only appears on the younger portraits that may be belong to Zoilus III. The coins of Zoilos II have been found in the Sutlej and Sialkot II hoards, also,25 coins of Zoilos II were found under the foundations of a 1st century BCE rectangular chapel in the monastery of Dharmarajika, near Taxila. Two coins of Zoilos II were also found in the Bara hoard near Peshawar, together with coins of the Indo-Scythian kings Azes I, a coin of Zoilus II was overstruck on a coin of Apollodotus II. Greco-Bactrian Kingdom Seleucid Empire Greco-Buddhism Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthian Kingdom Kushan Empire The Greeks in Bactria and India, W. W. Tarn, Cambridge University PressZoilos II – Coin of king Zoilos II (55–35 BCE). Obv: Bust of Zoilos II with Greek legend ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΖΩΙΛΟΥ (BASILEOS SOTEROS ZOILOU) "Of King Zoilos the Saviour". Rev: Athena advancing left, with thunderbolt and shield covered with aegis (type of Menander I). Kharosthi legend: MAHARAJASA TRATARASA JHOILASA "King Zoilos the Saviour".