Category:Iranian archaeological sites
Pages in category "Iranian archaeological sites"
The following 17 pages are in this category, out of 17 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 17 pages are in this category, out of 17 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
Numerous comparable burials have been found in neighboring western Mongolia. The tombs are Scythian-type kurgans, barrow-like tomb mounds containing wooden chambers covered over by large cairns of boulders and stones, the spectacular burials at Pazyryk are responsible for the introduction of the term kurgan, a Russian word of Turkic origin, into general usage to describe these tombs. The region of the Pazyryk kurgans is considered the site of the wider Pazyryk culture. The site is included in the Golden Mountains of Altai UNESCO World Heritage Site, the bearers of the Pazyryk culture were horse-riding pastoral nomads of the steppe, and some may have accumulated great wealth through horse trading with merchants in Persia and China. These finds were preserved when water seeped into the tombs in antiquity and froze, encasing the burial goods in ice, certain geometric designs and sun symbols, such as the circle and rosette, recur at Pazyryk but are completely outnumbered by animal motifs. Such specifically Scythian features as zoomorphic junctures—i.
e, the addition of a part of one animal to the body of another—are rarer in the Altaic region than in southern Russia. The stag and its relatives, figure as prominently in Altaic as in Scythian art, at Pazyryk too are found bearded mascarons of well-defined Greco-Roman origin, which were doubtless inspired by the Hellenistic kingdoms of the Cimmerian Bosporus. The first tomb at Pazyryk, barrow 1, was excavated by the archaeologist M. P. Gryaznov in 1929 and these finds are now exhibited at the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg. Craniological studies of samples from the Pazyryk burials determined that skulls were generally of Europoid type, rudenkos most striking discovery was the body of a tattooed Pazyryk chief, a thick-set, powerfully built man who had died when he was about 50. Parts of the body had deteriorated, but much of the tattooing was still clearly visible, subsequent investigation using reflected infrared photography revealed that all five bodies discovered in the Pazyryk kurgans were tattooed.
No instruments specifically designed for tattooing were found, but the Pazyryks had extremely fine needles with which they did miniature embroidery, the chief was elaborately decorated with an interlocking series of striking designs representing a variety of fantastic beasts. The best preserved tattoos were images of a donkey, a mountain ram, two monsters resembling griffins decorate the chest, and on the left arm are three partially obliterated images which seem to represent two deer and a mountain goat. On the front of the leg a fish extends from the foot to the knee. A monster crawls over the foot, and on the inside of the shin is a series of four running rams which touch each other to form a single design. The left leg bears tattoos, but these designs could not be clearly distinguished, in addition, the chiefs back is tattooed with a series of small circles in line with the vertebral column. This tattooing was probably done for therapeutic reasons, contemporary Siberian tribesmen still practice tattooing of this kind to relieve back pain.
The most famous undisturbed Pazyryk burial so far recovered is the Ice Maiden or Altai Lady found by archaeologist Natalia Polosmak in 1993 at Ukok, near the Chinese border. The find was a example of a single woman given a full ceremonial burial in a wooden chamber tomb in the fifth century BC
With a population estimated in the hundreds, it is very agrarian and rural in nature and has many mulberry trees. The roads in the village are dirt or rocky. The stanitsa is home to the ancient Scythian kurgan or burial mound of the 7th century BC where a Scythian gold stag was found and it is one of the most famous pieces of Scythian art, and is now in the Hermitage Museum in St Petersberg. Apart from the male body with his accoutrements, the burial included thirteen humans with no adornment above him. The kurgan was excavated by the Russian archaeologist N. I, hugh Honour and John Fleming, A World History of Art, 1st edn. 1982, London, page refs to 1984 Macmillan 1st edn. paperback, ISBN0333371852 Piotrovsky, Boris, et al. Excavations and Discoveries in Scythian Lands, in From the Lands of the Scythians, the Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, v.32, no. 5, available online as a series of PDFs
The hoard is often known as the Bactrian gold. The ornaments include necklaces set with stones, medallions. After its discovery, the hoard went missing during the wars in Afghanistan, until it was rediscovered, a new museum in Kabul is being planned where the Bactrian gold will eventually be kept. The heavily fortified town of Yemshi-tepe, just five kilometres to the northeast of modern Sheberghan on the road to Akcha, is half a kilometre from the now-famous necropolis of Tillia-tepe. Several coins dated up to the early 1st century CE, with none dated later, a silver coin was found in one of the tombs from the reigns of the Parthian king Mithridates II, who ruled c. The coin was found in tomb III, and was held in the hand of the defunct woman. An imitation gold coin of Parthian King Gotarzes I was found in the hand of the defunct woman in tomb 6. The fact that this coin is in gold, and not silver or bronze as is usually the case for Parthian coinage, the coin is counterstamped with the frontal depiction of what might have been a local chieftain.
The counterstamp was added so as to not damage the portrait of the Parthian king, a gold coin was found in tomb III showing the bust in profile of the wreath-crowned Roman Emperor Tiberius. On the reverse is an enthroned, sumptuously draped female figure holding a spray, coins of this type were minted in the city of Lugdunum in Gaul, between 16 and 21 CE. A Buddhist gold coin from India was found in tomb IV, on the reverse, it depicts a lion with a nandipada, with the Kharoshthi legend Sih vigatabhay. On the obverse, an almost naked man wearing an Hellenistic chlamys. The legend in Kharoshthi reads Dharmacakrapravata and it has been suggested that this may be an early representation of the Buddha. Finally, a worn coin has been identified as belonging to the Yuezhi chieftain Heraios. It is thought that the site belonged to Sakas, although some suggest the Yuezhi or eastern Parthians as an alternative, several of the artifacts are highly consistent with a Scythian origin, such as the royal crown or the polylobed decorated daggers discovered in the tombs.
Several of the defuncts exhibited ritual deformation of the skull, a practice which is documented among Central Asian nomads of the period. These pieces have much in common with the famous Scythian gold artifacts recovered thousands of kilometers west on the banks of the Bosphorus, a high cultural syncretism pervades the findings, however. The artifacts were intermixed with items coming from much farther and this seems to be a testimony to the richness of cultural influences in the area of Bactria at that time
The Issyk kurgan, in south-eastern Kazakhstan, less than 20 km east from the Talgar alluvial fan, near Issyk, is a burial mound discovered in 1969. It has a height of six meters and a circumference of sixty meters and it is dated to the 4th or 3rd century BC. A notable item is a cup bearing an inscription. The finds are on display in Astana, situated in eastern Scythia just north of Sogdiana, the kurgan contained a skeleton, warriors equipment, and assorted funerary goods, including 4,000 gold ornaments. Although the sex of the skeleton is uncertain, it may have been an 18-year-old Saka prince or princess. The richness of the burial items led the skeleton to be dubbed the man or golden princess. A likeness crowns the Independence Monument on the square of Almaty. Its depiction may be found on the Presidential Standard of Nursultan Nazarbayev, the Issyk inscription is not yet certainly deciphered, and is probably in a Scythian dialect, constituting one of very few autochthonous epigraphic traces of that language.
Harmatta, using the Kharoṣṭhī script, identifies the language as Khotanese Saka dialect spoken by the Kushans, towards an absolute chronology for the Iron Age of Inner Asia. History of Civilization of Central Asia, volume 2, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-1408-8, p.421 Archaeology magazine - Chieftain or Warrior Priestess
The Iranian peoples or Iranic peoples are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages. Proto-Iranians are believed to have emerged as a branch of the Indo-Iranians in Central Asia in the mid 2nd millennium BC. In the 1st millennium AD, their area of settlement was reduced as a result of Slavic, Germanic and Mongol expansions and many being subjected to Slavicisation. The Iranian peoples include Balochs, Gilaks, Mazanderanis, Pashtuns, Persians, Talysh people, the term Iran derives directly from Middle Persian Ērān and Parthian Aryān. The Middle Iranian terms ērān and aryān are oblique plural forms of gentilic ēr- and ary-, there have been many attempts to qualify the verbal root of ar- in Old Iranian arya-. The following are according to 1957 and linguists, Emmanuel Laroche, Old Iranian arya- being descended from Proto-Indo-European ar-yo-, meaning assembler. Harold Walter Bailey, ar- to beget, unlike the Sanskrit ā́rya-, the Old Iranian term has solely an ethnic meaning.
Today, the Old Iranian arya- remains in ethno-linguistic names such as Iran, Alan, Ir, in the Iranian languages, the gentilic is attested as a self-identifier included in ancient inscriptions and the literature of Avesta. The earliest epigraphically attested reference to the word occurs in the Bistun Inscription of the 6th century BC. The inscription of Bistun describes itself to have composed in Arya. As is the case for all other Old Iranian language usage, in royal Old Persian inscriptions, the term arya- appears in three different contexts, As the name of the language of the Old Persian version of the inscription of Darius I in the Bistun Inscription. As the ethnic background of Darius the Great in inscriptions at Rustam Relief and Susa, as the definition of the God of Iranians, Ohrmazd, in the Elamite version of the Bistun Inscription. In the Dna and Dse and Xerxes describe themselves as an Achaemenid, a Persian, son of a Persian, although Darius the Great called his language arya-, modern scholars refer to it as Old Persian because it is the ancestor of the modern Persian language.
The trilingual inscription erected by the command of Shapur I gives a clear description. The languages used are Parthian, Middle Persian, and Greek, tou Arianon ethnous despotes eimi, which translates to I am the king of the kingdom of the Iranians. In Middle Persian, Shapur says ērānšahr xwadāy hēm and in Parthian he says aryānšahr xwadāy ahēm, the Avesta clearly uses airiia- as an ethnic name, where it appears in expressions such as airyāfi daiŋˊhāvō, airyō šayanəm, and airyanəm vaējō vaŋhuyāfi dāityayāfi. In the late part of the Avesta, one of the homelands was referred to as Airyanəm Vaējah which approximately means expanse of the Iranians. The homeland varied in its range, the area around Herat
Solokha is the name of a witch in Rimsky-Korsakovs opera The Night Before Christmas. Solokha is a hamlet at 49. 969°N34. 330°E /49.969,34.330, the Solokha kurgan is on the left bank of the Dnieper,18 km from Kamianka-Dniprovska, opposite Nikopol, in eastern Ukraine. It has a height of 19 m and a diameter of about 100 m, the tomb is notable because it confirmed the historicity of an account of Herodotus. The intact lateral tomb yielded spectacular treasures and it contained the remains of a male ruler, completely covered in gold. He had been buried with his weapon bearer, a servant and he was armed with bronze greaves, a bronze helmet, and a sword in a sheath covered with gold sheets and a quiver covered in silver containing 80 bronze arrowheads. The most notable find in the grave, was a comb with an extremely detailed group of three fighting warriors worked in gold. The comb, as well as other finds, are part of the Hermitage Museums holdings of Scythian art, the site is in an area where according to Herodotus the royal Scythians buried their kings, the land of Gerrhos, corresponding approximately to the modern Zaporizhia Oblast.
Excavations and Discoveries in Scythian Lands, in From the Lands of the Scythians, the Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, v.32, no. 5, available online as a series of PDFs, schiltz, Véronique, Kelermès et Solokha, Les Dossiers darchéologie ISSN 1141-7137, no 259, 20-23. К идентификации погребений кургана Солоха //Тез, «Проблемы скифо-сарматской археологии Северного Причерноморья», посвящ. 95-летию со дня рождения профессора Б. Н. Гракова, Гребень из кургана Солоха в контексте династической истории Скифии //Эрмитажные чтения памяти Б. Б. Пиотровского. Щиты на золотом гребне из кургана «Солоха» //Проблемы ски-фо-сарматской археологии Северного Причерноморья, Гребень и фиала из кургана Солоха //СА. Объяснение изображений на драгоценных вещах из Солохи проф, Золотой гребень из кургана Солоха //VI чтения памяти профессора В. Д. Блаватского. Тезисы докладов 21-22 мая1999 г, Сцена охоты на чаше из кургана Солоха // V Боспорские чтения. Боспор Киммерийский и варварский мир в период античности и средневековья, Серебряная чаша из кургана Солоха // Боспорские исследования
Scythian Neapolis was a settlement that existed from the end of the 3rd century BC until the second half of the 3rd century AD. The archeological ruins sit on the outskirts of the present-day Simferopol and this city was the center of the Crimean Scythian tribes, led by Skilurus and Palacus. The town ruled over a kingdom, covering the lands between the lower Dnieper river and Crimea. In the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC, it was a city with a mixed Scythian-Greek population, strong defensive walls, Neapolis was destroyed halfway through the 3rd century AD by the Goths