Pages in category "Israeli inventions"
The following 46 pages are in this category, out of 46 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 46 pages are in this category, out of 46 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Drip irrigation – It is done through narrow tubes that deliver water directly to the base of the plant. It is chosen instead of surface irrigation for various reasons, often including concern about minimizing evaporation, primitive drip irrigation has been used since ancient times. Fan Sheng-Chih Shu, written in China during the first century BCE, modern drip irrigation began its development in Germany in 1860 when researchers began experimenting with subsurface irrigation using clay pipe to create combination irrigation and drainage systems. Research was later expanded in the 1920s to include the application of perforated pipe systems, the usage of plastic to hold and distribute water in drip irrigation was later developed in Australia by Hannis Thill. Usage of a plastic emitter in drip irrigation was developed in Israel by Simcha Blass, instead of releasing water through tiny holes easily blocked by tiny particles, water was released through larger and longer passageways by using velocity to slow water inside a plastic emitter. The first experimental system of type was established in 1959 by Blass who partnered later with Kibbutz Hatzerim to create an irrigation company called Netafim. Together they developed and patented the first practical surface drip irrigation emitter, in the United States, the first drip tape, called Dew Hose, was developed by Richard Chapin of Chapin Watermatics in the early 1960s. Drip irrigation may also use devices called micro-spray heads, which spray water in a small area and these are generally used on tree and vine crops with wider root zones. Subsurface drip irrigation uses permanently or temporarily buried dripperline or drip tape located at or below the plant roots and it is becoming popular for row crop irrigation, especially in areas where water supplies are limited or recycled water is used for irrigation. Most large drip irrigation systems employ some type of filter to prevent clogging of the small flow path by small waterborne particles. New technologies are now being offered that minimize clogging, some residential systems are installed without additional filters since potable water is already filtered at the water treatment plant. Virtually all drip irrigation equipment manufacturers recommend that filters be employed, Drip and subsurface drip irrigation is used almost exclusively when using recycled municipal waste water. Regulations typically do not permit spraying water through the air that has not been treated to potable water standards. This is called fertigation, fertigation and chemigation use chemical injectors such as pumps, piston pumps. The chemicals may be added constantly whenever the system is irrigating or at intervals, Fertilizer savings of up to 95% are being reported from recent university field tests using drip fertigation and slow water delivery as compared to timed-release and irrigation by micro spray heads. In addition, drip can eliminate many diseases that are spread through contact with the foliage. Finally, in regions where water supplies are limited, there may be no actual water savings. In very arid regions or on sandy soils, the method is to apply the irrigation water as slowly as possible
2. IWI Tavor – The Tavor is an Israeli bullpup assault rifle chambered for 5. 56×45mm NATO ammunition with a selective fire system, selecting between semi-automatic mode and full automatic fire mode. It is produced by Israel Weapon Industries and it is produced in three main variants, the TAR-21, the CTAR-21, and the MTAR-21. In 2009, the Tavor was selected by the IDF to gradually replace the M16 rifle variants as the standard issued weapon of the Israeli infantry by the end of 2018, the first Tavor rifles were issued to infantry units in 2013, replacing the M-16 rifles. Israel Military Industries initiated the Tavor development team in 1995, under the direction of gun designer Zalmen Shebs, as a result, they hoped that the weapon would be officially adopted by the Israel Defense Forces. A long-stroke piston system, similar to found in the AK-47. The Tavor rifle uses a non-lubricated long-stroke piston system, as found in the M1 Garand, IMI Galil, like in the AK-47, the long-stroke piston mechanism contributes to the extreme forcefulness of the Tavors extraction and chambering. A long-stroke piston system may increase a weapons reliability in extreme conditions, the TAR-21 has ejection ports on both sides of the rifle so it can easily be reconfigured for right or left-handed shooters. However, this process requires partial disassembly, so it cannot be reconfigured while the rifle is in use. An issue related to this is the plastic cover on the unused ejection can allow gas to escape during the course of fire. Due to the design this vents right under the shooters face causing issues, such as inhaling ejection gases. The issue is exacerbated when the weapon is suppressed, the characteristic black smudge from this has been nicknamed Tavor face by some shooters. This has been addressed by various non-factory solutions which increase sealing of the unused port and its ambidextrous fire mode selector above the pistol grip has a semi-automatic mode and a fully automatic mode. The Tavor features a self-contained, drop-in trigger group, so that the group can be changed or replaced without the use of additional tools. The Tavor barrels are made from CrMoV steel and cold hammer-forged on the premises of the IWI factory in Ramat HaSharon, the barrel is chrome-lined for durability and corrosion resistance. The barrel features 6 grooves in a 178 mm twist, or 32 calibers right hand twist rate, the barrel is fitted with a birdcage style flash suppressor, which can be fully disassembled without the need of additional tools. The Tavor is primarily chambered for 5. 56×45mm NATO, although 9×19mm Parabellum and 5. 45×39mm Russian models are also available, the IDF uses both 3. 6-gram M193 and 4. 0-gram M8555. 56×45mm rounds. M193 rounds are used by regular infantrymen for better terminal effects at shorter distances, the TAR-21 accepts standard STANAG magazines. It can also be mounted with the M203 grenade launcher, the Tavor uses a bullpup configuration, in which the receiver, bolt carrier group and magazine are placed behind the pistol grip
3. Iron Dome – Iron Dome is a mobile all-weather air defense system developed by Rafael Advanced Defense Systems and Israel Aircraft Industries. Iron Dome was declared operational and initially deployed on 27 March 2011 near Beersheba, on 7 April 2011, the system successfully intercepted a Grad rocket launched from Gaza for the first time. On 10 March 2012, The Jerusalem Post reported that the shot down 90% of rockets launched from Gaza that would have landed in populated areas. By November 2012, official statements indicated that it had intercepted 400+ rockets, by late October 2014, the Iron Dome systems had intercepted over 1,200 rockets. Iron Dome is part of a future multi-tiered missile defense system that Israel is developing, hezbollah, based in Lebanon, fired rockets into northern Israeli population centers in the 1990s, posing a security challenge for the Israel Defense Forces. Israel had floated the idea of its own short-range antimissile system, in 2004, the idea for Iron Dome gained momentum with the installation of Brig. Gen. Daniel Gold as the head of the research and development bureau of the Israel Defense Forces. Gold was a backer of the antimissile project, even skirting army contracting regulations to secure financing. He also helped persuade key politicians to support the project, during the 2006 Second Lebanon War, approximately 4,000 Hezbollah-fired rockets landed in northern Israel, including on Haifa, the countrys third largest city. To the south, more than 8,000 projectiles were fired indiscriminately into Israeli population centers from Gaza between 2000 and 2008, principally by Hamas. Almost all of the rockets fired were Qassams launched by 122 mm Grad launchers smuggled into the Gaza Strip, nearly a million Israelis living in the south were within rocket range, posing a serious security threat to the country and its citizens. In February 2007, Defense Minister Amir Peretz selected Iron Dome as Israels defense against this short-range rocket threat, since then, the $210 million system has been developed by Rafael Advanced Defense Systems working jointly with the IDF. The first name I thought of was Anti-Qassam, but when the project started to move forward I realized it was problematic, I sat down with my wife, and together we thought of suitable names. She suggested the name Tamir for the missile, and for the system itself we thought of Golden Dome, the following Sunday, Tamir was immediately approved, but there was a problem with Golden Dome—it could be perceived as ostentatious. So it was changed to Iron Dome, the system is designed to counter short-range rockets and 155 mm artillery shells with a range of up to 70 kilometers. According to its manufacturer, Iron Dome will operate day and night, under adverse weather conditions, and can respond to multiple threats simultaneously. Iron Dome has three components, Detection & Tracking Radar, the radar system is built by Elta, an Israeli defense company and subsidiary of Israel Aerospace Industries. Battle Management & Weapon Control, the center is built for Rafael by mPrest Systems. Missile Firing Unit, the unit launches the Tamir interceptor missile, equipped with electro-optic sensors, the missile is built by Rafael
4. IWI Tavor X95 – The IWI X95, also dubbed Micro-Tavor and formerly MTAR-21, is an Israeli bullpup assault rifle, produced by Israel Weapon Industries. It is a derivative of the original IWI Tavor assault rifle. In November 2009 the X95 was selected as the standard issued weapon of the Israeli infantry. Initially MTAR-21 was a compact version of the IWI Tavor. It is considered by the manufacturers to be a separate family of assault rifles. The X95 can be distinguished from the Tavor TAR-21 by the location of the cocking handle. An X95 cocking handle is closer to the grip, while a TAR-21 pistol grip is closer to the muzzle. Additionally, a part of the X95 barrel shroud always comes with an integral Picatinny rail. The stock was also slightly redesigned, with the use of a relatively simple conversion kit, the X95 can be converted from a 5.56 mm assault rifle to a 9 mm submachine gun loaded with 20,25, and 32-round magazines. A suppressor can also be added to the weapon, as part of the 9 mm conversion kit, an integrated grenade launcher is currently being developed for the Micro Tavor. When configured to fire 9 mm rounds, the gun uses a blowback operation to eject and reload rounds and it is fed from Uzi magazines. A suppressor can be mounted that allows for the use of standard velocity 9 mm ammunition, the barrel is the same length as the rifle version, but has a 1,10 in rifling twist to stabilize heavy 9 mm bullets. Compared to the 890 mm long M4 carbine with a 370 mm barrel, X95 comes in a number of variants, X95330,5. 56×45mm assault rifle with 330 mm barrel and 580 mm overall length. X95380,5. 56×45mm assault rifle with 380 mm barrel and 640 mm overall length, X95419,5. 56×45mm assault rifle with 419 mm barrel and 670 mm overall length. X95-R330,5. 45×39mm assault rifle with 330 mm barrel and 580 mm overall length, X95-R419,5. 45×39mm assault rifle with 419 mm barrel and 670 mm overall length. X95 SMG, 9×19mm submachine gun with 279 mm barrel and 580 mm overall length. X95-S SMG, 9×19mm submachine gun with 279 mm barrel, integrated suppressor,7.62 NATO, In March 2013, it was reported that IWI would be making an X95 Tavor chambered in 7. 62×51mm NATO. Under IWI license, Zittara, Indian locally produced version of the X95 modified to use the local 5. 56×30mm MINSAS cartridge, Fort-224 Ukrainian locally produced version of the X95-R330 manufactured by the RPC Fort
5. Merkava – The Merkava is a main battle tank used by the Israel Defense Forces. The tank began development in 1973 and entered service in 1978. Four main variants of the tank have been deployed and it was first used extensively in the 1982 Lebanon War. The name Merkava was derived from the IDFs initial development program name, design criteria include rapid repair of battle damage, survivability, cost-effectiveness and off-road performance. Following the model of contemporary self-propelled howitzers, the assembly is located closer to the rear than in most main battle tanks. With the engine in front, this layout is intended to grant additional protection against an attack, especially for the personnel in the main hull. It also creates more space in the rear of the tank that increased storage capacity. This allows the tank to be used as a platform for medical disembarkation, a command and control station. The rear entrances clamshell-style doors provide overhead protection when off- and on-loading cargo and it was reportedly decided shortly before the beginning of the 2006 Lebanon War that the Merkava line would be discontinued within four years. On August 16,2013, Israeli Defense Minister Moshe Yaalon announced the decision to resume production of the Merkava main battle tank for the IDF Armored Corps, in 1965, Israels military establishment began research and development on a domestically produced tank, the Sabra. Initially, Britain and Israel collaborated to adapt the United Kingdoms Chieftain tank that had entered British Army service in 1966, however, in 1969, Britain decided not to sell the tank to Israel for political reasons. By 1974, initial designs were completed and prototypes were built, after a brief set of trials, work began to retool the Tel HaShomer ordnance depot for full-time development and construction. After the new facilities were completed, the Merkava was announced to the public in the International Defense Review periodical, the first official images of the tank were then released to the American periodical Armed Forces Journal on May 4,1977. The IDF officially adopted the tank in December 1978, the first Merkava Mk.1 tanks were supplied to the IDF in April 1979, nearly nine years after the decision to produce the Merkava Mk.1 tank was taken. The lead organization for system integration of the Merkavas main components is Israel Military Industries, the Israeli Ordnance Corps are responsible for final Merkava assembly. More than 90% of the Merkava 4 tanks components are produced locally in Israel by Israeli defense industries, bental Industries, a TAT Technologies subsidiary, produced the brushless motors used in the Mark IVs turret and gun control system. The Merkava Mark I and II were armed with a 105 mm M68 gun. The Mark III, Mark III Dor Dalet BAZ kassag, each model of the Merkava has two roof mounted 7.62 mm machine guns for use by the commander and loader and another mounted co-axially with the main gun
6. Python (missile) – The Rafael Python is a family of air-to-air missiles built by the Israeli weapons manufacturer Rafael Advanced Defense Systems, formerly RAFAEL Armament Development Authority. Originally starting with the Shafrir series, the Shafrir-1 missile was developed in 1959, subsequently, the missiles were given the western name of Python by the parent company for export purposes, starting with the Python-3 in 1978. Since then, it has further developed and evolved into the Python-4, Python-5, Derby and also, the SPYDER. Currently, the missiles are in service with the forces of over fifteen countries from around the world. In the 1950s, the Israeli Air Force submitted requirements for a domestically-made air-to-air missile, to promote domestic defense industry, Rafael Armament Development Authority was contracted to develop the Shafrir in 1959. The improved Shafrir-2 was soon introduced in 1971, it proved to be one of the most successful, during the 1973 Yom Kippur War, the IAF launched 176 Shafrir-2 missiles, destroying 89 enemy aircraft. The Shafrir-2 was exported along with Israeli-made aircraft to South American countries, after the Shafrir-2, the new missiles made by Rafael were given the western name of Python. This is why the next missile built by Rafael in early 1970s was named Python-3, the Python-3 has improved range and all-aspect attack ability, it proved itself before and during the 1982 Lebanon War, destroying 35 enemy aircraft. The Peoples Republic of China was impressed with its performance and license-built the Python-3 as the PiLi-8 AAM, further improvements on the Python-3 lead to the development of Python-4 in mid-1980s, which had limited fire-and-forget ability but added the option for helmet-sight guidance. In the 1990s Rafael started development on the Python-5 AAM, which was equipped with an advanced electro-optical imaging seeker with lock-on after-launch ability, the new missile was show-cased in 2003 Paris Air Show, and intended for service with IAF the F-15I Raam and the F-16I Sufa. It can lock on to targets after launch, even when they are up to 100 degrees off the boresight of the launching aircraft, the Shafrir-1 was developed in 1959–1964 to fulfill IAFs requirement for a domestic air-to-air missile. It was intended to build the domestic defense industrys abilities, the fear on foreign dependence was later proven when France banned arms export to Israel. The Shafrir-1 was intended for use on French-built Mirage jets, the first testing took place in France in 1963. However the missiles performance was so poor that they started on the next improved version. Length,250 cm Span,55 cm Diameter,14 cm Weight,65 kg Guidance, IR Warhead,11 kg blast explosive, the Shafrir-2 was credited with 89 kills in the 1973 Yom Kippur War. During its whole life, it is credited with a total of 106 kills. Length,250 cm Span,55 cm Diameter,15 cm Weight,93 kg Guidance, the Python-3 is a much-improved AAM with all-aspect attack ability, higher speed, range, and performance. It performed well before and during the 1982 Lebanon War, scoring 35 kills, chinas PLAAF was quite impressed with this missile, and paid for licensed production as the PL-8 AAM in the 1980s
7. Rummikub – Rummikub is a tile-based game for two to four players, combining elements of the card game rummy and mahjong. There are 104 number tiles in the game and two jokers, Players have 14 or 16 tiles initially and take turns putting down tiles from their racks into sets of at least three, drawing a tile if they cannot play. In the Sabra version, the first player to use all their tiles scores a positive score based on the total of the players hands. An important feature of the game is that players can work with the tiles that have already been played, Rummikub was invented by Ephraim Hertzano, a Romanian-born Jew, who immigrated to Israel in the 1940s. He hand-made the first sets with his family in the backyard of his home, Hertzano sold these sets door-to-door and on a consignment basis at small shops. Over the years, the family licensed it to other countries, in 1977, it became a bestselling game in the United States. Hertzanos Official Rummikub Book, published in 1978, describes three different versions of the game, American, Sabra and International, modern Rummikub sets include only the Sabra version rules, with no mention of the others, and there are variations in the rules between publishers. The game was first made by Lemada Light Industries Ltd, founded by Hertzano in 1978, Rummikub is similar to Vatikan, a game of central European origin played with two decks of cards and one joker per player. Rummikubs main component is a pool of tiles, consisting of 104 number tiles, the number tiles range in value from one to thirteen in four colors. Each combination of color and number is represented twice, Players each have a rack to store tiles without revealing the face of the tiles to the other players. The following explanation is based on the rules in the 1998 Pressman American edition, each player draws and reveals one tile. The player whose tile has the highest number value will start the game, Tiles are returned to the pool, and players collect 14 random tiles and arrange them on their racks. Play begins with the player and proceeds in a clockwise direction. For a players first move, he must play a set with a value of at least 30 points, point values are taken from the face value of each tile played, with the joker assuming the value of the tile it is being used in place of. A player may not use other players tiles to make the initial meld, if a player cannot make an initial meld, he must pick up a single tile from the pool and add it to his rack. Play then proceeds to the next player, once a player has made his initial meld, he can, on each turn, play one or more tiles from his rack, making or adding to groups and/or runs. If the player play any tiles, he must pick a tile randomly from the pool. All tiles in play must be arranged in sets of at least three tiles, the two valid set types are called runs and groups, Composed of three or more, same-colored tiles, in consecutive number order
8. Trophy (countermeasure) – Trophy is a military active protection system for vehicles. It intercepts and destroys incoming missiles and rockets with a shotgun-like blast, Trophy is the product of a ten-year collaborative development project between the Rafael Advanced Defense Systems and Israel Aircraft Industries Elta Group. Its principal purpose is to supplement the armour of light and heavy armored fighting vehicles, as of 2012 the system was being integrated onto Israeli Merkava main battle tanks. The design includes the Elta EL/M-2133 F/G band fire-control radar with four flat-panel antennas mounted on the vehicle, when a projectile is detected, the internal computer calculates an approach vector almost instantly, before it arrives. Once the incoming weapon is classified, the computers calculate the optimal time. The response comes from two rotating launchers installed on the sides of the vehicle which fire neutralizing agents, usually small metal pellets like buckshot, the system is designed to have a very small kill zone, so as not to endanger personnel adjacent to the protected vehicle. The system is designed to work against all types of missiles and rockets. The system can engage several threats arriving from different directions, is effective on stationary or moving platforms. Newer versions of the include a reloading feature for multiple firings. The Trophy development plan includes an enhanced countermeasures unit to be available in the future for protection against kinetic energy penetrators, the primary role of Trophy is defence against missile strikes, particularly for lighter armored personnel carriers, which are very vulnerable to rocket attacks. The reduction in size due to omission of the armor would improve the ability to navigate urban areas. A new version called Trophy Light was unveiled by Rafael Advanced Defense Systems at Britain’s DSEi 2007, while the standard Trophy was designed for main battle tanks, Trophy Light is designed for integration with light and medium armoured vehicles, such as Rafaels Golan. The system is also being evaluated for the protection of Israel Navy fast patrol boats and it is expected to be about half the weight and volume of the standard Trophy and cost less. According to Rafael Advanced Defense Systems, the development will only design and engineering work on the launcher/loader. In June 2014, Rafael unveiled Trophy LV, an application of the system designed to offer protection to light military vehicles such as jeeps. It weights 200 kilograms, significantly less than other Trophy applications, Rafael will act as the main contractor and system developer and integrator, and IAI and IMI will be subcontractors providing the radar and interceptor respectively. Unlike the Trophys interception method of metal pellets that spread over a wide area, the Defense Ministry had pushed the companies to work together and combine their systems. Trophy has been evaluated with extensive testing on a Stryker vehicle for possible adoption by the US Army, the U. S. Department of Defense had contracted with Raytheon to develop an equivalent system, Quick Kill, possibly causing reluctance to buy Trophy
9. Uzi – The Uzi pronunciation, /ˈuːzi/ is a family of Israeli open-bolt, blowback-operated submachine guns. Smaller variants are considered to be machine pistols, the Uzi was one of the first weapons to use a telescoping bolt design which allows the magazine to be housed in the pistol grip for a shorter weapon. The first Uzi submachine gun was designed by Major Uziel Gal in the late 1940s, the prototype was finished in 1950. First introduced to IDF special forces in 1954, the weapon was placed into general issue two years later. The Uzi has found use as a defense weapon by rear-echelon troops, officers, artillery troops and tankers. The Uzi has been exported to over 90 countries, over its service lifetime, it has been manufactured by Israel Military Industries, FN Herstal, and other manufacturers. From the 1960s through the 1980s, more Uzi submachine guns were sold to military, law enforcement. The open bolt design exposes the breech end of the barrel, however, it means that since the bolt is held to the rear when cocked, the receiver is more susceptible to contamination from sand and dirt. It uses a telescoping bolt design, in which the bolt wraps around the end of the barrel. This allows the barrel to be moved far back into the receiver, the weapon is constructed primarily from stamped sheet metal, making it less expensive per unit to manufacture than an equivalent design machined from forgings. With relatively few moving parts, the Uzi is easy to strip for maintenance or repair, the magazine is housed within the pistol grip, allowing for intuitive and easy reloading in dark or difficult conditions, under the principle of hand finds hand. The pistol grip is fitted with a safety, making it difficult to fire accidentally. However, the protruding vertical magazine makes the gun awkward to fire when prone, the Uzi features a bayonet lug. The non-reciprocating charging handle on the top of the cover is used to retract the bolt. Variants have a safety mechanism which will catch the bolt and lock its movement if it is retracted past the magazine. When the handle is fully retracted to the rear, the bolt will cock on the sear mechanism, the cover will remain forward during firing since it does not reciprocate with the bolt. The military and police versions will fire immediately upon chambering a cartridge as the Uzi is an open bolt weapon, there are two external safety mechanisms on the Uzi. The first is the selector lever located at the top of the grip
10. USB flash drive – USB flash drives are typically removable and rewritable, and physically much smaller than an optical disc. Most weigh less than 30 grams, since first appearing on the market in late 2000, as with virtually all computer memory devices, storage capacities have risen while prices have dropped. As of March 2016, flash drives with anywhere from 8 to 256 GB are frequently sold, storage capacities as large as 2 TB are planned, with steady improvements in size and price per capacity expected. Some allow up to 100,000 write/erase cycles, depending on the type of memory chip used. USB flash drives are used for the same purposes for which floppy disks or CDs were once used, i. e. for storage, data back-up. They are smaller, faster, have thousands of times more capacity, additionally, they are immune to electromagnetic interference, and are unharmed by surface scratches.44 MB3. 5-inch floppy disk. The USB connector may be protected by a cap or by retracting into the body of the drive. Most flash drives use a standard type-A USB connection allowing connection with a port on a personal computer, USB flash drives draw power from the computer via the USB connection. Some devices combine the functionality of a media player with USB flash storage. Pua Khein-Seng from Malaysia is considered by many to be the Father of Pen Drive and he is notable for incorporating the worlds first single chip USB flash controller. Pua hails from Sekinchan, Selangor, Malaysia, pua founded Phison Electronics based in Taiwan with four other partners and is believed to have produced the worlds first USB flash drive with system-on-chip technology. Competing claims have made by Singaporean company Trek Technology and Chinese company Netac Technology, Both Trek Technology. Trek won a Singaporean suit, but a court in the United Kingdom revoked one of Treks UK patents, Trek Technology and IBM began selling the first USB flash drives commercially in 2000. IBMs USB flash drive became available on December 15,2000, in 2000, Lexar introduced a Compact Flash card with a USB connection, and a companion card read/writer and USB cable that eliminated the need for a USB hub. That is considerably slower than what a hard drive or solid-state drive can achieve when connected via the SATA interface. Transfer rates may be given in megabytes per second, megabits per second, or in optical drive multipliers such as 180X.1, which is limited to 12 Mbit/s with accounted overhead. The effective transfer rate of a device is significantly affected by the access pattern, for example. Like USB2.0 before it, USB3.0 dramatically improved data rates compared to its predecessor
11. Epilator – An epilator is an electrical device used to remove hair by mechanically grasping multiple hairs simultaneously and pulling them out. The way in which epilators pull out hair is similar to waxing, although unlike waxing, aside from the spring in early spring-type epilators, there are no parts in epilators that require regular replacement. Epilators come in corded, rechargeable and battery-operated designs, the battery-operated devices can be used wet or dry. Epilation can be painful to some people because, as with waxing, because of the pain involved being particularly bad on the first epilation of an area, some people prefer to have the area professionally waxed first, then use epilation to remove regrowth. The first type of epilator was the original Epilady released in Israel, the design incorporated a coil spring, which was bowed into a curve such that the coils on one side of the spring were squeezed tightly together while on the other side the coils were spread apart. The motor in the epilady rotated the spring, causing it to flex as it rotated, moving the rotating spring across the skin caused the hairs to be caught up in the spring and pulled out the hair. Because the springs flexed continuously, they were subject to failure and were sold separately as a replacement part. Today, there are manual epilators designed for the face, that do not use a power supply and this design consists simply of a coil spring with two handles. The spring is then bowed into a curve and placed upon the unwanted facial hair whilst turning the handles and this caused the hairs to be caught between the coils of the springs and pulled out from the roots. The Remington Lady Remington Smooth and Silky was designed to operate in a way to the spring type Epilady. It was the subject of patent litigation in Europe due to a conceptual similarity to the spring type epilator. The UK patent infringement case is known as Improver Corporation v Remington Consumer Product Limited F. S. R, the rotating disc design has been refined such that, in modern designs, the plates are no longer complete discs. The head of a modern epilator incorporates a series of plates mounted in a plastic housing. The ends of the plates may be exposed at one or both sides of the housing, as the head rotates, the tips of the plates move together and apart once per revolution. This creates an effect, where the hair between the plates, when they close, is pulled as the plates rotate away from the skin. This allows a cycle of gripping, pulling, extracting and discarding the hair as the epilator is moved across the skin. Depending upon the strength and brittleness of the hair, some may snap off rather than being pulled out. Because those hairs snap off just above the surface, they can look somewhat like stubble from shaving
12. Given Imaging – Given Imaging is an Israeli medical technology company that manufactures and markets diagnostic products for the visualization and detection of disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Until March 2014, it was dual-listed on both the NASDAQ and the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange, where it was a component of the TA-100 Index, in March 2014 it was acquired by Covidien and became a private company. Given Imaging pioneered the capsule endoscopy technology and has also developed capsule-based pH monitoring, through Sierra Scientific Instruments, a subsidiary, Given Imaging also provides an array of diagnostic modalities including high-resolution manometry and ambulatory reflux monitoring. Given Imagings technology is marketed in over 60 countries. Today Elron still holds 28% Given Imagings shares, the idea for the solution was developed by Dr. Iddan, while working in the missile division of Rafael, where he envisioned that missile technology could be miniaturized to create a medical product. In October 2001, Given Imaging had an Initial public offering on NASDAQ under ticker GIVN. )In September 2004, M2A capsule re-branded PillCam SB. S. marketing clearance and in June 2007, Second-generation PillCam ESO2 received U. S. In February 2014, 100% of Given Imagings shares were purchased by Covidien, no bowel preparation or sedation is needed. PillCam ESO provides a clinically proven, time-efficient and patient-friendly method for visualization of the esophagus, in May 2010, Given Imaging released a new manually guided GI scope based on PillCam swallowable devices. The Bravo pH Monitoring System is a catheter-free ambulatory pH test, ambulatory pH testing is considered the gold standard for pH measurement and monitoring of gastric reflux, helping clinicians manage gastroesophageal reflux disease. Featuring data collection for up to 96 hours, Bravo allows patients to maintain their regular diets and activities, an average esophageal study can be completed in 10 minutes or less. The ManoScan 360 can be upgraded to incorporate an array of diagnostic modalities including manometry with impedance as well as anorectal, additionally, Sierra Scientific offers the Polygraf ID stationary gastrointestinal function testing platform and the Digitrapper ambulatory pH monitoring system. The companys corporate headquarters, research and development laboratories, and manufacturing facilities are located in Yokneam and it maintains offices in Duluth, Georgia and Hamburg, Germany. Additional sales and marketing offices are located in France, Japan, Australia, the company also has a plant in Ireland. Given Imagings wholly owned subsidiary, Sierra Scientific Instruments, is located in Los Angeles, California, science and technology in Israel Health care in Israel List of Israeli inventions and discoveries Silicon Wadi Startup Village, Yokneam Given Imaging Official Web Site