Category:Inscriptions by type
This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total.
This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total.
1. Chronogram – A chronogram is a sentence or inscription in which specific letters, interpreted as numerals, stand for a particular date when rearranged. The word, meaning time writing, derives from the Greek words chronos, in the pure chronogram each word contains a numeral, the natural chronogram shows all numerals in the correct numerical order, e. g. AMORE MATVRITAS = MMVI =2006. Chronograms in versification are referred to as if they are written in hexameter. In the ancient Indonesian Hindu-Buddhist tradition, especially in ancient Java, chronograms were called chandrasengkala, certain words were assigned their specific number, and poetic phrases were formed from these selected words to describe particular events that have their own numerical meanings. For example, the candrasengkala sirna ilang kertaning bumi corresponds to the year 1400 in the Saka Calendar, chronograms from the Roman Empire are reported but not confirmed. The earliest confirmed chronograms using Roman numerals were devised in the mid 14th century, chronograms were particularly popular during the Renaissance, when chronograms were often used on tombstones and foundation stones to mark the date of the event being commemorated. They were popular during the Baroque as well, in 1711, Joseph Addison compared chronograms to “anagrams and acrostics. ”Examples include, My Day Closed Is In Immortality is a chronogram commemorating the death of Queen Elizabeth I of England. The capitals read MDCIII, which corresponds to 1603, the year of Elizabeths death, chrIstVs DuX ergo trIVMphVs, on a coin struck by Gustavus Adolphus in 1627, gives MDCXVVVII or 1627. Although chronograms are relatively scarce on coins, many inscriptions on medals incorporate chronograms, in a work entitled Hugo Grotius his Sophompaneas, published in 1652, the date is indicated by the authors name, FranCIs GoLDsMIth. An example of a short chronogram is on the monument commemorating the 1764 Massacre at Madéfalva in Transsylvania, the script Siculicidium written SICVLICIDIVM, gives exactly 1764. Only the beginning letter S is not used from the one-word chronogram, many lengthy examples of chronograms can be found in Germany and the countries that had been part the Holy Roman Empire, such as Austria, Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic. These often commemorate the building of houses in the form of prayers or quotations from the Bible, for instance, SVRGE O IEHOVA ATQVE DISPERGE INIMICOS TVOS gives 1625 as the year of building. One double chronogram, in Latin and English, on the year 1642, reads, – O goD noVV sheVV faVoVr to the kIng anD thIs VVhoLe LanD. The English sentence demonstrates that the origin of the w as a double v or u was recognised historically. The earliest chronogram in Jewish literature is one found in a Hebrew poem of the year 1205 by Al-Harizi, according to Abraham Firkovich, Hebrew chronograms date back to 582, but the inscriptions cited by him are probably forgeries. In the thirteenth century chronograms are found in the epitaphs of German Jews and it is evident, therefore, that for a period of five hundred years chronograms occurred in the epitaphs of European Jews. The German Jews seem to have possessed little skill in the composition of chronograms, in Bohemia and Poland, chronograms in epitaphs occur more frequently, and are often very clever, for example, the epitaph of the physician Menahem b. The year of death of the rabbi of Prague, Zalman
2. Epitaph – An epitaph is a short text honouring a deceased person. Strictly speaking, it refers to text that is inscribed on a tombstone or plaque, some epitaphs are specified by the person themselves before their death, while others are chosen by those responsible for the burial. An epitaph may be written in prose or in verse, poets have been known to compose their own epitaphs prior to their death. Most epitaphs are brief records of the family, and perhaps the career, of the deceased, often with an expression of love or respect—for example. Notably, the Laudatio Turiae, the longest known Ancient Roman epitaph, exceeds almost all of these at 180 lines, it celebrates the virtues of an honored wife, some are quotes from holy texts, or aphorisms. One approach of many epitaphs is to speak to the reader, a wry trick of others is to request the reader to get off their resting place, inasmuch as the reader would have to be standing on the ground above the coffin to read the inscription. Nearly all note name, year or date of birth, many list family members and the relationship of the deceased to them. Heroes and Kings your distance keep, In peace let one poor poet sleep, Who never flattered folks like you, Let Horace blush, — Alexander Pope Wir müssen wissen. — David Hilbert He never killed a man that did not need killing, — Clay Allison Here lies One whose Name was writ in Water — John Keats Undefeated — Hans-Joachim Marseille And the beat goes on. — Sonny Bono Sleep after toyle, port after stormie seas, Ease after warre, death after life, — Joseph Conrad Thats all folks. — Mel Blanc Ive finally stopped getting dumber, — Paul Erdős Go tell the Spartans, stranger passing by that here, obedient to their law, we lie. — Simonidess epigram at Thermopylae I told you I was ill, — Spike Milligan Here sleeps at peace a Hampshire Grenadier Who caught his early death by drinking cold small beer. Soldiers, be wise at his fall, And when youre hot. — Thomas Thetcher tombstone epitaph in Winchester Cathedral To save your world you asked this man to die, Would this man, could he see you now, ask why. — Epitaph for the Unknown Soldier, written by W. H. Auden There is borne an empty hearsecovered over for such as appear not. Heroes have the earth for their tomb. — Unknown Soldiers epitaph, Athens, passages taken from Pericles Funeral Oration Against you I will fling myself, unvanquished and unyielding, O Death. — Virginia Woolf Good frend for Iesvs sake forebeare, To digg the dvst encloased heare. Bleste be man spares thes stones, Good friend for Jesus sake forbear, To dig the dust enclosed here. Blessed be the man that spares these stones, And cursed be he moves my bones
3. Hero stone – A hero stone is a memorial commemorating the honorable death of a hero in battle. Erected between the 3rd century BC and the 18th century AD, hero stones are all over India. They often carry inscriptions displaying a variety of adornments, including bas relief panels, frieze, usually they are in the form of a stone monument and may have an inscription at the bottom with a narrative of the battle. According to the historian Upinder Singh, the largest concentration of such stones is found in the Indian state of Karnataka. About two thousand six hundred and fifty hero stones, the earliest dated to the 5th century have been discovered in Karnataka, the custom of erecting memorial stones dates back to the Iron Age though a vast majority were erected between the 5th and 13th centuries AD. A hero stone was usually divided into three panels, but occasionally, into four or five panels depending on the event. In Tamil Nadu Department of Archeology found several hundred hero stones that had erected in the memory of warriors who sacrificed their lives defending their community or region. Those that are carved with inscriptions narrate the act of the hero, the battle, the stones are found alone or in groups, often near an irrigation tank or lake outside a village. One hero stone dating to the 9th century Pallava King Dantivarman, depicts the hero riding a galloping horse beautifully dressed, another was recovered at Pappapatti in Usilampatti taluk and probably dates from the 18th century. This stone shows a warrior posed heroically, accompanied by his wife who holds a flower, creating hero stones had been prevalent since the Sangam period dating back 2300 years, and continuing until the Nayaka and post-Nayaka period to about 1800 A. D. In March 2014, a hero stone dating to the 8th century Pandya country, and another that was installed by a woman in memory of her husband who killed a leopard preying in cattle that strayed into the hamlet. Hero stones were not always made in honor of a person, the Atakur inscription is one such hero stone. It is dated to 939 A. D. and includes classical Kannada poetic inscription commemorating the death of the hound of Ganga King Butuga II. A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India, From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. The Rashtrakutas And Their Times, being a political, administrative, religious, social, economic and literary history of the Deccan during C.750 A. D. to C.1000 A. D. Poona, Oriental Book Agency. Hero-stone Memorials of India Rare Hero stone found near Erode Pallava period herostone unearthed in Vellore dt, government Museum Chennai Huntington Archive Hero Stone Ancient Hero stone goes missing in Goa
4. Mint mark – A mint mark is a letter, symbol or an inscription on a coin indicating the mint where the coin was produced. Mint marks were first developed to locate a problem, if a coin was underweight, or overweight, the mint mark would immediately tell where the coin was minted, and the problem could be located and fixed. Another problem which could occur would be a dishonest mint official debasing the coin, the first mint marks, called Magistrate Marks were developed by the Greeks, and named the Magistrate in charge of producing that coin. Debasing a coin, or otherwise tampering with it, was a serious crime. For example, in 1649, the directors of the Spanish colonial American Mint at Potosi, the initials of the assayer as well as the mint mark were immediate identifiers when the coins were inspected. In some cases the symbols found in the field of ancient Greek coins indicated mints, dAs Alexander the Great conquered territories their mints struck coins with the types he used in Macedon but marked with a local symbol. These mint marks were placed at the bottom of the reverse of the coin, the first part indicates that this was a coin with either SM for Sacra Moneta, M for Moneta, or P for Pecurnia. The second part was an abbreviation of the name of the mint such as ROM for Rome or LON for London, the final part indicated the workshop within the mint. Mint marks continued on copper coinage until the half of the seventh century. Mint names began to appear on French coins under Pepin and became mandatory under Charlemagne, in 1389, Charles IV adopted a system called Secret Points. This scheme placed a dot under the first letter of the legend on coins of Crémieu, under the letter for Romans. In the fifteenth century letters or symbols placed at the end of the legend indicating the mint were used in addition to Secret Points. In 1540, Francis I discontinued Secret Points in favor of a system of letters, A for Paris, B for Rouen, …, Z for Lyon, in the field. He also made it the rule for mint-masters to place their personal marks on coins and this was one of the few royal practices continued by the Republic of France. The mint letters continued until 1898 and the marks, supplemented by the mark of the Chief Engraver, are still used. Some Medieval English coins used mint names, when William III retired hammered coinage, branch mints which helped strike machine made coins to replace it put their initials below his bust. The Royal Mint established branches to coin sovereigns near the sources of gold and these issues show the initials of Sydney, Melbourne, Victoria, and Perth Australia as well as Canada, South Africa, and India. The privately owned Soho Mint obtained a contract to strike royal copper coins with steam presses and put its name on these coins and on coins it minted for other countries
5. Monumental inscription – A monumental inscription is an inscription, typically carved in stone, on a grave marker, cenotaph, memorial plaque, church monument or other memorial. The purpose of monumental inscriptions is to serve as memorials to the dead and those on gravestones are normally placed there by members of the deceaseds family. Those on memorial plaques inside a building are normally placed there by the wider community. Monumental inscriptions are important to genealogists and family historians, providing information on the life and death. Family connections can sometimes be resolved as members of the family may be buried together. In England, the Society of Genealogists has a large collection, the Commonwealth War Graves Commission has an online database of British and Commonwealth war graves and inscriptions. Behistun Inscription Chronogram Epitaph Monumental masonry Society of Genealogists Commonwealth War Graves Commission
6. Ostracon – An ostracon is a piece of pottery, usually broken off from a vase or other earthenware vessel. In an archaeological or epigraphical context, ostraca refer to sherds or even pieces of stone that have writing scratched into them. Anything with a surface could be used as a writing surface. But limestone sherds, being flaky and of a color, were most common. The importance of ostraca for Egyptology is immense, the combination of their physical nature and the Egyptian climate have preserved texts, from the medical to the mundane, which in other cultures were lost. These can often serve as witnesses of everyday life than literary treatises preserved in libraries. The many ostraca found at Deir el-Medina provide a compelling view into the medical workings of the New Kingdom. These ostraca have shown that, like other Egyptian communities, the workmen and inhabitants of Deir el-Medina received care through a combination of treatment, prayer. The ostraca from Deir el-Medina also differed in their circulation, magical spells and remedies were widely distributed among the workmen, there are even several cases of spells being sent from one worker to another, with no “trained” intermediary. There are also documents that show the writer sending for medical ingredients. From 1964–1971, Bryan Emery excavated at Saqqara in search of Imhoteps tomb, instead, apparently it was a pilgrim site, with as many as 1½ million ibis birds interred. This 2nd-century BC site contained extensive pottery debris from the offerings of the pilgrims. Emerys excavations uncovered the Dream Ostraca, created by a scribe named Hor of Sebennytos, a devotee of the god Thoth, he lived adjacent to Thoths sanctuary at the entrance to the North Catacomb and worked as a proto-therapist, advising and comforting clients. He transferred his divinely-inspired dreams onto ostraca, the Dream Ostraca are 65 Demotic texts written on pottery and limestone. In October 2008, Israeli archaeologist, Yosef Garfinkel of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, has discovered what he says to be the earliest known Hebrew text. This text was written on an Ostracon shard, Garfinkel believes this shard dates to the time of King David from the Old Testament, about 3,000 years ago. Carbon dating of the Ostracon and analysis of the pottery have dated the inscription to be about 1,000 years older than the Dead Sea Scrolls, the inscription has yet to be deciphered, however, some words, such as king, slave and judge have been translated. The shard was found about 20 miles southwest of Jerusalem at the Elah Fortress in Khirbet Qeiyafa, some Christian texts are preserved upon ostraca
7. Paliya – The Paliya or Khambhi is a type of a memorial found in western India especially Saurashtra and Kutch regions of Gujarat state of India. They are also found in Sindh region of Pakistan and they mostly commemorates the death of a person. These stone monuments have symbols and inscriptions, there are several types of memorials including dedicated to warriors, sailors, sati, animals and associated with folklore. They are important in ethnography and epigraphy, the word Paliya is may be derived from the Sanksrit root Pal, to protect. In Gujarati language, Pala means a group of soldiers in skirmish or army, the other forms include palia, pavaliyo, pario, palaa, paliu. They are also konwn as pariya in Parkari and loharti in Dahatki languages of Sindh, loharti may be derived from term Lohar which means iron-smith which were commissioned in past to engrave memorial stones instead of stone-engravers. The term may refer to tablet or stone engraved with hammer. Khambhi is derived from Sanskrit term Stambha which means a column and it is mostly used to refer memorial stone dedicated to people who end their lives or commit self-immolation. The tradition originated in Vedic period when the bodies were not cremated. The spot of burial were initially marked with stone and later stone circle which are found during excavations. Later the practice evolved into Lashti or a column with inscriptions which had names of persons, place. Four such Lashtis of Kshatrapa period found in Kutch are now at Kutch Museum, the practice evolved in various types of memorials across India such as stupa, cenotaphs, memorial temples. The types of memorials are found all over India such as hero stones in South India. They often carry inscriptions displaying a variety of adornments, including bas relief panels, frieze, in western India, it evolved into paliya or Khambhi which has similarities with hero stones of South India. Thousands of stone memorials are found across villages in Gujarat especially Kutch, the earliest memorials are found in Andhau village in Khavda, Kutch which dates back to 2nd century. The tradition became popular after 15th century and the number of stones are erected after that. Some tribal societies still erects stone memorials in the region and they are erected outskirt of villages and town mostly. They are also erected near battlefield or place of death if is dedicated to warrior, though they are found across India in various forms, they are commonly found in Saurashtra and Kutch region of Gujarat
8. Stele – A stele is a stone or wooden slab, generally taller than it is wide, erected in ancient Western culture as a monument. Grave steles were often used for funerary or commemorative purposes, Stelae as slabs of stone would also be used as ancient Greek and Roman government notices or as boundary markers to mark borders or property lines. The surface of the stele usually has text, ornamentation, or both, the ornamentation may be inscribed, carved in relief, or painted. Traditional Western gravestones may technically be considered the equivalent of ancient stelae. The most famous example of an inscribed stela leading to increased understanding is the Rosetta Stone, an informative stele of Tiglath-Pileser III is preserved in the British Museum. Two steles built into the walls of a church are major documents relating to the Etruscan language, unfinished standing stones, set up without inscriptions from Libya in North Africa to Scotland were monuments of pre-literate Megalithic cultures in the Late Stone Age. The Pictish stones of Scotland, often carved, date from between the 6th and 9th centuries. An obelisk is a kind of stele. The Insular high crosses of Ireland and Britain are specialized steles, totem poles of North and South America that are made out of stone may also be considered a specialized type of stele. Gravestones, typically with inscribed name and often with inscribed epitaph, are among the most common types of stele seen in Western culture. Most recently, in the Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe in Berlin, the memorial is meant to be read not only as the field, but also as an erasure of data that refer to memory of the Holocaust. Steles have been the medium of stone inscription in China since the Tang dynasty. Chinese steles are generally rectangular stone tablets upon which Chinese characters are carved intaglio with a funerary, commemorative and they can commemorate talented writers and officials, inscribe poems, portraits, or maps, and frequently contain the calligraphy of famous historical figures. During the Han dynasty, tomb inscriptions containing biographical information on deceased people began to be written on stone tablets rather than wooden ones, erecting steles at tombs or temples eventually became a widespread social and religious phenomenon. Emperors found it necessary to promulgate laws, regulating the use of funerary steles by the population, Steles are found at nearly every significant mountain and historical site in China. The First Emperor made five tours of his domain in the 3rd century BC and had Li Si make seven stone inscriptions commemorating and praising his work, of which fragments of two survive. One of the most famous mountain steles is the 13 m high stele at Mount Tai with the calligraphy of Emperor Xuanzong of Tang commemorating his imperial sacrifices there in 725. A number of stone monuments have preserved the origin and history of Chinas minority religious communities
9. Stoichedon – The stoichedon style of epigraphy was the practice of engraving ancient Greek inscriptions in capitals in such a way that the letters were aligned vertically as well as horizontally. It was the dominant style of inscription in Athens during the 5th and 4th centuries BCE and was the style for official state proclamations. The last stoichedon text dates from the 3rd century CE and is the inscription from the Heroon of Oenoanda in Lycia. The idiom was common in Latin epigraphy, a rare exception is the Sator square. This form of inscription is of particular interest to scholars of Greek epigraphy due to the chance it affords to reconstruct fragmentary texts, boustrophedon R. P Austin, The Stoichedon Style in Greek Inscriptions, Oxford,1938. M. J. Osborne, ZPE10,1973, 249-70, R. Thomas, Literacy and Orality in Ancient Greece, CUP,1992,88. A. G. Woodhead, The Study of Greek Inscriptions,1967, soichedon Style web-page on Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents, Oxford University