Category:Invasions by Russia
Pages in category "Invasions by Russia"
The following 13 pages are in this category, out of 13 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 13 pages are in this category, out of 13 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland – The campaign had two strategic objectives, to neutralize the Batavian fleet and to promote an uprising by followers of the former stadtholder William V against the Batavian government. The invasion was opposed by a combined Franco-Batavian army of equal strength. Tactically, the Anglo-Russian forces were initially, defeating the defenders in the battles of Callantsoog and the Krabbendam. Following a defeat at Castricum, the Duke of York, the British supreme commander, however, the expedition partly succeeded in its first objective, capturing a significant proportion of the Batavian fleet. The Dutch Republic, again ruled by the Orangists, had been a member of the First Coalition that opposed the revolutionary French Republic after 1792, the Dutch Republic was overthrown, the stadtholder fled the country to London, and the Batavian Republic was proclaimed. Despite the conquest of the old Republic in 1795, the war had not ended, the Netherlands had just changed sides and now fully participated in the continuing conflagration, France did not need its army so much as its naval resources, in which France itself was deficient. In 1796, under the new alliance, the Dutch started a programme of naval construction, manning the new ships was a problem, because the officer corps of the old navy was staunchly Orangist. People like the Hero of Doggerbank Jan Hendrik van Kinsbergen honourably withheld their services, the new navy was therefore officered by people like Jan Willem de Winter, who were of the correct political hue, but had only limited experience. This directly led to the debacles of the surrender at Saldanha Bay in 1796, at Camperdown the Batavian navy behaved creditably, but this did not lessen the material losses, and the Republic had to start its naval construction programme all over again. This programme soon brought the Batavian navy up to sufficient strength that Great Britain had to worry about its contribution to a threatened French invasion of England or Ireland. The First Coalition broke up in 1797, but Britain soon found a new ally in Emperor Paul I of Russia, the British, especially the Prime Minister, William Pitt the Younger, were eager to maintain this momentum by attacking at other extremes of the French empire. An added incentive was that a campaign against the Dutch had been a condition of the agreement with the Russians of 28 December 1798. In that agreement, Emperor Paul I had placed 45,000 Russian troops at the disposal of the Coalition in return for British subsidies. In return, Britain promised to pay a subsidy of ₤88,000, Great Britain would itself furnish 13,000 troops and supply most of the transport and naval-escort vessels. From the outset, the joint expedition that was now planned should not be a military affair. Pitt assumed that, like the Italian and Swiss populations, the Dutch would enthusiastically support the invasion against the French, the British forces were assembled in the vicinity of Canterbury under the command of Lieutenant-General Sir Ralph Abercromby. They were mostly made up of volunteers from the militia who had recently been permitted to join regular regiments, while a British transport fleet under Admiral Home Riggs Popham sailed to Reval to collect the Russian contingent, the mustering of the British troops progressed smoothly. The question was where this amphibious landing could best take place, several locations on the Dutch coast were considered
2. Russian conquest of the Caucasus – This article concerns the expansion of Russia into the region between the Black and Caspian Seas, mainly between 1800 and 1864. The main events were, The annexation of eastern Georgia south of the mountains in 1800 A series of wars against Turkey, Persia and local rulers to expand, There appears to be no full account of the western and northern area in any language. All dates in this use the old Russian calendar. For the Western calendar add 12 days for the century and 11 days for the eighteenth century. Russians first appeared in the Caucasus region in the 9th century when some Rus’ went down the Volga to trade around the shores of the Caspian Sea and this evolved into two great raids in 913 and 943. The last raid seems to have been in 1041, see Caspian expeditions of the Rus. Also at this time the Rus’ held Tmutarakan on the Taman Peninsula, from the mid 16th century there was an isolated group of Cossacks on the Terek River and by around 1550 Cossacks were established on the Don River. Astrakhan was conquered in 1556 giving Russia a base at the end of the Caspian Sea. They soon made an alliance with Kabardia and built a fort at the mouth of the Sunzha River, after about 1580 Russia disengaged from the Caucasus region for about 200 years, holding Astrakhan and slowly pushing settlement south toward the Black Sea. During the so-called Russo-Persian War Persian subjects fought Cossacks on the Sunzha River, in 1688 Stenka Razin raided the Caspian coast. During the Russo-Persian War Peter the Great conquered the west and south shore of the Caspian, in 1775, after a Russian explorer had died in captivity, Catherine sent a punitive expedition which briefly captured Derbent. During the Persian Expedition of 1796 Russia again conquered the west coast of the Caspian, underlying all of this was the slow and steady expansion of Russian population southward from its original heartland in Muscovy. By around 1800 Russia was in a position to push soldiers, Russia annexed eastern Georgia in 1800. By 1806 Tsitsianov had expanded this bridgehead from the Black Sea to the Caspian, in 1813 Persia was forced to recognize the loss of its northern territory, comprising modern-day southern Dagestan, eastern Georgia, and most of what is now the Azerbaijan Republic. In 1818-1826 Yermolov tightened the noose around the mountains, but much of this was soon lost, in 1828 Russia took what is modern-day Armenia, Nakhichevan, and Talysh from Persia. The two Turkish wars had few results, from the days of the Roman Empire Transcaucasia was usually a borderland between two empires, often centered in Constantinople and Persia. Areas would shift from one empire to the other, their rulers would have varying degrees of independence, local rulers were often vassals of one empire or the other, but this could vary from complete subjection to a few empty words. Much depended on the size and proximity of the suzerain’s army, by around 1750 the area was divided between Turkish and Persian vassals
3. Deluge (history) – The term Deluge denotes a series of mid-17th-century campaigns in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. During the wars the Commonwealth lost approximately one third of its population as well as its status as a great power. According to Professor Andrzej Rottermund, manager of the Royal Castle in Warsaw, as Rottermund claims, Swedish invaders robbed the Commonwealth of its most important riches, and most of the stolen items never returned to Poland. Warsaw, the capital of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, was destroyed by the Swedes. According to the 2012 Polish estimates, financial losses of Poland are estimated at 4 billion zlotys, Swedish invaders completely destroyed 188 cities and towns,81 castles, and 136 churches in Poland. In 1648 Bohdan Khmelnytsky led an uprising of Zaporozhian Cossacks and Ukrainian peasants discontented with the rule of Polish. In the summer of 1654, the Russians managed to capture most important cities, smolensk was captured after a siege on October 3,1654. The Swedish Empire, which already was at war with the Commonwealth. Following the Thirty Years War, the Swedish Empire emerged as one of the strongest nations on the continent and it had a large army but little money to pay its soldiers. The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, weakened by wars with the Cossacks and Tsardom of Russia, seemed like easy prey, also because its best soldiers had been massacred in the 1652 Battle of Batih. Furthermore, Swedes remembered claims to their throne by Polish kings Sigismund III Vasa and his sons Władysław IV Vasa and John II Casimir, an earlier conflict, the Polish–Swedish War had ended with the Treaty of Stuhmsdorf. Earlier, in 1643, John Casimir had become a member of the Jesuits and had received the title of Cardinal, however, some of the nobility supported Charles Gustav for the Polish–Lithuanian throne. They signed the Treaty of Kėdainiai, which envisaged the Radziwiłł princes ruling over two duchies carved out from the lands of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania under Swedish vassalage. Polish troops lacked gunpowder, cannons, and even food, which was stolen at local villages by the hungry soldiers, after an easy Swedish victory at the Battle of Ujście, Krzysztof Opaliński surrendered Greater Poland to Charles Gustav. On July 31,1655, the commanded by Arvid Wittenberg captured Poznań, and on August 20 near Konin, the armies of Wittenberg and Charles Gustav joined forces. On September 2, the Poles lost the Battle of Sobota, and on September 4, four days later, the Swedish army entered the Polish capital, becoming the first foreign army in Polish history to capture Warsaw. King Charles Gustav left a garrison in Warsaw, under Bengt Gabrielsson Oxenstierna, on September 16, the Swedes defeated Polish troops in the Battle of Żarnów, and the Polish forces gave up resistance and surrendered to the invaders. The Polish king headed towards Kraków on September 25, and then fled to Silesia, Kraków was left in the hands of Stefan Czarniecki, on October 3 Swedish forces once again defeated the Poles in the Battle of Wojnicz, which opened the road to Kraków
4. Occupation of Western Armenia – The occupation of Turkish Armenia by the Russian Empire during World War I began in 1915 formally ended by the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. It was sometimes referred to as the Republic of Van by Armenians, Aram Manukian of Armenian Revolutionary Federation was the de facto head until July 1915. It was briefly referred to as Free Vaspurakan, after a setback beginning in August 1915, it was re-established in June 1916. This provisional government relied on Armenian volunteer units, forming a structure after the Siege of Van around April 1915. Dominant representation was from the Armenian Revolutionary Federation, Aram Manukian, or Aram of Van, was the administrations most famous governor. During the Siege of Van, there were between 67,792 and 185,000 Armenians in the Van Vilayet, in the city of Van itself there were around 30,000 Armenians, but more Armenians from surrounding villages joined them during the Ottoman offensive. The conflict began on April 20,1915, with Aram Manukian as the leader of the resistance, in May, the Armenian battalions and Russian regulars entered the city and drove the Ottoman army out of Van. In July, two months of self-government under the leadership of Manougian, the conflict turned against the Armenians. The Ottoman Army, under Pasha Kerim, launched a counterattack in the Lake Van area and defeated the Russians at the Battle of Malazgirt, there were as many as 250,000 Armenians crowded into the city of Van. These people were the escapees from the established by Tehcir Law. Included many who broke away from the columns as they passed the vicinity on their way to Mosul. Armenians from this region retreated to the Russian frontier, during the counterattack, Manougian and Sampson Aroutiounian, president of the Armenian National Council of Tbilisi) helped refugees from the region to reach Echmiadzin. As a result of famine and fatigue, many suffered from disease. On 29 December 1915, the Dragoman of the Vice-Consulate at Van, according to the Armenian Bishop of Erivan, during the winter of 1915, the Ottoman forces retreated one more time. Aram Manukian returned to Van and re-established his post, the governor declared strict measures to prevent pillage and destruction of property in December 1915. Some threshing machines and flour mills resumed work in the district so that bakeries could reopen, at the turn of 1916, Armenian refugees returned to their homes, but the Russian government raised barriers in prevention. During 1916–17,8,000 to 10,000 Armenians were permitted to inhabit Van, one report said, Men are going in large numbers, caravans of those returning to the fatherland enter via Iğdır. Most of the refugees in the Erevan province returned to Van, the government confiscated Russian property, turning it into communal farms and dividing it among Armenian adult males
5. Russo-Georgian War – The Russo-Georgian War was a war between Georgia, Russia and the Russian-backed self-proclaimed republics of South Ossetia and Abkhazia. The war took place in August 2008 following a period of worsening relations between Russia and Georgia, both constituent republics of the Soviet Union. The fighting took place in the strategically important Transcaucasia region, which borders the Middle East and it was regarded as the first European war of the 21st century. The Republic of Georgia declared its independence in early 1991 as the Soviet Union began to fall apart, following the war, a joint peacekeeping force of Georgian, Russian, and Ossetian troops was stationed in the territory. Meanwhile, a stalemate developed in the region of Abkhazia. By August 1,2008, Ossetian separatists began shelling Georgian villages, to put an end to these deadly attacks and restore order, the Georgian Army was sent to the South Ossetian conflict zone on 7 August. Georgians took control of most of Tskhinvali, a separatist stronghold, Georgia later stated it was also responding to Russia moving non-peacekeeping units into the country. Russia accused Georgia of aggression against South Ossetia, and launched a land, air. Russian and Ossetian forces battled Georgian forces in and around South Ossetia for several days, Russian and Abkhaz forces opened a second front by attacking the Kodori Gorge held by Georgia. Russian naval forces blockaded part of the Georgian coast and this was the first war in history in which cyber warfare coincided with military action. An active information war was waged during and after the conflict. President of France Nicolas Sarkozy negotiated an agreement on 12 August. Russian forces temporarily occupied the Georgian cities of Zugdidi, Senaki, Poti, the South Ossetians destroyed most ethnic Georgian villages in South Ossetia and were responsible for an ethnic cleansing of Georgians. Russia recognised Abkhazia and South Ossetia as separate republics on 26 August, in response, Russia mostly completed its withdrawal of troops from Georgia proper on 8 October. In the aftermath, Russias international relations were largely unharmed, the war displaced 192,000 people and while many returned to their homes after the war,20,272 people remained displaced as of 2014. Russia has, since the war, occupied Abkhazia and South Ossetia in violation of the agreement of August 2008. In the tenth century AD, Georgia for the first time emerged as a concept in the territories where the Georgian language was used to perform Christian rituals. After the Mongol invasions of the region, the Kingdom of Georgia eventually was broken up into several kingdoms, in the nineteenth century, the Russian Empire gradually annexed the Georgian lands