This category has the following 4 subcategories, out of 4 total.
This category has the following 4 subcategories, out of 4 total.
1. Greenland – Greenland is an autonomous constituent country within the Danish Realm between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America, Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe for more than a millennium. The majority of its residents are Inuit, whose ancestors began migrating from the Canadian mainland in the 13th century, Greenland is the worlds largest island. Three-quarters of Greenland is covered by the permanent ice sheet outside Antarctica. With a population of about 56,480, it is the least densely populated country in the world, the Arctic Umiaq Line ferry acts as a lifeline for western Greenland, connecting the various cities and settlements. Greenland has been inhabited off and on for at least the last 4,500 years by Arctic peoples whose forebears migrated there from what is now Canada, Norsemen settled the uninhabited southern part of Greenland beginning in the 10th century, and Inuit peoples arrived in the 13th century. The Norse colonies disappeared in the late 15th century, soon after their demise, beginning in 1499, the Portuguese briefly explored and claimed the island, naming it Terra do Lavrador. In the early 18th century, Scandinavian explorers reached Greenland again, to strengthen trading and power, Denmark-Norway affirmed sovereignty over the island. Greenland was settled by Vikings more than a thousand years ago, Vikings set sail from Greenland and Iceland, discovering North America nearly 500 years before Columbus reached Caribbean islands. Though under continuous influence of Norway and Norwegians, Greenland was not formally under the Norwegian crown until 1262, the Kingdom of Norway was extensive and a military power until the mid-14th century. Thus, the two kingdoms resources were directed at creating Copenhagen, Norway became the weaker part and lost sovereignty over Greenland in 1814 when the union was dissolved. Greenland became a Danish colony in 1814, and was made a part of the Danish Realm in 1953 under the Constitution of Denmark, in 1973, Greenland joined the European Economic Community with Denmark. However, in a referendum in 1982, a majority of the population voted for Greenland to withdraw from the EEC which was effected in 1985, Greenland contains the worlds largest and most northernly national park, Northeast Greenland National Park. Greenland is divided into four municipalities - Sermersooq, Kujalleq, Qaasuitsup and it also retains control of monetary policy, providing an initial annual subsidy of DKK3.4 billion, which is planned to diminish gradually over time. Greenland expects to grow its economy based on increased income from the extraction of natural resources, the capital, Nuuk, held the 2016 Arctic Winter Games. At 70%, Greenland has one of the highest shares of renewable energy in the world, the early Viking settlers named the island as Greenland. In the Icelandic sagas, the Norwegian-born Icelander Erik the Red was said to be exiled from Iceland for manslaughter, along with his extended family and his thralls, he set out in ships to explore an icy land known to lie to the northwest. After finding an area and settling there, he named it Grœnland
2. NunatuKavut – NunatuKavut is an unrecognized Inuit territory in Labrador. The NunatuKavut people are the descendants of the Inuit that lived south of the Churchill or Grand River prior to European contact, with European influence from Basque. Nunatuĸavut or NunatuKavut means Our ancient land in the ancestral Inuttut dialect of the NunatuKavummuit people, the Nunatuĸavut region encompasses Southern Labrador, from the Grand River south to Lodge Bay and west to the extent of the official border between Quebec and Labrador. However, the land use area is more extensive. In 1652, an Inuit community was recorded in what is now the Côte-Nord region of Quebec, in 1659, Jacques Fremin described an Inuit community at Cape St. Charles. Louis Fornel named the area from Alexis Bay to Hamilton Inlet the Coste des Eskimaux in 1743 and claimed there was Inuit living around St. Michaels Bay, Hawke Bay, Martin Bay, in 1763 Labrador was ceded to the Colony of Newfoundland. It included coastal area between the St. Johns River and Cape Chidley and was meant as extra fishing grounds for Newfoundland fishermen, Labrador has been created using territory from the French colony of New France and the British colony of Ruperts Land. Labrador was ceded back to New France and Ruperts Land in 1791, in 1825 Blanc-Sablon and territory to the west was ceded to Lower Canada however this region remains culturally close to NunatuKavut. In 1764, Jens Haven arrived at Quirpon, Newfoundland and to Chateau Bay and he was a missionary from the Moravian Church. Haven learned the Inuit language and explained to them that the Colony of Newfoundland wished to enter a relationship with them. Haven had previously worked in Greenland which is where he learnt the Greenlandic language, in 1765, Governor Sir Hugh Palliser signed the Labrador Treaty with Inuit leaders at Chateau Bay. The British would protect Labrador from French and American influence while the Inuit would have the right to self-government, harvest of wildlife, the Inuit had sided with the British during the Seven Years War and fought a battle against the French and Innu at Battle Harbour. The Inuit had previously had a relationship with the French. In 1741, the Inuit revolted against the French at Cape St. Charles, the Inuit were also known to attack Basque fishermen around the Strait of Belle Isle. The 1765 treaty ensured a peaceful relationship between the Inuit and the fishermen from England and Newfoundland, the Moravian Church set up missionary posts in northern Labrador since the British hoped to colonize the south. They restricted access by Europeans to territory between Cape Chidley and Cape Harrison which created a divide between the Inuit of the north and the Inuit of the south. The Moravians established one post south of Cape Harrison which was at Makkovik however a number of the Inuit in Makkovik were mixed race similar to the ones in the south. In 1810, an Englishman named William Phippard married an Inuk woman named Sarah, some other English fishermen started marrying Inuit woman as well during this time
3. Nunavut – Nunavut is the newest, largest, and northernmost territory of Canada. The creation of Nunavut resulted in the first major change to Canadas political map since the incorporation of the province of Newfoundland, Nunavut comprises a major portion of Northern Canada, and most of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Its vast territory makes it the fifth-largest country subdivision in the world, the capital Iqaluit, on Baffin Island in the east, was chosen by the 1995 capital plebiscite. Other major communities include the regional centres of Rankin Inlet and Cambridge Bay and it is Canadas only geo-political region that is not connected to the rest of North America by highway. Nunavut is the largest in area and the second least populous of Canadas provinces and territories. One of the worlds most remote, sparsely settled regions, it has a population of 35,944, mostly Inuit, spread over an area of just over 1,750,000 km2, Nunavut is also home to the worlds northernmost permanently inhabited place, Alert. A weather station farther down Ellesmere Island, Eureka, has the lowest average temperature of any Canadian weather station. Nunavut means our land in Inuktitut, Nunavut covers 1,877,787 km2 of land and 160,935 km2 of water in Northern Canada. This makes it the fifth largest subnational entity in the world, if Nunavut were a country, it would rank 15th in area. It also shares borders with Greenland and the provinces of Quebec, Ontario. Nunavuts highest point is Barbeau Peak on Ellesmere Island, the population density is 0.019 persons/km2, one of the lowest in the world. By comparison, Greenland has approximately the area and nearly twice the population. Nunavut experiences a climate in most regions, owing to its high latitude. In more southerly continental areas very cold climates can be found. The region now known as Nunavut has supported an indigenous population for approximately 4,000 years. Most historians identify the coast of Baffin Island with the Helluland described in Norse sagas, the materials were collected in five seasons of excavation at Cape Tanfield. Scholars determined that these provide evidence of European traders and possibly settlers on Baffin Island and they seem to indicate prolonged contact, possibly up to 1450. So you have to consider the possibility that as remote as it may seem, the ore turned out to be worthless, but Frobisher made the first recorded European contact with the Inuit
4. Inuvialuit Settlement Region – The Inuvialuit Settlement Region, located in Canada’s western Arctic, was designated in 1984 in the Inuvialuit Final Agreement by the Government of Canada for the Inuvialuit people. The ISR includes both Crown Lands and Inuvialuit Private Lands, the ISR is one of the four Inuit regions of Canada, collectively known as Inuit Nunangat, represented by the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami. The other regions include Nunatsiavut in Labrador, Nunavik in northern Quebec, the ISR is the homeland of the Inuvialuit. As of 2013 Nellie Cournoyea, former Premier of the Northwest Territories, is the Chairman of the Board, the Inuvialuit Settlement Region Database contains descriptions of thousands of publications and research projects about the ISR. It is maintained by the Joint Secretariat—Inuvialuit Renewable Resource Committees and the Arctic Science, funding comes from Shell Canada and MGM Energy. In the 2006 Canada Census, the ISR population was 5,767 people, of which 3,115 were Inuvialuit, there are no communities in the Yukon North Slope. Of the six communities in the ISR all are located in the Northwest Territories and, along with Fort McPherson and Tsiigehtchic, form the Inuvik Region. Inuvik, located on the East Channel of the Mackenzie Delta, approximately 100 km from the Arctic Ocean, is the administrative centre. The only other community, Aklavik, is located on the Peel Channel and is home to Aurora College. Hunting, fishing and trapping are the economic activities of Paulatuk, in Amundsen Gulfs Darnley Bay, and Sachs Harbour. Tuktoyaktuk, formerly known as Port Brabant, is set on Kugmallit Bay and it has the only deepwater port in the ISR. Ulukhaktok, formerly known as Holman, is located on the west coast of Victoria Island, printmaking has taken over as the primary source of income in recent years. English is spoken in the entire region, additionally, Siglitun is spoken in Paulatuk, Sachs Harbour and Tuktoyaktuk. Uummarmiutun is spoken in Inuvik and Aklavik, inuinnaqtun is spoken in Ulukhaktok and nowhere else in the Northwest Territories. Together they are grouped under Inuvialuktun, the Inuvialuit Renewable Resource Conservation and Management Plan sets the strategy for fish and wildlife management and conservation. Integrated management planning of the marine and coastal areas is described in the Beaufort Sea Integrated Management Planning Initiative. Wildlife includes Arctic char, Arctic fox, beluga whale, bearded seal, bowhead whale, caribou, moose, muskox, polar bear, ringed seal, and whitefish. Migratory bird management within the ISR is handled by policies, principles, there are several protected parks and bird sanctuaries in the ISR
5. Alaska North Slope – The Alaska North Slope is the region of the U. S. The region also includes the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, which itself has been the subject of controversy surrounding the possibility of petroleum drilling within its boundaries, the petroleum extracted from the region is transferred south by means of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System to Valdez on the Pacific Ocean. Under the North Slope is an ancient seabed – the source of the oil, within the North Slope, there is geological feature called the Barrow Arch – a belt of the kind of rock known to be able to serve as a trap for oil. It runs from the city of Barrow to a point just west of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. S, Alaska North Slope is a more expensive waterborne crude. Since 1987, Alaska North Slope crude production has been in decline, a pseudo Alaskan North Slope substitute, for example, could be created with a blend of 55% Bakken and 45% Western Canadian Select at a cost potentially far less than the ANS market price. They argue that there are opportunities for refineries capable of blending, delivering. Within the North Slope, only an active layer of the tundra thaws each season. On top of this permafrost, water flows to sea via shallow, braided streams or settles into pools, along the bottom of the Landsat 7 image on the right the rugged terrain of the Brooks Range mountains is snow-covered in places and exposed in others. Much of the region is located in North Slope Borough. org, North Slope Science Initiative official website North Slope of Alaska
6. Nunavik – Nunavik comprises the northern third of the province of Quebec, Canada in Kativik, part of the Nord-du-Québec region. Covering a land area of 443,684.71 km2 north of the 55th parallel, Nunavik means great land in the local dialect of Inuktitut and the Inuit inhabitants of the region call themselves Nunavimmiut. Until 1912, the region was part of the District of Ungava of the Northwest Territories, negotiations for regional autonomy and resolution of outstanding land claims took place in the 2000s. The seat of government would be Kuujjuaq, negotiations on better empowering Inuit political rights in their land are still ongoing. A flag for Nunavik was proposed by Nunavik artist and graphic designer Thomassie Mangiok during an April 2013 Plan Nunavik consultation in Ivujivik, the proposal was announced in the meeting and then through Nunatsiaq News, the explanation of design was also made available on YouTube. Nunavik is a vast territory, larger than the U. S. state of California and it lies in both the Arctic and subarctic climate zones. All together, about 12,000 people live in Nunaviks communities, Nunavik is separated from the territory of Nunavut by Hudson Bay to the west and Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay to the north. Nunavik shares a border with the Côte-Nord region of Quebec and the Labrador region of the province of Newfoundland, the Ungava Peninsula forms the northern two-thirds of the region. Nunavik has fourteen villages, the vast majority of residents are Inuit. The village population ranges from 2,375 to 195, there is a year-round air link to all villages and seasonal shipping in the summer and autumn. Parts of the interior of southern Nunavik can be reached using several trails which head north from Schefferville, there are three meteor craters in Nunavik, Pingualuit crater, Couture crater, and La Moinerie crater. The climate of Nunavik is a severe one dominated by the long, since this moderation exists in summer when the surrounding sea thaws, even those temperatures are subdued. Inukjuak for example has summer highs averaging just 13 °C with January highs of −21 °C and this is exceptionally cold for a sea-level settlement more than 1/3 from the North Pole en route to the Equator. Annual temperatures are up to 15 °C colder than marine areas of Northern Europe on similar parallels, areas less affected by summertime marine moderation have somewhat warmer temperatures and unlike the west coast, features marginal taiga due to summers being warmer than 10 °C in mean temperatures. Federal government geopolitical manoeuvrings forced several Inuit families to leave Nunavik in the 1950s, eight Inuit families from Inukjuak were relocated after being promised homes and game to hunt, but the relocated people discovered no buildings and very little familiar wildlife. Eventually, the Inuit learned the local beluga whale migration routes and were able to survive in the area, in 1993, the Canadian government held hearings to investigate the relocation program. The Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples issued a report the year entitled The High Arctic Relocation. The government paid $10 million CAD to the survivors and their families, the whole story is told in Melanie McGraths The Long Exile, A Tale of Inuit Betrayal and Survival in the High Arctic
7. St. Lawrence Island – St. Lawrence Island is located west of mainland Alaska in the Bering Sea, just south of the Bering Strait. The village of Gambell is located on the northwest cape,36 miles from the Chukchi Peninsula in the Russian Far East, the island is part of Alaska, but closer to Siberia than to the Alaskan mainland. St. Lawrence Island is thought to be one of the last exposed portions of the bridge that once joined Asia with North America during the Pleistocene period. It is the sixth largest island in the United States and the 113th largest island in the world, the United States Census Bureau defines St. Lawrence Island as Block Group 6, Census Tract 1 of Nome Census Area, Alaska. As of the 2000 census there were 1,292 people living on an area of 1,791.56 sq mi. The island is about 90 miles long and 8–22 miles wide, the island has no trees, and the only woody plants are Arctic willow, standing no more than a foot high. To the south of the island is a persistent polynya, formed when the winds from the north. The climate of Gambell is, The island contains two villages, Savoonga and Gambell, the two villages were given title to most of the land on St. Lawrence Island by the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act in 1971. As a result of having title to the land, the Yupik are legally able to sell the fossilized ivory, the island is now inhabited mostly by Siberian Yupik engaged in hunting, fishing, and reindeer herding. The St. Lawrence Island Yupik people are known for their skill in carving. The Arctic yo-yo may have evolved on the island, St. Lawrence Island was first occupied around 2,000 to 2,500 years ago by coastal people characterized by artifacts decorated in the Okvik style. Archaeological sites on the Punuk Islands, off the end of St. Lawrence Island, at Kukulik, near Savoonga. The Okvik decorative style is zoomorphic and elaborate, executed in a sometimes crude engraving technique, with greater variation than the Old Bering Sea, stone artifacts changed from chipped stone to ground slate, carved ivory harpoon heads are smaller and simpler in design. Prehistoric and early historic occupations of St. Lawrence Island were never permanent, with periods of abandonment and reoccupation depending on resource availability, famine was common, as evidenced by Harris lines and enamel hypoplasia in human skeletons. Travel to and from the mainland was common during calm weather, so the island was used as a hunting base, major archaeology sites at Gambell and Savoonga were excavated by Otto Geist and Ivar Skarland of the University of Alaska Fairbanks. Collections from these excavations are curated at the University of Alaska Museum on the UAF campus, the island was called Sivuqaq by the Yupik who lived there. It was visited by Russian/Danish explorer Vitus Bering on St. Lawrences Day, August 10,1728, the island was the first place in Alaska known to have been visited by European explorers. There were about 4,000 Central Alaskan Yupik and Siberian Yupik living in villages on the island in the mid-19th century
8. Nunatsiavut – Nunatsiavut /nuːˈnɑːtsiəvᵿt/ is an autonomous area claimed by the Inuit in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. The settlement area includes territory in Labrador extending to the Quebec border, in 2002, the Labrador Inuit Association submitted a proposal for limited autonomy to the government of Newfoundland and Labrador. It is also responsible for setting and conducting elections, the first of which was executed in October 2006, an election for the Ordinary Members of the Nunatsiavut Assembly was held on 4 May 2010. The Nunatsiavut Assembly was dissolved on 6 April in preparation for the election and its incumbent president is Johannes Lampe who assumed office in 2016. In Inuttut, Nunatsiavut means Our Beautiful Land and this name was ratified by the Labrador Inuit Constitution and passed by the Labrador Inuit Association in 2002. A primary objective of autonomy is for the preservation of the Inuit culture and language, Nunatsiavut is counted in the census as Division 11. The Labrador Inuit Association had filed a claim for portions of Labradorian land in 1977. In 1988, the Labrador Inuit Association, the government of Newfoundland and Labrador, an agreement-in-principle was achieved in 2001, and on 26 May 2004, the agreement was ratified by over 75% of eligible voters subject to the land claim. The agreement also includes 44,030 square kilometres of sea rights, although the Inuit will not own the whole area, they were granted special rights related to traditional land use, and they will own 15,800 square kilometres designated Labrador Inuit Lands. The agreement also establishes the Torngat Mountains National Park Reserve in the area of the land claim. Unspecified benefits for Inuit in Labrador not within the settlement area were part of the agreement. The agreement was ratified by the Labrador Inuit, the Legislative Assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador, and the Parliament of Canada, where it received Royal Assent on 23 June 2005. This day marked the transfer of power from the provincial government to the newly formed Government of Nunatsiavut to make their own laws relating to cultural affairs, education. In October 2006, Nunatsiavut held its first election to form a nine-member government, the land claim agreement provided for the establishment of the Government of Nunatsiavut to represent the residents of the land claim area and any Labrador Inuit living elsewhere in Canada. Nunatsiavut remained a part of Newfoundland and Labrador, but the Government of Nunatsiavut acquired the authority over health, education. Nunatsiavut operates under a government within the parliamentary system of Canada. The legislature of the government is based in Hopedale, and its centre is in Nain. It is subject to the Nunatsiavut Elections Act, there are currently two Inuit Community Corporations, NunaKatiget Inuit Community Corporation and Sivunivut Inuit Community Corporation, and 18 members in the Assembly
9. Seward Peninsula – The Seward Peninsula is a large peninsula on the western coast of the U. S. state of Alaska. It projects about 320 kilometers into the Bering Sea between Norton Sound, the Bering Strait, the Chukchi Sea, and Kotzebue Sound, just below the Arctic Circle, the entire peninsula is about 330 kilometers long and 145 km -225 km wide. Like Seward, Alaska, it was named after William H. Seward, the Seward Peninsula is a remnant of the Bering land bridge, a roughly thousand mile wide swath of land connecting Siberia with mainland Alaska during the Pleistocene Ice Age. This land bridge aided in the migration of humans, as well as plant, archeological discoveries throughout the Chukotka Peninsula and Seward Peninsula show proof that Inupiat people have been living in the region for thousands of years. Most of the peninsula is in the Nome Census Area, while still frequented by locals of neighboring communities, there are no longer year round residents in these locations. There is a United States Coast Guard LORAN station at Port Clarence, the U. S. Air Force operates a radar station at the Tin City site,7 miles southeast of Wales. The Seward Peninsula has several distinct geologic features, the Devil Mountain Lakes on the northern portion of the peninsula are the largest maar lakes in the world. They were formed over 21,000 years ago as the result of a steam explosion. The Killeak Lakes and White Fish Lake are also volcanic maar lakes of notable size on the northern Seward Peninsula, four mountain ranges line the southern side of the peninsula, the most prominent being the Kigluaik Mountains. The highest point in the range and the peninsula is the peak of 4, other mountain ranges on the Seward Peninsula include the Bendeleben Mountains, Darby Mountains, and York Mountains. The Lost Jim Lava Flow north of Kuzitrin Lake is a field formed roughly 1,000 to 2,000 years ago. Several geothermal hot springs are located throughout the peninsula, including Serpentine Hot Springs, Pilgrim Hot Springs, Granite Mountain, Elim, Clear Creek, the Seward Peninsula has several rivers. The largest include the Koyuk, Kuzitrin, Niukluk, Fish, Tubuktilik, Kiwalik, Buckland and these play a vital role in the subsistence lifestyles of many peninsula residents and ease travel, hunting, and fishing. Most peninsula rivers have at least a yearly run of several varieties of salmon, as well as Dolly Varden, Arctic Grayling, whitefish of various species, Northern Pike. Most rivers on the Seward Peninsula freeze in mid-October, spring break-up usually occurs in mid- to late May, the Seward Peninsula is the western-most limit of distribution for the Black spruce, Picea mariana, a dominant overstory species of the region. Alaskas reindeer herding was concentrated on Seward Peninsula ever since the first shipment of reindeer were imported there from eastern Siberia in 1892, however, in 1997 the domesticated reindeer joined the Western Arctic Caribou Herd on their summer migration and disappeared. Cape Prince of Wales, the westernmost point on the mainland of the Americas, is on the western tip, the cape is only 51 miles from Cape Dezhnev, the closest point on the Russian mainland. In August 2011 Russia announced a project to construct a rail tunnel under the Bering Strait