Category:Islamic democracy activists
Pages in category "Islamic democracy activists"
The following 24 pages are in this category, out of 24 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 24 pages are in this category, out of 24 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Islamic democracy – Islamic democracy is a political ideology that seeks to apply Islamic principles to public policy within a democratic framework. Countries which fulfil the three basic features include Afghanistan, Iran, and Malaysia, the concepts of liberalism and democratic participation were already present in the medieval Islamic world. It can be viewed similar to how the minister is chosen in many nations. The legislative power of the Caliph was always restricted by the class, the ulama. Since the law came from the scholars, this prevented the Caliph from dictating legal results. Laws were decided based on the ijma of the Ummah, which was most often represented by the legal scholars, in order to qualify as a legal scholar, it was required that they obtain a doctorate known as the ijazat attadris wa l-ifttd from a madrasa. In many ways, classical Islamic law functioned like a constitutional law, legal scholar L. Ali Khan argues that Islam is fully compatible with democracy. In his book, A Theory of Universal Democracy, Khan provides a critique of liberal democracy and he presents the concept of fusion state in which religion and state are fused. There are no contradictions in Gods universe, says Khan, contradictions represent the limited knowledge that human beings have. According to the Quran and the Sunnah, Muslims are fully capable of preserving spirituality, Muslim democrats, including Ahmad Moussalli, argue that concepts in the Quran point towards some form of democracy, or at least away from despotism. These concepts include shura, ijma, al-hurriyya, al-huqquq al-shariyya, for example, shura may include electing leaders to represent and govern on the community’s behalf. This viewpoint, however, is disputed by more traditional Muslims, much debate occurs on the subject of which Islamic traditions are fixed principles, and which are subject to democratic change, or other forms of modification in view of changing circumstances. Some Muslims allude to an Islamic style of democracy which would recognize such distinctions, another sensitive issue involves the status of monarchs and other leaders, the degree of loyalty which Muslims owe such people, and what to do in case of a conflicting loyalties. According to the Shia understanding, Muhammad named as his successor, his son-in-law, the largest Shia grouping — the Twelvers branch — recognizes a series of Twelve Imams, the last of which is still alive and the Shia are waiting for his reappearance. Since the revolution in Iran, the largest Shia country, Twelver Shia political thought has been dominated by that of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the founder and leader of the revolution. Khomeini argued that in the absence of the Hidden Imam and other divinely-appointed figures, Muslims have not only the right, to that end they must turn to scholars of Islamic law who are qualified to interpret the Quran and the writings of the imams. Khomeini distinguishes between Conventional Fiqh and Dynamic Fiqh, which he believes to also be necessary, Khomeini divided the Islamic commandments or Ahkam into three branches, the primary commandments the secondary commandments and the state commandments. This list includes all commandments which relate to public affairs, such as constitutions, social security, insurance, bank, labour law, taxation, elections, congress, etcIslamic democracy – Islam
2. Anwar Ibrahim – Datuk Seri Anwar Ibrahim is a Malaysian politician who was Leader of the Opposition between 2008 and 2015. He is a founder and leading figure of the Peoples Justice Party, Anwar served as the Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia from 1993 to 1998 and Finance Minister from 1991 to 1998 when he was a member of UMNO, the major party in the ruling Barisan Nasional coalition. However, he was removed from his post by Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad and his prosecution has been criticised by human rights groups and several foreign governments, including the US, UK and Australia. Anwar is currently serving a prison sentence, commencing in 2015. From 1968 to 1971, as a student, Anwar was the president of National Union Of Malaysian Muslim Students, around the same time, he was also the president of University of Malaya Malay Language Society. In 1971, he was a member of the pro tem committee of Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia or Muslim Youth Movement of Malaysia which he co-founded, at the same time, he was elected as the 2nd President of the Malaysian Youth Council or Majlis Belia Malaysia. In 1974, Anwar was arrested during student protests against rural poverty and this came as a report surfaced stating that a family died from starvation in a village in Baling, in the state of Kedah, which was later demonstrated to be false. However the rubber tappers in Baling were experiencing severe hardship as the price of rubber dropped in 1974 and he was imprisoned under the Internal Security Act, which allows for detention without trial, and spent 20 months in the Kamunting Detention Centre. From 1975 till 1982 he served as a representative for Asia Pacific of World Assembly of Muslim Youth, Anwar was also the trustee for WAMY during the 1970s and early 1980s, and he appeared at many Muslim Brotherhood-linked conferences. Anwar Ibrahim is also the proud co-founder of International Institute of Islamic Thought in USA, Anwar has been one of 4 acting directors, board member of IIIT and a trustee. He was also a chancellor of International Islamic University Kuala Lumpur between 1983 and 1988, in 2011, he participated in the 2011 U. S. -Islamic World Forum with a large number of individuals tied to the Muslim Brotherhood. During his tenure as Education Minister, Anwar introduced numerous policies in the school curriculum. One of his changes was to rename the national language from Bahasa Malaysia to Bahasa Melayu. As the minister of education, Anwar was elected as the 25th President of UNESCOs General Conference, in 1988, Anwar Ibrahim became the second President of International Islamic University of Malaysia. In 1991, Anwar was appointed Minister of Finance, during his tenure as Finance Minister his impact was immediate, Malaysia enjoyed unprecedented prosperity and economic growth. Shortly after becoming Finance Minister, Euromoney named him as a top four finance minister, in the midst of Asian Financial Crises of 1997, Anwar was hailed for guiding Malaysia through the period of instability. He backed free market principles and highlighted the issue of the proximity of business and he advocated greater accountability, refused to offer government bail-outs and instituted widespread spending cuts. Towards the end of the 1990s, however, the relationship with Mahathir had begun to deteriorate, in Mahathirs absence, Anwar had independently taken radical steps, which were in direct conflict with Mahathirs policies, to change the countrys governing mechanismsAnwar Ibrahim – Yang Berbahagia Datuk Seri Anwar Ibrahim
3. Benazir Bhutto – Benazir Bhutto was the 11th Prime Minister of Pakistan and the leader of the centre-left Pakistan Peoples Party. She was the first woman to head a Muslim majority nation, born in Karachi, her father, Zulfikar, went on to serve as Pakistans prime minister in the 1970s. Benazir was educated at Harvard and at Oxford, also serving as the first Asian woman to preside over the Oxford Union, after the 1977 military coup which overthrew her fathers government, Benazir along with her family were repeatedly placed under house arrest. After her father was hanged in 1979 Benazir, along with her mother Nusrat, in 1984 Benazir, along with her family, left for London where she resided until 1988. After her return, Benazir successfully led the Peoples Party through the 1988 election, after winning support from a coalition government in the national assembly, Benazir assumed the Prime Ministers Office in December 1988. Benazir however struggled to control over power, marked by political. Benazirs government was dismissed on August 7,1990 by the then President who accused her administration of corruption, Benazir went on to once again lead her party through the 1990 election, however failed to win a parliamentary majority. Later in 2012, Pakistans Supreme Court would rule that the 1990 election was rigged by Pakistans Inter-Services Intelligence in favour of the conservative Islami Jamhoori Ittehad. Despite electoral fraud, Benazir served as the Leader of the Opposition until the government was also dismissed in 1996 over charges of corruption. Bhutto successfully led her party to victory in the 1993 parliamentary elections and her second term was marked with several controversies including the assassination of her brother Murtaza during a police encounter in Karachi. Her husband and cabinet member, Asif Ali Zardari, was indicted for the murder but later exonerated and her husband went on to serve eight years in prison while she led her party to an unsuccessful re-election campaign during the 1997 election. In 1998, Benazir went into self-exile to her estate in Emirates Hills in Dubai, in August 2003, a Swiss court convicted Benazir and Zardari of receiving kickbacks from a government contract with two Swiss companies. She returned to Pakistan on 18 October 2007 after she was granted amnesty on corruption charges as part of a controversial agreement, on 19 October 2007, Benazir returned to Karachi, where her campaign bus came under attack leaving dozens of her supporters dead, while she remained safe. Later that year Benazir was assassinated in an attack while leaving a campaign event in Rawalpindi. She was buried at the Bhutto family mausoleum in rural Sindh, Benazir left a deeply polarising legacy, her career has been celebrated as a triumph for women in the Muslim world and for the global fight against Islamic extremism. At the same time, she is accused of corruption and bad governance and her death was followed by the victory of Peoples Party led by her husband, Asif, and son Bilawal, with the former becoming Pakistans president in 2008. The Guardian, writing about Benazir, termed her a victim, as well as in part a culprit, writing her obituary, The New York Times referred her as a woman of grand aspirations with a taste for complex political maneuverings. Several universities and public buildings in Pakistan bear Benazirs name, while her career influenced a number of activists including Malala Yousafzai and she authored two books, named Daughter of the East and Reconciliation, Islam, Democracy, and the WestBenazir Bhutto – Benazir Bhutto بينظير بھٹو
4. Abdul Hadi Awang – Tuan Guru Dato Seri Haji Abdul Hadi bin Awang is a Malaysian politician who has been President of the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party, an Islamist political party in Malaysia, since 2002. He was Menteri Besar of Terengganu from 1999 to 2004, and he is the current state assemblyman for Rhu Rendang and Member of Parliament for Marang, at the international level, he has been appointed as the Vice President of the International Union of Muslim Scholars. Hadi received his education in the schools before continuing his studies at the Islamic University of Madinah between 1969 and 1973, and later at Al-Azhar University. Upon his return to Malaysia he joined ABIM in 1977, where he became the Selangor state chief for ABIM. A year later, Hadi joined PAS, under which he contested a seat in the 1978 general election. He quickly rose through the ranks and he became PAS Deputy President in 1989, when Fadzil Noor was elected to the party presidency. He remained Deputy President until 2002, when Fadzil died of a heart attack and he has been featured in the latest publication of “The Muslim 500, The World’s 500 Most Influential Muslims” under category of Preachers and Spiritual Guides for 2016 edition. He was said had written several books related to democracy and politics in Islam and also gives lectures every Friday morning at Rusila Mosque which draw thousands of peopleAbdul Hadi Awang – Yang Berhormat Tuan Guru Dato' Seri Haji Abdul Hadi Awang MP, MLA
5. Ali al-Hakim – Sayyid Ali al-Hakim is a high-ranking Shiite Ayatollah in Najaf, Iraq. Sayyid Ali al-Hakim is a member of the known and highly respected Hakim Family of Shiite scholars. Besides his studies in schools, he joined the Islamic Seminary at an early age in 1976. Sayyid Ali al-Hakim is the brother of Sayyid Jafar al-Hakim, who has visited the United States previously and he is also the nephew to Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Saeed Al-Hakim, one of the 4 main Grand Ayatollahs of Iraq. He has visited the Hakim Foundation in the United States, which is run by family member Ammar al-Hakim, during his early studies in the Islamic Seminary, al-Hakim faced harassment and intimidation from Baath party police and security forces. In particular al-Hakim was scrutinized because of his tendency to deliver seminars, in 1980, al-Hakim fled Iraq to Kuwait, and later Iran, to continue his seminary studies without facing repression by Saddam Husseins government. In 1994, Sayyid Ali al-Hakim completed the highest level of study in the Seminary, Bath al-Kharij and he then migrated to Lebanon where he found employment as a Professor, Researcher, and writer. Currently, he serves as the General Secretary of the Imam al-Hakim foundation, which he established in 2008Ali al-Hakim – Ayatullah Sayyid Ali Al-Hakim, the Director of Al-Hakim Foundation in Beirut, Lebanon
6. Jafar al-Hakim – Sayyid Jafar al-Hakim is a high-ranking Shiite Ayatollah in Najaf, Iraq. Sayyid Jafar al-Hakim is a member of the known and highly respected Hakim Family of Shiite scholars. Besides his studies in schools, he joined the Islamic Seminary at an early age in 1977. Sayyid Jafar al-Hakim is brother to Sayyid Ali al-Hakim and he continued his studies while imprisoned by Saddam Baath party for more than nine years. The studies, at that period of time, were under the supervision of a number of Shiite scholars and jurists who were in prison with him. On February 13,1991 through an attempt, he managed to escape from the prison of Saddam, following the Gulf War air strikes on Iraq. Besides teaching and supervising in other fields of such as, theology, theosophy, philosophy. For three years, he had held a seminar for intellectuals, where he addressed many educational, social and he is a lecturer, speaking on issues of religion and contemporary thought. He has participated in seminars and conferences, both on the local and international level, and has supervised weekly symposia for long periods outside of Iraq. He has visited the United States previously and delivered lectures on a variety of topics and he has visited the Hakim Foundation in the United States, which is run by family member Ammar al-HakimJafar al-Hakim – Jafar al-Hakim
7. Mohammad Khatami – Seyyed Mohammad Khatami is an Iranian scholar, Shia theologian, and reformist politician. He served as the fifth President of Iran from 3 August 1997 to 3 August 2005 and he also served as Irans Minister of Culture from 1982 to 1992. He was a critic of former President Mahmoud Ahmadinejads government. Little known until that point, Khatami attracted global attention during his first election to the presidency when he captured almost 70% of the vote, Khatami had run on a platform of liberalization and reform. Khatami is known for his proposal of Dialogue Among Civilizations, the United Nations proclaimed the year 2001 as the United Nations Year of Dialogue Among Civilizations, on Khatamis suggestion. On 8 February 2009, Khatami announced that he would run in the 2009 presidential election, on 16 March, he announced he was withdrawing from the race in favor of his long-time friend and adviser, former Prime Minister of Iran, Mir-Hossein Mousavi. In January 2010, Mohammad Khatami stated that he was not in the position to accept the award, Khatami was born on 29 September 1943, in the small town of Ardakan, in Yazd Province. Khatami holds the title of Sayyid, which means that he is a patrilineal descent from Muhammad. He married Zohreh Sadeghi, daughter of a professor of religious law. They have two daughters and one son, Leila, Narges, and Emad, Khatamis father, the late Ayatollah Ruhollah Khatami, was a high-ranking cleric and the Khatib in the city of Yazd in the early years of the Iranian Revolution. Like his father, Khatami rose to prominence when he became an Ayatollah. Khatamis brother, Mohammad-Reza Khatami, was elected as Tehrans first member of parliament in the 6th term of parliament and he also served as the secretary-general of Islamic Iran Participation Front for several years. Mohammad Reza is married to Zahra Eshraghi, granddaughter of Ruhollah Khomeini who is a feminist human rights activist, Khatamis eldest sister, Fatemeh Khatami, was elected as the first representative of the people of Ardakan in 1999 city council elections. Mohammad Khatami is not related to Ahmad Khatami, a hardline cleric and he studied there for seven years and completed the courses to the highest level, Ijtihad. After that, he went to Germany to chair the Islamic Centre in Hamburg from 1978 to 1980 and he is also a member and chairman of the Central Council of the Association of Combatant Clerics. Besides his native language Persian, Khatami speaks Arabic, English, running on a reform agenda, Khatami was elected president on 23 May 1997, in what many have described as a remarkable election. Despite limited television airtime, most of which went to conservative Speaker of Parliament and favored candidate Ali Akbar Nateq-Nouri, even in Qom, the center of theological training in Iran and a conservative stronghold, 70% of voters cast their ballots for Khatami. He was re-elected on 8 June 2001 for a second term, the day of his election,2 Khordad,1376, in the Iranian calendar, is regarded as the starting date of reforms in IranMohammad Khatami – Mohammad Khatami
8. Hussein-Ali Montazeri – Hussein-Ali Montazeri was an Iranian Shia Islamic theologian, Islamic democracy advocate, writer and human rights activist. He was one of the leaders of the Iranian Revolution in 1979, Montazeri spent his later years in Qom, and remained politically influential in Iran, especially to the reformist movement. He was widely known as the most knowledgeable senior Islamic scholar in Iran, for more than two decades, Hussein-Ali Montazeri was one of the main critics of the Islamic Republics domestic and foreign policy. He had also been an advocate of Bahai rights, civil rights. Montazeri was a writer of books and articles. He was a proponent of an Islamic state, and he argued that post-revolutionary Iran was not being ruled as an Islamic state. Born in 1922, Montazeri was from a peasant family in Najafabad and his early theological education was in Isfahan. After Khomeini was forced into exile by the Shah, Montazeri sat at the center of the network which Khomeini had established to fight the Pahlavi rule. He became a teacher at the Faiziyeh Theological School, while there he answered Khomeinis call to protest the White Revolution of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi in June 1963 and was active in anti-Shah clerical circles. He was sent to prison in 1974 and released in 1978 in time to be active during the revolution, Montazeri then went to Qom where he studied theology. Montazeri was famous as an Islamic jurist who was made to pay for his liberal-leaning beliefs and he was the author of Dirasat fi Vilayah al-Faqih, a scholarly book advocating the supervision of the administration by Islamic jurists. He believed in the independence of the government and did not accept any executive, Montazeri asserted that the rule of the jurisprudent should not be an absolute rule, instead, it should be limited to the function of advisor to the rulers, who are elected by the people. In 1979, following the overthrow of the Shah, he played a role in instituting Irans new constitution. He was one of the leaders of the movement to replace the democratic and he distributed a detailed commentary and alternate draft for Irans new constitution. Later he served on the Assembly of Experts that wrote the constitution, during this time, Montazeri also served as Friday prayer leader of Qom, as a member of the Revolutionary Council and as deputy to Supreme Leader Khomeini. Khomeini began to some of his power to Montazeri, in 1980. By 1983 all government offices hung a picture of Montazeri next to that of Khomeini. In 1984, Montazeri became a grand ayatollah, some observers believe Khomeini chose him for this role solely because of his support for Khomeinis principle of theocratic rule by Islamic juristsHussein-Ali Montazeri – Grand Ayatollah Hussein-Ali Montazeri
9. Yusuf al-Qaradawi – Yusuf al-Qaradawi is an Egyptian Islamic theologian based in Doha, Qatar, and chairman of the International Union of Muslim Scholars. He is best known for his programme الشريعة والحياة, al-Sharīʿa wa al-Ḥayāh, broadcast on Al Jazeera and he is also known for IslamOnline, a website he helped to found in 1997 and for which he serves as chief religious scholar. Al-Qaradawi has published more than 120 books, including The Lawful and he has also received eight international prizes for his contributions to Islamic scholarship, and is considered one of the most influential such scholars living today. As of 2004, al-Qaradawi was a trustee of the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies and he also served as a consultant scholar for an epic movie in English on Muhammad, and a 30-part series on the second caliph Umar b. al-Khațțāb. Al-Qaradawi was born in 1926 in Saft Turab village in the Nile Delta, now in Gharbia Governorate, Egypt and he became an orphan at the age of two, when he lost his father. Following his fathers death, he was raised by his uncle and he read and memorized the entire Quran by the time he was nine years old. He then joined the Institute of Religious Studies at Tanta, while in Tanta, Al-Qaradawi first encountered Hassan al Banna, the founder of the Muslim Brotherhood, when al Banna gave a lecture at his school. Al-Qaradawi has written of the impact of this encounter, describing al Banna as “brilliantly radiating. He moved on to study Islamic Theology at the Al-Azhar University in Cairo and he earned a diploma in Arabic Language and Literature in 1958 at the Advanced Arabic Studies Institute. He enrolled in the program in the Department of Quran and Sunnah Sciences of the Faculty of Religions Fundamentals. In 1962, he was sent by Al-Azhar University to Qatar to head the Qatari Secondary Institute of Religious Studies and he completed his PhD thesis titled Zakah and its effect on solving social problems in 1973 with First Merit and was awarded his PhD degree from Al-Azhar. In 1977, he laid the foundation for the Faculty of Shariah and Islamic Studies in the University of Qatar, in the same year he founded the Centre of Seerah and Sunna Research. His next appointment was in Algeria as Chairman of the Scientific Council of Islamic University and he returned to Qatar once more as Director of the Seerah and Sunnah Center at Qatar University, a post he still occupies today. He also serves as the chairman of International Union for Muslim Scholars and he was imprisoned under King Farouq in 1949, then three times during the reign of former President Gamal Abdul Nasser, until he left Egypt for Qatar in 1961. He returned to Egypt in 2011 in the wake of the 2011 Egyptian Revolution, on 2 August 2010, the bank was removed from a list of entities and individuals associated with Al Qaeda maintained by the Security Council. Al-Qaradawi finished 3rd in a 2008 poll on who was the leading public intellectual. The poll, Top 100 Public Intellectuals, was of the readers of Prospect Magazine, after the 2011 Egyptian Revolution, Qaradawi made his first public appearance in Egypt after 1981. In Tahrir Square, he led Friday prayers on 18 February and it began with an address of O Muslims and Copts, referring to Egypts Coptic Christian minority instead of the customary opening for Islamic Friday sermons O MuslimsYusuf al-Qaradawi – Islamic scholar Yusuf al-Qaradawi يوسف عبد الله القرضاوي
10. Hamid Bin Ahmad Al-Rifaie – H. E. Prof. Dr. Hamid Bin Ahmad Al-Rifaie is a Saudi activist and thinker, and president of the International Islamic Forum for Dialogue, and co-president of the World Muslim Congress. Al-Rifaie was born in 1940 in Busor Alharer village in the Huraan Region and his father, Sheikh Ahmed bin Zaal Beck Al-Rifaie, from leaders and dignitaries in Huraan. Was from the leader, and he was one of the few educated. His grandfather is Sheikh Zaal Beck Al-Rifaie, was from the leaders and he was of the pillars of the national revolution against the French, and the right-hand man Sheikh elders Huraan Sheikh Ismail Pasha Al-Rifaie Through and after a French mandate over Syria. In Chemistry and geology from University of Damascus and M. Sc. in industrial Organic Chemistry from Al-Azhar University and he was awarded his PhD degree in Organic Chemistry from Cairo University. Professor of industrial organic chemistry–King Abdul Aziz University, 1978-1998, member of Presidential institution, International Islamic Council for Da’wah and Relief. Co-President, Islamic-Catholic Liaison Committee – Vatican, member of Committee of the Islamic Coordination in the Organisation of the Islamic Conference. Member of the experts Committee for Strategic Studies at the Organisation of the Islamic Conference, vice President of the Islamic Information Committee. Member of the International Islamic Charity Commission, member of the International Commission on Scientific Signs in the Quran and the Sunnah. Member the World Council of the Religious Leaders, member Supreme Committee of AL-Risalah Channel. Member of the supreme council of the Mosques formerly. Prof. at King Abdul Aziz University formerly, member of several international organizations and commissions. ISBN 9960-56-837-7 Universality and Globalization, An Islam Perspective. ISBN 9960-47-798-3 Islam, ISBN 9960-47-801-7 Islam. and the common launching – Points of the Human Civilization. ISBN 9960-47-756-8 AL-WASATIYYAH AN ORTHODOX PIVOT FOR DIALOGUE OF CULTURES, ISBN 9960-47-799-1 AL-HADARA, COMPLEXITY OF TERMINOLOGY AND COMPLEXITY OF PERFORMANCE. ISBN 9960-52-906-1 AL-BAIAWIYAH AND AL- DIMOCRATIAH, ISBN 9960-9874-0-X Acquaintance & Human Safety. The Problem of Women and Society, by, Prof. Dr, with the help of God the Islamic-Catholic Liaison Committee held its ninth meeting in the Vatican, 19-20 January 2004, equivalent to 27-28 Dhu al-Qada 1424Hamid Bin Ahmad Al-Rifaie – Prof. Hamid AL-Rifaie
11. Mowaffak al-Rubaie – Dr Mowaffak Baqer al-Rubaie is a distinguished Iraqi statesman and active civil rights campaigner. He was appointed as a member of the 25 member Iraqi Governing Council by the Coalition Provisional Authority in July 2003. In April 2004, in recognition of his understanding of the risks and challenges faced by Iraq. He held this post for its full 5-year term until April 2009, when he was appointed as an MP in Iraqs Council of Representatives, a role he held until Parliaments dissolution in March 2010. While he was in exile in London from 1979 until 2003 and this policy however brought him into conflict with the Daawa hardliners in Tehran and for this reason Rubaie resigned from the Daawa Party in 1991 to become a leading independent opposition figure. Rubaie was a contributor to the widely acclaimed document, The Declaration of the Shia of Iraq. Many of the principles of this declaration were later incorporated into Iraqs new constitution of 2004 under the Interim Governing Council, Rubaie was instrumental in forging and executing Government policy by using the National Security Council as the mechanism to influence and direct the various Iraqi ministries. Indeed, Saudi Arabia rejected overtures from both Ibrahim al-Jaafari in 2006 and his successor in 2008 in preference for dealing with Rubaie, Rubaie was the candidate of choice in Iraqs negotiations with the rest of the Arab League, Iran and Nato. Rubaie was the interceder between the Iraqi and US sides in the handover of Saddam Hussain to the Iraqi authorities for execution, Rubaie showed Saddam mercy prior to his execution by requesting the guards loosen his handcuffs and personally received Saddams last wishes before his dispatch to the gallows. The nature of Saddams execution led to criticism of the exchanges between Saddam and some of the prison guards prior to his hanging. As a Muslim, Saddam, who refused to wear a hood, read his last Islamic rites and while in the middle of doing so the trapdoor was released and he was hung. Rubaie argued that Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki was making progress in stabilising Iraq, and he also met with supporters of the war, including Senator Joseph I. The award was made in order to recognize from the British side Dr Mowaffak Al Rubaie’s immeasurable contribution towards the peace and reconciliation process in Iraq. Rubaie was the architect of the U. S. –Iraq Status of Forces Agreement of 2008 which set the timeline for the US withdrawal from Iraq. He was personally commended for his role in the drawn out negotiations by General Ray Odierno. Website of the Center Party Source Watch Article The Way Out of Iraq, A Road MapMowaffak al-Rubaie – Mowaffak Baqer al-Rubaie, April 2007
12. Muqtada al-Sadr – Muqtada al-Sadr is an Iraqi Shia cleric, politician and militia leader. Muqtada al-Sadr is one of the most influential religious and popular figures in Iraq and he is of the prominent Sadr family originating from Jabal Amel in Lebanon but later settled in Najaf, his father-in-law being Mohammad Baqir al-Sadr. He is often styled with the honorific title Sayyid, but in early 2008 he was reported to be studying to be an ayatollah, which would greatly improve his religious standing. Muqtada al-Sadr is the son of a famous Iraqi Shia cleric. He is also the son-in-law of Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Baqir al-Sadr, Muqtada al-Sadr is of Iraqi and Iranian ancestry. Mohammed Sadeq al-Sadr, Muqtada al-Sadrs father, was a respected figure throughout the Shia Islamic world and he was murdered, along with two of his sons, allegedly by the government of Saddam Hussein. Muqtadas father-in-law was executed by the Iraqi authorities in 1980, Muqtada is a cousin of the disappeared Musa al-Sadr, the Iranian-Lebanese founder of the popular Amal Movement. In 1994, al-Sadr married one of Muhammad Baqir al-Sadrs daughters, Muqtada al-Sadr gained popularity in Iraq following the toppling of the Saddam government by the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Al-Sadr has on occasion stated that he wishes to create an Islamic democracy, the name refers to the Mahdi, a long-since disappeared Imam who is believed by Shia Muslims to be due to reappear when the end of time approaches. Many Iraqi supporters see in him a symbol of resistance to foreign occupation, the Mahdi army operated deaths squads that frequently killed Sunni civilians particularly during the civil war phase of the Iraq war. Shortly after the U. S. -led coalition ousted Saddam Hussein and his Baath regime and he subsequently stated that he had more legitimacy than the Coalition-appointed Iraqi Governing Council. He granted his first major Western television interview to Bob Simon of 60 Minutes, in which al-Sadr famously said Saddam was the little serpent, in May 2003, al-Sadr issued a fatwa that became known as the al-Hawasim fatwa. The fatwa alienated many members of his fathers movement, as well as mainstream Shiites. However, the fatwa strengthened his popularity among the poorest members of society and it has been claimed that the original fatwa was actually issued by al-Sadrs advisor Grand Ayatollah Kazem Husseini Haeri, and that al-Sadr was simply loyally issuing the same instruction. In late March 2004, Coalition authorities in Iraq shut down Sadrs newspaper al-Hawza on charges of inciting violence, Sadrs followers held demonstrations protesting the closure of the newspaper. On 4 April, fighting out in Najaf, Sadr City. Sadrs Mahdi Army took over several points and attacked coalition soldiers, killing dozens of foreign soldiers, during the first siege of Fallujah in late March and April 2004, Muqtadas Sadrists sent aid convoys to the besieged Sunnis there. Paul Bremer, then the US administrator in Iraq, declared on 5 April 2004, that al-Sadr was an outlaw and that day Al Sadr called for a jihad against coalition forcesMuqtada al-Sadr
13. Ezzatollah Sahabi – Ezzatollah Sahabi was an Iranian politician and journalist. He was a parliament member from 1980 to 1984, Sahabi was born on 9 May 1930 in Tehran, Iran. His father, Yadollah Sahabi, was a figure in the 1979 Iranian revolution. He studied mechanical engineering at the Faculty of Engineering Tehran University and he was appointed as a member of Council of Islamic Revolution by Ruhollah Khomeini on 12 February 1979. Mehdi Bazargan, then Prime Minister of Iran, named Sahabi as Head of National Budget Center and he was elected as a member of Parliament in election of 1980. He was well known as the leader of the Irans Nationalist-Religious political alliance, Sahabi spent a total of 15 years in prison both before and after the 1979 Islamic revolution. Sahabi was married to Zahra Ataei, whose uncle was Mehdi Bazargan. They had a son and a daughter, in April 2011, he was hospitalized in Persian Hospital. On 1 May 2011, Sahabi went into a coma after a stroke, on 31 May 2011, he died at age 81 in Modarres Hospital and his funeral was held the next day. Also the plain clothes heated and arrest of several mourners, according to an unnamed journalist present at the funeral, a large group of plainclothes and security forces present at the ceremony beat a number of mourners, including Haleh Sahabi. Haleh Sahabi reportedly collapsed after trying to stop authorities from removing her fathers body, according to Halehs uncle, the woman died due to the beating given to her, were severe. However, her son Shamekhi was forced into saying by the government that stated that his mother died not due to beatings, fars news agency denied there had been any clash with police and accused the opposition movement of seeking to politicise the incident. Intellectual movements in Iran Haleh Sahabi Hoda SaberEzzatollah Sahabi – Dr. Ezatollah Sahabi عزتالله سحابی
14. Haleh Sahabi – Haleh Sahabi was an Iranian humanitarian and democracy activist. She was the daughter of former Iranian MP and veteran opposition figure Ezzatollah Sahabi, and she died at her fathers funeral from cardiac arrest, the cause of her cardiac arrest however is disputed. Sahabi was born on 4 February 1958, in Tehran, Iran, daughter of Ezatollah Sahabi and she was married to Taghi Shamekhi and has a son named Yahya and two daughters, Amene and Asie. Sahabi was a member of the Mothers for Peace group and a campaigner for womens rights, on 5 August 2009 she was arrested along with others in front of the parliament during President Mahmoud Ahmadinejads second inauguration swearing-in ceremony. She was sentenced to two years in prison for spreading propaganda against the regime and disrupting public order, but given temporary release for her fathers funeral in May 2011. During the funeral of her father, Ezattollah Sahabi, Sahabi reportedly got into an argument with members of the Basij militia. According to her son Yahya Shamekhi, When we took the body of my grandfather out for the funeral ceremony, finally they forcefully grabbed the body and took it away. Then my mother fell down and became unconscious, the doctor told us she died because of a heart attack. Eyewitnesses, confirming that Sahabi was beaten by security forces, include Ahmad Montazeri and Hamed Montazeri and an unnamed journalist quoted by International Campaign for Human Rights in Iran. In an interview with the radio, Hamed Montazeri said that I did witness a member of the forces hitting Ms. Sahabi on her upper body. The offender hid in the soon after that. It has been the subject of speculation that her death may have due to the injuries inflicted on her lung. An anonymous person who claimed to be a surgeon tried to save her at the last moments in a clinic in Tehran said in a video posted on YouTube that When I visited this lady. I reject the cardiac arrest as the cause of death. I suppose that it should have been an internal bleeding, especially because she was so pale, I witnessed signs of beating on the left side of her abdomen right below her ribs, and guess that it should have been a severe injury to the spleen. She had the symptoms of acute abdomen, nevertheless, a final diagnosis could have made only through autopsy. However, later in an interview with Radio Farda, the denied that any doctor was involved in the efforts to save her at the clinic. On the other hand, the government insisted that Sahabi died of natural causes, the head of security at the Tehran governors office, Alireza Janeh, denied there were any clashes at the funeral and stated Sahabi had died of heart problems exacerbated by stress and hot weatherHaleh Sahabi – Haleh Sahabi هاله سحابی
15. Yousef Saanei – Yousef Saanei is an Iranian Twelver Shia cleric and politician, a chairman of the Islamic Republic of Irans powerful Guardian Council from 1980-83. Whether he is a Marja is disputed, Saanei was born in Neekabad, Isfahan Province, in 1937. He attended the Isfehan Seminary in 1946, then he joined the Qom Seminary in 1951 and graduated in 1955, and was thus awarded the commendation of Grand Ayatollah Borujerdi. He was further educated by Grand Ayatollah Khomeini and other leading theologians, in 1975, Saanei became a teacher at the Haghani School of Divinity. In 1980, he was appointed chairman of the Guardian Council, Saanei retired from the council in 1983 and has not held any political office since. According to the CBS GlobalPost, Saanei has been considered the successor of Grand Ayatollah Hussein-Ali Montazeri, in an interview with The San Francisco Chronicle, Grand Ayatollah Yousef Saanei said, There is complete consensus on this issue. It is self-evident in Islam that it is prohibited to have nuclear bombs and it is eternal law, because the basic function of these weapons is to kill innocent people. You cannot deliberately kill innocent people, he said and he has declared that women have equal status in Islam. Like Zohreh Sefati, he believes that women can become a marja in Islam. He is particularly noteworthy for issuing a fatwa in which he declared suicide bombing as haram and these rumours were reported as such by several internet news agencies. He is reported to have said during an August 12 speech at Gorgan that “Confession in prison and detention has not been and is not valid, all persons who have somehow been involved in issuing these confessions are sharing same sin. They will receive the retribution of their perfidious acts in this world and in a fair, having studied in clerical schools in Qom, Iraq and Tabriz, Sanei was raised fluent in the Persian, Arabic and Azerbaijani languages. According to one report, Saanei was likely to replace Hosein-Ali Montazeri as the leading opponent of the regime. Saanei declared the government illegitimate and warned that it cannot reverse the situation in the country with terror, killing, torture, the plainclothes militiamen broke the windows of Saneis office and insulted him and his staff and also beat up his staff. Police sided with the militia and prevented Sanei’s supporters from defending his office, There was no immediate official comment. The demonstration ended outside Saaneis home, Fars said, but it was not clear whether it was linked to the attack on Saneis house reported by the aforementioned reformist website. The demonstrators chanted The city of Qom is no city for hypocrites, one of the signatories, cleric Ahmad Panahian, said, The trenches of the hypocrites in Qom must be destroyed. On 3 October 2010, news sites linked with Iran’s political opposition movement reported that Saaneis website was blocked, according to The New York Times, Internet users who attempted to access themYousef Saanei – Yousef Saanei
16. Shah Ahmad Noorani – Shah Ahmad Noorani, was a Pakistani, Sunni-Barelvi Islamic scholar, mystic, philosopher, revivalist and an ultra–conservative politician. Ahmad Noorani was born in Meerut, British India, into an ultra-religious Urdu-speaking family on 1 October 1926 and his father, Abdul Aleem Siddiqi was also an Islamic scholar and had accompanied him on Islamic missionary tours to various parts of the world in his early youth. He received his BA degree in Arabic language from the Allahabad University and his family moved to Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan after the partition of India. He established World Islamic Mission in 1972 which is based in Mecca and he was elected as member of the National Assembly from Constituency NW-134 after participating in general elections held in 1970 on Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistans platform. The JUP is main Sunni Barelvi political party of Pakistan, second time he was elected as MNA from Constituency NA-167 in Pakistani general election,1977. Since then, his influence on national politics further grew and eventually becoming a Senator in 1980s, assuming the presidency of Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal, he was known to have use tough rhetoric against Musharraf and formed a public support against Musharrafs policies in the country. He is now buried in Abdullah Shah Ghazi Mausoleum in KarachiShah Ahmad Noorani – Ahmad Noorani in 1985.
17. Ali al-Sistani – He is described as the spiritual leader of Iraqi Shia Muslims and senior-most cleric in Shia Islam. Sistani was born in 1930 to a family of religious clerics, Sistani began his religious education as a child, first in Mashhad in his fathers hawzah, and continuing later in Qom. In 1951, Sistani traveled to Iraq to study in Najaf under Grand Ayatollah Abu al-Qasim al-Khoei, Sistani rose to the Usooli clerical rank of mujtahid in 1960. At the unusually young age of thirty-one, Sistani reached the level of clerical accomplishment, or ijtihad. When Grand Ayatollah Khoei died in 1992, Sistani ascended to the rank of Grand Ayatollah through traditional peer recognition of his scholarship and his role as successor to Khoei was symbolically cemented when he led funeral prayers for Khoei, he also inherited Khoeis network and following. His predecessor, Khoei, sat down with Saddam on state TV, as the summer of 2003 approached, Sistani and his followers began to petition the occupying forces for a constitutional convention. Later, Sistani called for a vote of the people for the purpose of forming a transitional government. Observers described the move as being a path leading directly to Shia political dominance over Iraqs government, subsequently, Sistani criticized plans for an Iraqi government for not being democratic enough. In early August,2004, Sistani experienced serious health related to a previously diagnosed heart condition. He traveled to London to receive medical treatment and it was, reportedly, the first time that Sistani had left Iraq in decades, and may have been due, in part, to growing concerns for his safety from sectarian violence. Sadr, who rose rapidly to prominence through a series of independent military actions beginning in 2004, has since actively challenged Sistanis more progressive influence over Shia in the region, with the participation of all Iraqis. Soon after, Sistani issued a fatwa alerting Shia women that they were obligated to participate in the election. In an issued statement Sistani remarked that, truly, women who go forth to the polling centers on election day are like Zaynab, who went forth to Karbala. Sistanis call for unity after the bombing of the mosque helped to control a dangerous situation. Sistani did the same when the mosque was bombed again in 2007. An alleged plot to assassinate Sistani was foiled on January 29,2007 and it is believed to have been part of a larger attack against a number of targets in Najaf. In an online poll,2005, Ali al-Sistani was selected as the 30th topmost intellectual person in the world on the list of Top 100 Public Intellectuals by Prospect Magazine. In June 2014 Sistani issued a fatwa calling for Citizens to defend the country, its people, the honor of its citizens, and its places, against Islamic State of IraqAli al-Sistani – Sistani in November 2009
18. Mohammad Tavasoli – Mohammad Tavasoli is an Iranian democracy activist and politician. He is the director of the office of the Freedom Movement. Tavasoli studied at Tehran University in 1956 and was one of the members of Anjoman-e Eslami and he joined the freedom movement soon after it was established. He went to Germany in 1962 to study transportation and traffic, after visiting the United States in 1967, he was returned to Iran and banned from traveling. He was arrested in 1971 because he helped a member of MEK and was jailed for one year, before the Iranian Revolution, he was one the staff responsible for the advertising campaign rally to welcome Ruhollah Khomeini back to Iran after 15 years. After the Iranian Revolution, he was elected as Mayor of Tehran and he was mayor from February 1979 until February 1980. He was jailed with Hashem Sabbaghian in 1983 but was released seven months later and he was jailed again after the 2009-2010 Iranian election protests after participating in a rally in June 2009. He was elected as the new leader of the Nationalist-Religious Coalition on 11 June 2011 after the leader, Ezatollah SahabiMohammad Tavasoli – Mohammad Tavasoli محمد توسلی