Category:Industrial archaeological sites in Devon
Pages in category "Industrial archaeological sites in Devon"
The following 75 pages are in this category, out of 75 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 75 pages are in this category, out of 75 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Annery kiln – Annery kiln is a former limekiln of the estate of Annery, in the parish of Monkleigh, North Devon. It is situated on the bank of the River Torridge near Half-Penny Bridge, built in 1835. Running by it today is A386 road from Bideford to Great Torrington, the old trackbed now forms a stretch of the Tarka Trail. Due to the properties of quick lime, the product of the kiln. Should the quick lime become wet during transport by the farmer to his farm, it would corrode its container, culm, a form of imperfect anthracite, was mined in Devon at Tavistock and Chittlehampton as well as being imported from South Wales via Bideford. The limestone largely came from Caldey Island off the South Wales coast, although Devon had quarries at Landkey, Swimbridge, Filleigh, South Molton and Combe Martin. The lime kiln complex comprised the kiln itself, a pond for slaking the calcium oxide from the kiln to produce the slaked lime, hydrated lime, several cottages were built nearby for the lime-burners, shipbuilders and blacksmiths, etc. and storage buildings. A small wharf on the allowed for the unloading of sailing barges. Annery limekiln has a ramp facing the river, three kilns, seven entrance doorways and nine lower apertures for the removal of the calcined limestone, the arrangement of the kilns gives an L-shaped compact structure. Some of the led to arched lobbies or eyes, at the back of which were the grates and separate poking holes to insert metals rods for working the charge. A lean-to slated roof may have slotted beneath part of the course of projecting stones. The arched entrances to the allowed for the sheltered and safe collection of the quicklime. The top of the kilns was flat and large enough to allow for storage of culm. The original Annery kiln had been prior to Lord Rolless canal. Annery was well built, with local mortar-cemented stones, a rubble infill, the various openings to the kilns have rounded or pointed Gothic arches formed from bricks. The now lost crenellated battlements construction was similar to other such as those at Yeo Vale on the Torridge, south-west of Bideford. The decorative front of the new kiln has blind arches at either end, the development of the rail network made local small-scale kilns generally unprofitable, but Annery had closed in around 1864, before the local railway was opened. Local competition from the kilns at Torrington and elsewhere would have been intense
2. Appledore Shipbuilders – Appledore Shipbuilders is a shipbuilder in Appledore, North Devon. The Appledore Yard was founded in 1855 on the estuary of the River Torridge, the Richmond Dry Dock was built in 1856 by William Yeo and named after Richmond Bay in Prince Edward Island, where the Yeo familys shipping fleet was based. The business was led by Philip Kelly Harris during the part of the 20th century. Harris & Sons until 1963 when it became Appledore Shipbuilders, in 1964 the Company was acquired by Court Line, a travel business. A new shipyard was built on a site in Appledore at a cost of about £4m opened in 1970. Court Line collapsed in 1974 and Appledore Shipbuilders was nationalised and subsequently subsumed into British Shipbuilders, by the late 1980s the only yards still held in state ownership were the smaller Appledore and Ferguson yards. Appledore was eventually sold to North East Shipbuilders Ltd in 1989, Appledore built two Róisín class patrol boats for the Irish Naval Service, LÉ Róisín was completed in 1999 and LÉ Niamh in 2001. In 2010, Ireland ordered a two, 90m,23 knot offshore patrol vessels from Babcock with an option for a third. The first Samuel Beckett-class OPV was commissioned in May 2014, the company was reconstituted as Appledore Shipbuilders Limited and was run by the DML subsidiary DML Appledore. During this period the main activity was the installation of machinery packages. In June 2007, Babcock International Group acquired DML, including its operations at the Appledore Shipyard, a Royal Navy contract secured 300 jobs in Appledore until 2015. The Appledore yard will construct elements of the two Queen Elizabeth class aircraft carriers, bow sections for HMS Queen Elizabeth were completed in April 2010 and were barged to Rosyth Dockyard for integration with other modules. The yard continues to build flight deck sponsons and centre blocks for Queen Elizabeth, from 2012, Appledore will build similar sections for Queen Elizabeths sister ship HMS Prince of Wales. The company has more than 350 vessels, including small and medium-sized military craft, bulk carriers, LPG carriers, superyachts, ferries. Specific ships include, Babcock International Marine website
3. Axminster railway station – Axminster railway station serves the town of Axminster in Devon, England. Opened by the London and South Western Railway in 1860, it is now served by South West Trains’s London Waterloo to Exeter St Davids services on the West of England Main Line and it is 144.5 miles from Waterloo. The station was opened on 19 July 1860 when the LSWR opened its Exeter Extension from Yeovil Junction to Exeter Queen Street, a signal box was provided in 1875, situated at the south end of the westbound platform. A bay platform was built on the west side of the station, there was also a short 1 in 40 connection from the goods yard directly to the branch, but this was removed in 1915. The engine shed was demolished to make room for the new branch, in 1923 the LSWR became part of the Southern Railway during the Grouping of 1923. The platforms were lengthened in the 1930s to accommodate longer trains, on 1 January 1948 the Southern Railway was nationalised to become the Southern Region of British Railways. January 1963 saw the all the lines in the transferred to the Western Region. On 29 November 1965 the Lyme Regis branch line was closed, on 11 June 1967 the main line was rationalised – Axminster was now in the middle of a 15.26 miles single track section between Chard Junction and Honiton. The privatisation of British Rail a few years saw the line. On 11 December 2009 a new 3-mile loop was opened with Axminster at its centre and this allowed the previous sparse and irregular timetable to be replaced with a regular hourly frequency, trains are timetabled to pass at Axminster. The small building at the end of the platform has been reopened as a cafe. In December 2012 Rail Gourmet UK Ltd opened a satellite service centre at Axminster station. An at seat catering service is provided from Axminster to Waterloo by on-board hosts based at Axminster on morning train services, the service centre also acts as a turn-around point for Salisbury based on-board hosts who operate services from here from late morning to early evening. The station is situated on the edge of the town centre. The main building was designed by the LSWRs architect Sir William Tite, an old parcels office next door now houses the station café. Immediately south of the building is the 2009-built footbridge which links the two platforms. Unusually for England, trains ran on the right so the main platform was used by trains to London. In late 2012, this was reversed with trains now running on the left, South West Trains operate hourly services between London Waterloo and Exeter St Davids
4. Babbacombe Cliff Railway – Babbacombe Cliff Railway is a funicular railway in the town of Torquay in the English county of Devon. It links Babbacombe Downs with Oddicombe Beach, the line runs every day, with a closure period in winter for maintenance. The first car runs at 09,30, and the last at 16,30, a bell is rung 30 and 15 minutes before closing. In February 1923, the Torquay Tramway Company commissioned Waygood-Otis Ltd with the engineering, construction started in 1924, and the line was first opened on 1 April 1926. The line cost £15,648 to construct, the tramway company continued to work the line until 13 March 1935, when it was taken over by Torquay Borough Council. The line was closed in 1941, due to World War II security restrictions, the railway underwent further refurbishment in 1993 and a three-year programme of renovation commenced in November 2005. Two cars of traditional design with a 40-person standing capacity 720-foot track with a 5 ft 8 in gauge Rated speed of 2
5. Barnstaple Long Bridge – Barnstaple Long Bridge is a medieval bridge linking Tawstock with Barnstaple in North Devon, England, spanning the River Taw. One of the largest medieval bridges in Britain, it is a Grade I listed building, another major medieval bridge, the Bideford Long Bridge over the Torridge, is a few miles away. The date of the first bridge as Barnstaples main bridge across the River Taw is unclear, a will of 1274 left money for its upkeep and it underwent construction work around 1280 with further work being undertaken in 1333, and the bridge was partially destroyed in 1437 and 1646. It is unclear whether all of the arches were built of stone or whether three were wooden until replacement in the 16th century. In 1796, the bridge was widened again, the footpath was added in the 1830s and cast iron used to strengthen the bridge under the direction of James Green. The bypass consists of 1.6 miles of new road and it was expected to have cost £42 million. In 2016 plans were announced to upgrade the bridge including widening of footpaths, Long Bridge has 16 pointed masonry arches, varying in span from 5.5 metres to 7.9 metres giving a total length of 159 metres. The Long Bridge of Barnstaple, Transactions of the Devon Association, vol.70 pp. 193-197, vol
6. Barnstaple railway station – Barnstaple railway station is the northern terminus of the Tarka Line and serves the town of Barnstaple, Devon. It is 211 miles 25 chains down-line from London Paddington via Exeter St Davids and it is managed by Great Western Railway, which also operates the train service. It was known as Barnstaple Junction from 1874 to 1970 as it was the junction between lines to Ilfracombe, Bideford, Taunton and Exeter, a railway for goods traffic was operated from Fremington Quay, opening in August 1848. On 1 August 1854 the North Devon Railway opened from Barnstaple to Crediton, trains were extended via Fremington to Bideford on 2 November 1855. This route was extended to loop back to Okehampton via Torrington. The North Devon Railway was amalgamated into the London and South Western Railway on 1 January 1865, the station became known as Barnstaple Junction on 20 July 1874 when the railway opened the Ilfracombe branch line. This station is now a smart school, the Junction station was extended in 1874 for the Ilfracombe services and again in 1924. The first services to be withdrawn were the trains to Bideford on 2 October 1965. Passenger services had transferred from Victoria Road in January 1960. Victoria Road remained open for traffic, accessed via the loop line from Barnstaple Junction, until 5 March 1970. The line to Ilfracombe was closed later that year, on 5 October, on 21 May 1971 the track was simplified and the line to Umberleigh was reduced to just one track. A new booking office was opened on 10 November 1981 but goods trains beyond on the Fremington line were withdrawn on 31 August 1982 leaving the station as a terminus. The roundabout here has been built on a platform in order to allow for the reopening of the line to Bideford should this be proved viable in the future. During the year ended March 2009, passengers using Barnstaple station exceeded ¼ million for the first time, in 2009 the Association of Train Operating Companies included the Barnstaple to Bideford route in its Connecting Communities, Expanding Access to the Rail Network. This recommended some closed lines ought to be rebuilt to restore a railway service to large communities. This same line was rebuilt for one day that year using OO gauge track in a television project orchestrated by presenter James May. Although the track was restored between the two towns the model trains were only able to reach the site of Instow signalbox before failing. May stated that he chose the location for the due to his desire to see the line restored
7. Beer Quarry Caves – Beer Quarry Caves is a man-made limestone underground complex located about a mile west of the village of Beer, Devon, and the main source in England for beer stone. Extraction was particularly intense during the Middle Ages, but continued until the 1920s, an adit to another set of workings can be seen from the South West Coast Path east of Branscombe, having been exposed by a landslip in the late 18th century. The quarry is part of the Jurassic Coast, and is a Site of Special Scientific Interest, Beer stone is a creamy-grey, fine-textured limestone from the Middle Cretaceous period that takes its name from the town of Beer, where it was quarried and mined from Roman times. The layer of the best stone is about thirty feet thick and it is also found in other places in south-west England. Because of its grain, it is a Free stone, which means that it can be sawed or squared up in any direction. When first mined, it is soft and easily cut, but it hardens with exposure to the air. The earliest workings at the quarry were in the Roman period initially in open quarries, at this time the estuary of the river Axe provided a safe harbour for the removal of the stone by boat. The Roman section is typified by large arches support the roof and was hand excavated using picks. Beer stone was used in the Roman villa of Honeyditches, Seaton, Quarry men worked long hours by candlelight with hand tools such as picks and saws. The quarrymen were also supported by child labour. Skilled stonemasons would then work on the stone in the caves because it became harder to carve when exposed to the air, the stone blocks would then be lifted by hand operated cranes after the connection of Lewis lifting devices to be loaded onto horse-drawn wagons. They would then usually be taken to barges which would sail from Beer Beach, after 1540, stone was only quarried for secular building. After the Reformation, one of the uses of the caves was as a secret Catholic church, in the 19th century, the caves were also used to store contraband, including by the smuggler Jack Rattenbury. Quarrying at the site ceased in the early 20th century when a new quarry was opened nearby, some caves were then used to cultivate mushrooms and others were used to dump waste from the new quarry. Guided tours of the caves are now run from spring to autumn, the caves provide a haven for hibernating bats in winter. The presence of the bats, along with the opportunities to see the geological profiles that quarry faces allow, caused the old, the very rare Bechsteins bat and the greater and lesser horseshoe bats along with five other bat species are all found in the caves
8. Berry Head Lighthouse – Berry Head Lighthouse is an active lighthouse, located at the end Berry Head near Brixham in Devon. It was originally built in 1906, and was automated and converted to run on acetylene in 1921. The light has a range of 19 nautical miles, giving a white flash every 15 seconds. Berry Head is reputedly the shortest lighthouse in Great Britain, but also one of the highest, being only 5 metres tall, but 58 metres above mean sea level. It was also said to be the deepest because the optic was originally turned by a falling down a 45 metres deep shaft. Semaphore signalling apparatus was on Berry Head before 1875 and acted as the Lloyds Signal Station for Torbay, list of lighthouses in England Pike, John. Berry Head, Forts, Lighthouse and House
9. Bideford Long Bridge – It is one of the longest mediaeval bridges in England, being 677 feet long with 24 arches. In 1790 the bridge was the longest in Devon and it remained the furthest downstream bridge on the river until 1987, when the Torridge A39 Road Bridge was built a mile or so further downstream at Northam. The river is tidal at Bideford and a very large fluctuation in water levels occurs twice daily under the bridge. An ancient New Years Eve tradition was to try to run across the Long Bridge during the time taken for the bells of St. Marys parish church, near the west end, to chime midnight. A sight enjoyed by many in the months is of the starlings at dusk. It is a Grade I listed building, another major medieval bridge, the Barnstaple Long Bridge in Barnstaple over the Taw, is a few miles away. The Devon historian Hoskins stated that the first bridge was built in the last quarter of the 13th century, the length of sections between piers were not uniform but were determined by the varying lengths of timber available. Two other traditional explanations for the varying spans exist, Sir Theobald Grenville II was the son and heir of Henry de Grenville, and was aged 4 at the death of his father when he was granted in wardship to Sir John Carew. He was knighted on attaining his majority aged 21, and was, according to Granville but not supported by other sources and he married Joyce Beaumont, according to Granville, daughter of Thomas Beaumont, Earl of Mellant, perhaps Count of Meulan. The bridge was built during his minority. Other donors were the families of Goldneye and Oketenet, which according to Thomas Fuller were locally powerful families and it was at the time far from any main road, so is presumed to have been built mainly for the convenience of the townspeople. On 5 December 1396 Bishop of Exeter Edmund Stafford granted an indulgence to all true penitents who should assist ad constructionem seu reparacionem pontis de Bydeford. Later in 1437 and 1444 two further indulgences ad novam constructionem sustentationem seu reparacionem pontis de Bydeford were granted by Bishop of Exeter Edmund Lacey, the last episcopal indulgence in connection with repairs to the bridge was granted in 1503 by Bishop of Exeter John Arundel. It was considered until the 18th century very high so that a bark of 60 or 70 tuns may pass and re-pass under the arches and between the peers thereof, although with its masts struck. Tradition states that, like London Bridge, its piers were built on wool bales, in fact the foundations are firmly fixed, although the bridge according to Prince seems to shake at the slightest step of a horse. Which was 515 yards long,15 feet wide and had 36 arches, Prince relates that before the building of the bridge the crossing over the broad and at times rough river was a dangerous action and frequently resulted in deaths from drowning. In the morning he went to the bank and found there a huge rock whose greatness argued its being in that place to be only the work of God. Furthermore, succeeding bishops in their distinct times did contribute alms, annery kiln was thus situated at the end of the tidal reach and was a destination for cargos of limestone