This category has the following 5 subcategories, out of 5 total.
This category has the following 5 subcategories, out of 5 total.
1. Arabic – Arabic is a Central Semitic language that was first spoken in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. Arabic is also the language of 1.7 billion Muslims. It is one of six languages of the United Nations. The modern written language is derived from the language of the Quran and it is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, which is the language of 26 states. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the standards of Quranic Arabic. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-Quranic era, Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics. As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Many words of Arabic origin are found in ancient languages like Latin. Balkan languages, including Greek, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has also borrowed words from languages including Greek and Persian in medieval times. Arabic is a Central Semitic language, closely related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages, particularly in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include, The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense, the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense. The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms, the development of an internal passive. These features are evidence of descent from a hypothetical ancestor. In the southwest, various Central Semitic languages both belonging to and outside of the Ancient South Arabian family were spoken and it is also believed that the ancestors of the Modern South Arabian languages were also spoken in southern Arabia at this time. To the north, in the oases of northern Hijaz, Dadanitic and Taymanitic held some prestige as inscriptional languages, in Najd and parts of western Arabia, a language known to scholars as Thamudic C is attested
2. Qurbani – Qurbānī, or uḍḥiyyah as referred to in Islamic law, is the sacrifice of a livestock animal during Eid al-Adha. The word is related to the Hebrew qorbān offering and Syriac qurbānā sacrifice, in Islamic law, udhiyyah would refer to the sacrifice of a specific animal, offered by a specific person, on specific days to seek Gods pleasure and reward. The word qurban appears thrice in the Quran, once in reference to animal sacrifice and twice referring to sacrifice in the sense of any act which may bring one closer to God. In contrast, dhabīḥah refers to normal Islamic slaughter outside the days of udhiyyah, Islam traces the history of sacrifice back to Abel and Cain, whose story is mentioned in the Quran. Abel was the first human being to sacrifice an animal for God, ibn Kathir narrates that Abel had offered a sheep whilst his brother Cain offered part of the crops of his land. The ordained procedure of God was that a fire would descend from the heavens, accordingly, a fire came down and enveloped the animal slaughtered by Abel thus accepting the sacrifice of Abel while Cains sacrifice was rejected. This led to jealousy on the part of Cain resulting in the first human death when he murdered his brother Abel, after much repentance and remorse, Cain was forgiven by God. The practice of qurbani can be traced back to Abraham, who dreamt that God ordered him to sacrifice his son, Abraham agreed to follow Gods command and perform the sacrifice, however, God intervened and informed him that his sacrifice had been accepted. Unlike the Bible, there is no mention in the Quran of an animal replacing the boy, from that day onward, every Eid al-Adha once a year, Muslims around the world slaughter an animal to commemorate Abrahams sacrifice and to remind themselves of abnegation. The philosophy behind udhiyyah is that it is a demonstration of submission to God, complete obedience to Gods will or command, Abraham demonstrated this spirit of submission and sacrifice in the best possible manner. When confronted with the challenge of love and allegiance, he chose to submit unconditionally to God and suppressed personal desire and love for his family and child. In Islam, the sacrifice of an animal is legal from the morning of the 10th to sunset of the 12th Dhu l-Hijjah, on these days Muslims all over the world offer Qurbani which means a sacrifice/ slaughter of an animal on specific days for the pleasure of Allah. It is understood as a repetition of Ibrahims sacrifice of a ram in place of his son, a crucial notion in Judaism. Most schools of fiqh accept that the animal must be slaughtered according to the laws of dhabihah, qorban Dhabihah Dušni Brav Principles of Udhiyyah
3. Umrah – The ʿUmrah is a pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, performed by Muslims that can be undertaken at any time of the year, in contrast to the Hajj. In Arabic, Umrah means to visit a populated place and it is sometimes called the minor pilgrimage or lesser pilgrimage, the Hajj being the major pilgrimage and which is compulsory for every able-bodied Muslim who can afford it. The Umrah is not compulsory but highly recommended, the pilgrim performs a series of ritual acts symbolic of the lives of Ibrahim and his second wife Hajar, and of solidarity with Muslims worldwide. These acts of faith are, Perform a tawaf طواف, which consists of circling the Kaaba seven times in an anticlockwise direction, men are encouraged to do this three times at a hurried pace, followed by four times, more closely, at a leisurely pace. Perform a sai سعي, which means rapidly walking seven times back and this is a re-enactment of Hajars frantic search for water. The baby Ishmael cried and hit the ground with his foot and this source of water is today called the Well of Zamzam. Perform a halq or taqsir, meaning a shaving of the hair, a taqsir is a partial shortening of the hair typically reserved for women who cut a minimum of one inch or more of their hair. A halq is a complete shave of the head, usually performed on men, both of these signify the submission of will to God over glorifying physical appearances. The head shaving/cutting is reserved until the end of Umrah and these rituals complete the Umrah, and the pilgrim can choose to go out of ihram. Although not a part of the ritual, most pilgrims drink water from the Well of Zamzam, various sects of Islam perform these rituals with slightly different methods. The peak times of pilgrimage are the days before, during and after the Hajj, there are two types of Umrah, depending on whether one wishes to combine the Umrah with Hajj, al-Umrat al-mufradah al-mustaqillah an al-Hajj and al-Umrat al-mundammah ila al-Hajj. Al-Umrat al mufradah refers to Umrah that is performed independently of Hajj, umrat al-tammatu refers to Umrah that is performed in conjunction with Hajj. More precisely, the rituals of the Umrah are performed first, both are Islamic pilgrimages, the main difference is their level of importance and the method of observance. Hajj is one of the five pillars of Islam and it is obligatory for every Muslim once in their lifetime, provided they are physically fit and financially capable. Hajj is performed during a designated Islamic month, however, Umrah can be performed at any time. Both seem similar in the start, Umrah can be performed in less than a few hours while Hajj is more time consuming, and involves more rituals. Throughout Muhammads era the Muslims wanted to establish the right to perform Umrah, during that time Mecca was occupied by Arab Pagans who used to worship idols inside Mecca. The first military campaign related to the Umrah was the Nakhla Raid ordered by Muhammad, when the Quraysh saw the shaven head of Ukkash, they thought that the group was on its way for pilgrimage and they felt relieved and began to set up camp