Category:Industrial archaeological sites in Devon
Pages in category "Industrial archaeological sites in Devon"
The following 75 pages are in this category, out of 75 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 75 pages are in this category, out of 75 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Annery kiln – Annery kiln is a former limekiln of the estate of Annery, in the parish of Monkleigh, North Devon. It is situated on the bank of the River Torridge near Half-Penny Bridge, built in 1835. Running by it today is A386 road from Bideford to Great Torrington, the old trackbed now forms a stretch of the Tarka Trail. Due to the properties of quick lime, the product of the kiln. Should the quick lime become wet during transport by the farmer to his farm, it would corrode its container, culm, a form of imperfect anthracite, was mined in Devon at Tavistock and Chittlehampton as well as being imported from South Wales via Bideford. The limestone largely came from Caldey Island off the South Wales coast, although Devon had quarries at Landkey, Swimbridge, Filleigh, South Molton and Combe Martin. The lime kiln complex comprised the kiln itself, a pond for slaking the calcium oxide from the kiln to produce the slaked lime, hydrated lime, several cottages were built nearby for the lime-burners, shipbuilders and blacksmiths, etc. and storage buildings. A small wharf on the allowed for the unloading of sailing barges. Annery limekiln has a ramp facing the river, three kilns, seven entrance doorways and nine lower apertures for the removal of the calcined limestone, the arrangement of the kilns gives an L-shaped compact structure. Some of the led to arched lobbies or eyes, at the back of which were the grates and separate poking holes to insert metals rods for working the charge. A lean-to slated roof may have slotted beneath part of the course of projecting stones. The arched entrances to the allowed for the sheltered and safe collection of the quicklime. The top of the kilns was flat and large enough to allow for storage of culm. The original Annery kiln had been prior to Lord Rolless canal. Annery was well built, with local mortar-cemented stones, a rubble infill, the various openings to the kilns have rounded or pointed Gothic arches formed from bricks. The now lost crenellated battlements construction was similar to other such as those at Yeo Vale on the Torridge, south-west of Bideford. The decorative front of the new kiln has blind arches at either end, the development of the rail network made local small-scale kilns generally unprofitable, but Annery had closed in around 1864, before the local railway was opened. Local competition from the kilns at Torrington and elsewhere would have been intense
2. Barnstaple railway station – Barnstaple railway station is the northern terminus of the Tarka Line and serves the town of Barnstaple, Devon. It is 211 miles 25 chains down-line from London Paddington via Exeter St Davids and it is managed by Great Western Railway, which also operates the train service. It was known as Barnstaple Junction from 1874 to 1970 as it was the junction between lines to Ilfracombe, Bideford, Taunton and Exeter, a railway for goods traffic was operated from Fremington Quay, opening in August 1848. On 1 August 1854 the North Devon Railway opened from Barnstaple to Crediton, trains were extended via Fremington to Bideford on 2 November 1855. This route was extended to loop back to Okehampton via Torrington. The North Devon Railway was amalgamated into the London and South Western Railway on 1 January 1865, the station became known as Barnstaple Junction on 20 July 1874 when the railway opened the Ilfracombe branch line. This station is now a smart school, the Junction station was extended in 1874 for the Ilfracombe services and again in 1924. The first services to be withdrawn were the trains to Bideford on 2 October 1965. Passenger services had transferred from Victoria Road in January 1960. Victoria Road remained open for traffic, accessed via the loop line from Barnstaple Junction, until 5 March 1970. The line to Ilfracombe was closed later that year, on 5 October, on 21 May 1971 the track was simplified and the line to Umberleigh was reduced to just one track. A new booking office was opened on 10 November 1981 but goods trains beyond on the Fremington line were withdrawn on 31 August 1982 leaving the station as a terminus. The roundabout here has been built on a platform in order to allow for the reopening of the line to Bideford should this be proved viable in the future. During the year ended March 2009, passengers using Barnstaple station exceeded ¼ million for the first time, in 2009 the Association of Train Operating Companies included the Barnstaple to Bideford route in its Connecting Communities, Expanding Access to the Rail Network. This recommended some closed lines ought to be rebuilt to restore a railway service to large communities. This same line was rebuilt for one day that year using OO gauge track in a television project orchestrated by presenter James May. Although the track was restored between the two towns the model trains were only able to reach the site of Instow signalbox before failing. May stated that he chose the location for the due to his desire to see the line restored
3. Bude Canal – The Bude Canal was a canal built to serve the hilly hinterland in the Devon and Cornwall border territory in the United Kingdom, chiefly to bring lime-bearing sand for agricultural fertiliser. The Bude Canal system was one of the most unusual in Britain and it was remarkable in using inclined planes to haul tub boats on wheels to the upper levels. There were only two locks, in the short broad canal section near the sea at Bude itself. It had an extent of 35 miles, and it rose from sea level to an altitude of 433 feet. The design of the canal influenced the design of the Rolle Canal, the coastal area at Bude has sand unusually rich in minerals and the poor agricultural land of the locality was found to benefit considerably from application of the sand. In the pre-industrial age, actually transporting it was difficult, even to relatively close to the coast. Several schemes were put forward for canals to bring the sand to the countryside, One early scheme, conceived by Cornish engineer, John Edyvean aimed at distributing Welsh coal from the port as far inland as Calstock on the River Tamar. It gained parliamentary approval for construction in 1774, but financial problems, in 1818, the West Country canal engineer James Green produced a report for canals backers, and an Act of Parliament was obtained for this more moderate proposal in 1819. After some difficulties in the phase the canal was completed and opened on 8 July 1823. There was a feeder arm leading from a new reservoir at Virworthy. There were two locks in the short broad canal section, each with a vertical interval of 5 feet 6 inches. This section terminated at Helebridge, about 2 miles from Bude, the tub boats were designed to use the main part of the system, and they generally made the transit from the harbour at Bude, or from Helebridge if trans-shipping from coastal vessels there. After Helebridge there were three inclined planes to the section, the whole of the central part of the system was at this level,433 feet above sea level. The main line to Druxton Wharf, near Launceston, negotiated three descending inclined planes as it followed the course of the River Tamar. With no intermediate locks on the tub boat sections, the canal had to follow the contours between the planes, and this made its route even more circuitous than most canals. However some relatively ambitious viaducts and earthworks were constructed, particularly where side streams and small valleys entered the main watercourse, the unusual feature of the canal was the six inclined planes. The tub boats had wheels, and on the planes they were pulled up the slopes with the wheels running in channel rails. There were two sets of rails, one for direction, but it does not appear that a counterbalancing system was used
4. Calstock railway station – Calstock railway station is an unstaffed railway station serving the village of Calstock in Cornwall, United Kingdom. It is situated at grid reference SX433688 at the end of Calstock Viaduct which carries the railway at high level over the River Tamar. The 3 ft 6 in gauge East Cornwall Mineral Railway was opened to Kelly Quay at Calstock on 8 May 1872. Wagons with goods from the mines around Gunnislake and Callington were brought down the hillside on a 0.4 miles cable-worked incline with a gradient of 1 in 6, the Plymouth, Devonport and South Western Junction Railway opened the station on 2 March 1908. This line was a branch from Bere Alston to Callington Road, a steam-powered lift was attached to the downstream side of the viaduct which could raise and lower wagons to the quays 113 feet below, making it one of the highest such lifts in the country. It was connected to the goods yard by a second parallel steel stub viaduct. A short section of the narrow gauge line was retained to serve a lime kiln, fruit and flowers were an important part of the traffic carried on the railway and were still carried by train from Calstock until the mid-1970s. The single platform – on the right of trains arriving from Plymouth – is situated on a curve which makes it difficult to see trains approaching from Gunnislake. It is on the hillside towards the edge of the village, Calstock is served by trains on the Tamar Valley Line from Gunnislake to Plymouth. Connections with main line services can be made at Plymouth, although a number of Tamar Valley services continue to or from Exeter St Davids. The railway from Plymouth to Gunnislake is designated as a community railway and is supported by marketing provided by the Devon, the line is promoted under the Tamar Valley Line name. Two pubs in Calstock take part in the Tamar Valley Line rail ale trail, the line is also part of the Dartmoor Sunday Rover network of integrated bus and rail routes. The viaduct is 120 feet high with twelve 60 feet wide arches, three of the piers stand in the River Tamar, which is tidal at this point and has a minimum clearance at high tide of 110 feet. It was built between 1904 and 1907 by John Lang of Liskeard using 11,148 concrete blocks and these were cast in a temporary yard on the Devon bank opposite the village. The engineers were Richard Church and WR Galbraith and it is a Grade II* listed structure. The Plymouth, Devonport and South Western Junction Railway, the Railways of Cornwall 1809 -1963. Crombleholme, Roger, Gibson, Bryan, Stickey, Douglas, Whetmath, Devon and Cornwall Rail Partnership, Tamar Valley Line Rail Ale Trail Parkhouse, Neil
5. Lyme Regis branch line – With the decline in usage of rural lines, the branch closed in 1965. In earlier times, Lyme Regis had been a sea port. On 19 July 1860 the London and South Western Railway opened its line between Yeovil and Exeter, giving the area rail transport to London, a horse bus operated between Lyme Regis and Axminster. Over the following years, a Lyme Regis Railway company got as far as cutting the first sod on 29 September 1874, the Act authorised a share capital of £55,000, supplemented by £24,000 in loans. A contract for the construction of the railway was let to Baldrey and Yerburgh of Westminster, for a price of £36,542. The LSWR subscribed £25,000 to the cost of the construction, construction began on 19 June 1900. The line generally followed contours, and there was one major structure. During its construction the west abutment and the adjacent pier slipped badly, a special train was run on 22 January 1903 with VIP passengers to inspect the nearly-complete line, but difficulties with the Cannington Viaduct prevented the planned opening at Whitsun. The LSWR arranged a horse bus connection from Axminster to Lyme Regis in the intervening period, the line was 6 miles 45.6 chains long. Starting from Axminster station, at the level of the River Axe there, it climbed, running broadly southerly to Combpyne, where the only intermediate station was sited. The station at Lyme Regis was inconveniently located on the margin of the town. The ruling gradient was 1 in 40 in each direction and it was single throughout, with a passing loop at Combpyne. At Axminster passenger trains were accommodated on the Up side of the station in a bay platform,6 instruments were installed, enabling electric train token working, with two sections meeting at Combpyne. Mitchell and Smith say that Combpyne originally—this probably means after 1906—had a passing loop, Phillips refers to four specific signals operated from the signal box—there were fixed distant signals. The 1910 public timetable reproduced by Mitchell and Smith shows no passenger trains crossing at Combpyne, the LSWR operated the branch from the beginning, the permanent way was very light and permissible axle loads limited, at 12 tons. The locomotives used at first were nos.734 and 735, Terrier class 0-6-0T engines, however they were not entirely successful due to their limited power. From 1913, William Adams design of unsuperheated 4-4-2T engine, the 415 class, the class had been employed on suburban work in London, and two members of the class were allocated to work on the branch. The trailing axle was designed to move laterally in guides that also rotated it so as to accommodate the curvature of the track, with a modification to reduce the water capacity to 800 gallons to reduce axle loads, the locomotives, built in 1885, proved surprisingly successful
6. Coldharbour Mill Working Wool Museum – Coldharbour Mill, near the village of Uffculme in Devon, England, is one of the oldest woollen textile mills in the world, having been in continuous production since 1797. The headquarters for the mill was at Tonedale in Wellington, the water provided by the nearby River Culm was a prime factor in Thomas Foxs decision to purchase the existing grist mill. In 1797 he wrote to his brother I have purchased the premises at Uffculme for eleven hundred guineas, the buildings are but middling, but the stream good. The roads in the area at the time were very poor and it appears that there has been a mill of some description near the Coldharbour site since Saxon times. The Domesday Book recording two mills in the Uffculme area, at its peak the company employed approximately 5,000 people and owned and operated nine mills and factories in Somerset, Devon, and Oxfordshire. One of the most notable satellite mills was that of William Bliss & Sons, located in Chipping Norton, the William Bliss site was one of the grandest mills in England, complete with reading room, chapel and workers cottages. Fox Brothers bought it in 1920, the main Tonedale site in Wellington was the largest integrated mill site in the South West of England, covering 10 acres of land and forming the hub of the Fox Brothers woollen manufacturing empire. The ancestors of the owners, the Fox family and the Were family, were early Quaker converts. During George Foxs first visit to Devonshire in 1655, he went to the house of Nicholas Tripe and his wife and their daughter, Anstice, married George Croker of Plymouth, and they were much persecuted for their beliefs. Their daughter Tabitha married Francis Fox of St. Germans, Cornwall, Thomas Were was a very successful manufacturer, and had inherited the WRE trademark, which certified the quality of his cloth. His great-great grandfather John Were of Pinksmoor was credited with owning a fulling mill, during one of the visits of Edward to his father-in-law, it was suggested that one of Edward and Annes sons should join the Wellington woollen manufacturing business. After four years overseas, Edwards son Thomas Fox moved to Wellington. Thomas and his wife Sarah Smith, built in 1801, then lived in, Tone Dale House, Wellington - the house is lived in by a Fox, five generations later, by Ben. In 1826, when his sons were partners, the business was renamed Fox Brothers, the almost incredible sum of £900,000 was lately subscribed at Wells in about two hours for cutting one from Taunton to Bristol. In 1787, Were and Company ran short of ready cash, on 30 October, Thomas printed 500 notes of five guineas each. The notes were well received by local businesses, in 1797, an invasion scare resulted in a shortage of gold and cash, and Thomas Fox issued 3,000 five guinea notes, and seventy six £20 notes in order to enable his business to continue its expansion. One of the original £5 notes is on display at Tone Dale House, Exeter was the centre of the mediaeval woollen trade in England, with cloth being exported to the Continental markets of France, Holland and Germany. Kersey, a cloth, was superseded by serge, so that by 1681 95% of the Exeter cloth export was serge
7. Industrial archaeology of Dartmoor – The industrial archaeology of Dartmoor covers a number of the industries which have, over the ages, taken place on Dartmoor, and the remaining evidence surrounding them. Currently only three industries are economically significant, yet all three will inevitably leave their own traces on the moor, china clay mining, farming, a good general guide to the commercial activities on Dartmoor at the end of the 19th century is William Crossings The Dartmoor Worker. In former times, lead, silver, tin and copper were mined extensively on Dartmoor, the most obvious evidence of mining to the casual visitor to Dartmoor are the remains of the old engine-house at Wheal Betsy which is alongside the A386 road between Tavistock and Okehampton. The word Wheal has a meaning in Devon and Cornwall being either a tin or a copper mine, however in the case of Wheal Betsy it was principally lead. Once widely practised by many miners across the moor, by the early 1900s only a few tinners remained, some of the more significant mines were Eylesbarrow, Knock Mine, Vitifer Mine and Hexworthy Mine. The last active mine in the Dartmoor area was Great Rock Mine, Dartmoor granite has been used in many Devon and Cornish buildings. The prison at Princetown was built from granite taken from Walkhampton Common, when the horse tramroad from Plymouth to Princetown was completed in 1823, large quantities of granite were more easily transported. There were three major granite quarries on the moor, Haytor, Foggintor and Merrivale, the granite quarries around Haytor were the source of the stone used in several famous structures, including the New London Bridge, completed in 1831. This granite was transported from the moor via the Haytor Granite Tramway, the extensive quarries at Foggintor provided granite for the construction of Londons Nelsons Column in the early 1840s, and New Scotland Yard was faced with granite from the quarry at Merrivale. Merrivale Quarry continued excavating and working its own granite until the 1970s, producing gravestones, work at Merrivale continued until the 1990s, for the last 20 years imported stone such as gabbro from Norway and Italian marble was dressed and polished. The unusual pink granite at Great Trowlesworthy Tor was also quarried, various metamorphic rocks were also quarried in the metamorphic aureole around the edge of the moor, most notably at Meldon. In 1844 a factory for making gunpowder was built on the open moor, gunpowder was needed for the tin mines and granite quarries then in operation on the moor. The buildings were widely spaced from one another for safety and the power for grinding the powder was derived from waterwheels driven by a leat. Now known as Powdermills or Powder Mills, there are remains of this factory still visible. The ruins of a number of buildings also survive. A proving mortar—a type of cannon used to gauge the strength of the gunpowder—used by the factory still lies by the side of the road to the nearby pottery. Peat-cutting for fuel occurred at locations on Dartmoor until certainly the 1970s. The right of Dartmoor commoners to cut peat for fuel is known as turbary and these rights were conferred a long time ago, pre-dating most written records
8. HMNB Devonport – Her Majestys Naval Base, Devonport, is one of three operating bases in the United Kingdom for the Royal Navy. HMNB Devonport is located in Devonport, in the west of the city of Plymouth, having begun as Royal Navy Dockyard in the late-17th century, it is now the largest naval base in Western Europe and is the sole nuclear repair and refuelling facility for the Royal Navy. From 1934 until the early 21st century the barracks on the site was named HMS Drake. Recently, the name HMS Drake has been extended to cover the entire base, in the early 1970s the newly-styled Fleet Maintenance Base was itself commissioned as HMS Defiance, it remained so until 1994, at which point it was amalgamated into HMS Drake. HM Naval Base Devonport is the port of the Devonport Flotilla which includes the largest ship in the Royal Navy, HMS Ocean. In 2009 the Ministry of Defence announced the conclusion of a review of the long-term role of three naval bases. Devonport will no longer be used as a base for submarines after these move to Faslane by 2017. However, Devonport retains a role as the dedicated home of the amphibious fleet, survey vessels. In 1588, the ships of the English Navy set sail for the Spanish Armada through the mouth of the River Plym, Sir Francis Drake is now an enduring legacy in Devonport, as the naval base has been named HMS Drake. In 1689 Prince William of Orange became William III and almost immediately he required the building of a new Royal Dockyard west of Portsmouth, having dismissed the Plymouth site as inadequate, he settled on the Hamoaze area which soon became known as Plymouth Dock, later renamed Devonport. On 30 December 1690, a contract was let for a dockyard to be built, having selected the location, Dummer was given responsibility for designing and building the new yard. At the heart of his new dockyard, Dummer placed a stone-lined basin, previously the Navy Board had relied upon timber as the major building material for dry docks, which resulted in high maintenance costs and was also a fire risk. The docks Dummer designed were stronger with more secure foundations and stepped sides that made it easier for men to work beneath the hull of a docked vessel and these innovations also allowed rapid erection of staging and greater workforce mobility. He discarded the earlier three-sectioned hinged gate, which was labour-intensive in operation, Dummer wished to ensure that naval dockyards were efficient working units that maximised available space, as evidenced by the simplicity of his design layout at Plymouth Dock. He introduced a centralised storage area alongside the basin, and a positioning of other buildings around the yard. His double rope-house combined the previously separate tasks of spinning and laying while allowing the floor to be used for the repair of sails. On high ground overlooking the rest of the yard he built a terrace of houses for the senior dockyard officers. Most of Dummers buildings and structures were rebuilt over ensuing years, including the basin, the terrace survived into the 20th century, but was largely destroyed in the Blitz along with several others of Devonports historic buildings
9. Eddystone Lighthouse – The Eddystone Lighthouse is on the dangerous Eddystone Rocks,9 statute miles south of Rame Head, England, United Kingdom. While Rame Head is in Cornwall, the rocks are in Devon, the current structure is the fourth to be built on the site. The first and second were destroyed by storm and fire, the third, also known as Smeatons Tower, is the best known because of its influence on lighthouse design and its importance in the development of concrete for building. Its upper portions have been re-erected in Plymouth as a monument, the first lighthouse, completed in 1699, was the worlds first open ocean lighthouse although the Cordouan lighthouse preceded it as the first offshore lighthouse. The Eddystone Rocks are an extensive reef approximately 12 miles SSW of Plymouth Sound, one of the most important naval harbours of England, and midway between Lizard Point, Cornwall and Start Point. Given the difficulty of gaining a foothold on the rocks particularly in the predominant swell it was a time before anyone attempted to place any warning on them. The first lighthouse on Eddystone Rocks was a wooden structure built by Henry Winstanley. The lighthouse was also the first recorded instance of an offshore lighthouse, construction started in 1696 and the light was lit on 14 November 1698. This gives rise to the claims that there have been five lighthouses on Eddystone Rock, winstanleys tower lasted until the Great Storm of 1703 erased almost all trace on 27 November. Winstanley was on the lighthouse, completing additions to the structure, no trace was found of him, or of the other five men in the lighthouse. The cost of construction and five years maintenance totalled £7,814 7s. 6d, during which time dues totalling £4,721 19s. 3d had been collected at one penny per ton from passing vessels. Following the destruction of the first lighthouse, Captain John Lovett acquired the lease of the rock and he commissioned John Rudyard to design the new lighthouse, built as a conical wooden structure around a core of brick and concrete. A temporary light was first shone from it in 1708 and the work was completed in 1709 and this proved more durable, surviving nearly fifty years. On the night of 2 December 1755, the top of the lantern caught fire, the three keepers threw water upwards from a bucket but were driven onto the rock and were rescued by boat as the tower burnt down. Keeper Henry Hall, who was 94 at the time, died from ingesting molten lead from the lantern roof. A report on this case was submitted to the Royal Society by the physician Dr. Edward Spry, the third lighthouse marked a major step forward in the design of such structures. Recommended by the Royal Society, civil engineer John Smeaton modelled the shape on an oak tree and he pioneered hydraulic lime, a concrete that cured under water, and developed a technique of securing the granite blocks using dovetail joints and marble dowels. Construction started in 1756 at Millbay and the light was first lit on 16 October 1759, Smeatons lighthouse was 59 feet high and had a diameter at the base of 26 feet and at the top of 17 feet
10. Exeter St Davids railway station – Exeter St Davids is the principal railway station serving the city of Exeter in Devon, England. It is 193 miles 72 chains from London Paddington on the line through Bristol which continues to Plymouth and it is also served by an alternative route to London Waterloo via Salisbury and branch lines to Exmouth and Barnstaple. The station opened in 1844 as the terminus of the Bristol and it is currently managed by Great Western Railway and is served by trains operated by Great Western Railway, South West Trains and CrossCountry. The station was opened on 1 May 1844 by the Bristol, the station was designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel and was one of his single-sided stations which meant that the two platforms were both on the east side of the line. This was the side nearer the town and so convenient for passengers travelling into Exeter. This was not too much of a problem while the station was at the end of the line, but on 30 May 1846 the South Devon Railway opened a line westwards towards Plymouth. A carriage shed was built for the SDR at the end of the B&ER platform but the goods sheds. The SDR was designed to be worked by atmospheric power and a house was built on the banks of the river near the locomotive shed. This was only used for its purpose for about a year but was not demolished until many years later. The next railway to arrive at St Davids was the Exeter and Crediton Railway on 12 May 1851 and this line was worked by the B&ER and trains were accommodated at the existing platforms. The LSWR owned the Exeter and Crediton Railway and started to work the line for itself, with two gauges and four companies using the single-sided station, it was in need of remodelling. A new double-sided platform opened on the site west side of the line, the original platforms had all had individual train sheds covering the tracks, and the opportunity was taken to replace these with one large train shed across all the main tracks and platforms. North of the station was a crossing and just beyond this an additional goods shed was constructed. Unlike the earlier ones it was solely for transferring goods between the trains of the two different gauges, all of these buildings were designed by the Francis Fox, the B&ER engineer, and Henry Lloyd and the work was completed in 1864. The B&ER was amalgamated with the Great Western Railway on 1 January 1876, the train shed was removed in 1912-13 and the platforms extended northwards towards the level crossing. A second island platform was provided on the west side and this entailed the goods sheds being narrowed from two tracks to one at their southern end. The middle island platform was used for LSWR trains while down GWR services used the original main platform. Before Southern Region services to Plymouth were abandoned, passengers could see Plymouth-bound services of the Western Region, a through line between platforms 1 and 3 was removed at the same time
11. Eylesbarrow mine – Eylesbarrow mine was a tin mine on Dartmoor, Devon, England that was active during the first half of the 19th century. In its early years it was one of the largest and most prosperous of the Dartmoor tin mines, along with Whiteworks and its name has several variant spellings, such as Eylesburrow, Ailsborough, Ellisborough, Hillsborough etc. It was also known as Wheal Ruth for a period around 1850. The country rock of the mine is granite, the large mining sett is crossed by many tin-bearing lodes which are substantially vertical and trend east-north-east. Most of the excavations were made into just three of these lodes and were relatively shallow. Streaming and open-cast mining for tin have taken place in part of Dartmoor for many centuries. It is believed that the industry on the moor was at its peak as early as the 12th century, for instance, in 1168, men from the nearby village of Sheepstor are known to have been tinners. Revival came in the late 1780s, fired by the needs, by 1814 demand had caused the price of tin to rise to about £150 per ton and in that year a mining sett called Ellisborough Tin Set was granted. Extraction started at the mine in February 1815 and by 1820, despite several business difficulties, in 1822 the mine opened its own smelting house on the site—the only one in operation on the moor. There is evidence that black tin was bought from nearby mines for smelting here, the next ten years or so were the mines most productive period, despite there being a fall in the price of tin from 1826. In addition to tin, some Forest Clay was sold, in 1831 the mine employed over sixty men, but at the end of that year the smelter ceased operation and there is then a four-year gap in the records. The mine apparently operated unsuccessfully on a scale for the next few years while the price of tin fell again. In August 1838 the shares on which £3, 10s had been paid were worth only £2. By early 1840 the shares, by then fully paid-up were worth just £1, by 1841 only three or four men were employed and in 1844, with the price of tin at an all-time low of just over £60 per ton, the mine closed. In early 1847, with tin back up to around £90 per ton and this resurgence of activity was bolstered with glowing reports on the quality of its ore and the previous high returns that had been made despite the shafts being of no great depth. It was also said that the house can be made fit for use at a very trifling cost which will make it a source of great profit. Much of this work was undertaken, but by October the same year, the shares had not been well taken up and the lack of money was causing problems. By the following March it was reported that the mine could not continue in operation and it was clear that no tin had been sold