This category has the following 7 subcategories, out of 7 total.
Pages in category "Jewish art"
The following 25 pages are in this category, out of 25 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
This category has the following 7 subcategories, out of 7 total.
The following 25 pages are in this category, out of 25 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Beit She'arim National Park – Beit Shearim is the currently used name for the ancient Jewish town of Bet Shearāyim or Kfar Shearāyim. The Arabic name of the hill it stands on is Sheikh Ibreik or Sheikh Abreik, another Arabic name is bayt al-ġurabāʾ. The partially excavated archaeological site consists mainly of a necropolis of rock-cut tombs. The site is managed by the National Parks Authority as the Beit Shearim National Park and it borders the town of Kiryat Tivon on the northeast and is located five kilometres west of Moshav Beit Shearim. It is situated 20 km east of Haifa in the foothills of the Lower Galilee. In 2015 it was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the rationale of the committee was as follows, The towns vast necropolis, carved out of soft limestone, contains more than 30 burial cave systems. Although only a portion of the necropolis has been excavated, it has been likened to a book inscribed in stone, the wealth of artistic adornments contained in this, the most ancient extensive Jewish cemetery in the world, is unparalleled anywhere. According to Moshe Sharon, following Yechezkel Kutscher, the name of the city was Bet Shearayim or Kfar Shearayim. The ancient Yemenite Jewish pronunciation of the name is also Bet Shearayim, the popular orthography for the Hebrew word for house, בֵּית, is beit, while the traditional King James one is beth, the effort being now to replace both with the etymologically better suited bet. Pottery shards discovered at the site indicate that a first settlement there dates back to the Iron Age, Beit Shearayim was founded at the end of the 1st century BCE, during the reign of King Herod. The Roman Jewish historian Josephus Flavius, in his Vita, referred to the city in Greek as Besara, the Galilee earthquake of 363 did damage Bet Shearayim, but without long-lasting effects. After the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, the Sanhedrin moved to Beit Shearayim, the town is mentioned rabbinical literature as an important center of Jewish learning during the 2nd century. Rabbi Judah the Prince, head of the Sanhedrin and compiler of the Mishna, in the last seventeen years of his life, he moved to Sepphoris for health reasons, but planned his burial in Beit Shearim. According to tradition, he owned there land he received as a gift from his friend, the most desired burial place for Jews was the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem, but in 135 CE, when Jews were barred from the area, Beit Shearim became an alternative. While it was thought that Bet Shearayim was destroyed during the Jewish revolt against Gallus in the mid-4th century. An earthquake in 386 caused some damage, but the town recovered and enjoyed prosperity during the era of Byzantine rule, almost 300 inscriptions primarily in Greek, but also in Hebrew, Aramaic, and Palmyrene were found on the walls of the catacombs containing numerous sarcophagi. From the beginning of the Early Islamic period, settlement was sparse, excavations uncovered 75 lamps dating to the period of Umayyad and Abassid rule over Palestine. A large Abbasid-period glassmaking facility from the 9th century was found at the site
2. Beth Alpha – Beth Alpha or Bet Alpha or Bet Alfa is a sixth-century synagogue located at the foot of the northern slopes of the Gilboa mountains near Beit Shean, Israel. It is now part of Bet Alfa Synagogue National Park and managed by the Israel Nature, the Beth Alpha synagogue was uncovered in 1928 by members of the nearby Kibbutz Hefzibah, who stumbled upon the synagogue’s extensive mosaic floors during irrigation construction. Excavations began in 1929 under the auspices of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and were led by Israeli archaeologist, a secondary round of excavations, sponsored by the Israel Antiquities Authority in 1962, further explored the residential structures surrounding the synagogue. In addition, a hoard of 36 Byzantine coins were found in a depression in the floor apse. Architectural remains from the Beth Alpha synagogue indicate that the synagogue once stood as two-story basilical building and contained a courtyard, vestibule, the Torah Ark within the apse was aligned southwest, in the direction of Jerusalem. The northern entryway features two dedicatory inscriptions in Aramaic and Greek, although partially destroyed, the Aramaic inscription indicates that the synagogue was built during the reign of Roman Emperor Justinus, probably Justin I, and was funded by communal donations. The Greek inscription thanks artisans “Marianos and his son Hanina, ” whom were listed as the artisans of the nearby Beth Shean synagogue. The inscriptions are flanked on either side by a lion and a buffalo, the northern panel depicts the “Binding of Isaac”. To the right, Abraham is depicted dangling Isaac over the altar as he raises his hand to perform the sacrifice. In the center, God, symbolized by the small fire- encircled hand appearing in the upper center, instructs Abraham to sacrifice a nearby ram instead of Isaac. The hand of God is aptly labeled with “al tishlah” or “do not raise, in the lower center of the composition, immediately below the hand of God, the ram that served as Isaac’s substitute is positioned standing sideways, trapped in the nearby thicket. All the figures in the scene, except for the two servants, are identified with Hebrew labels, the iconographic significance of the “Binding of Isaac” is unclear. In contemporaneous Christian church art, where the “Binding of Isaac” was also a popular theme, the central panel features a Jewish adaptation of the Greco-Roman zodiac. The zodiac consists of two circles, with the twelve zodiac signs appearing in the outer circle, and Helios. The outer circle consists of panels, each of which correspond to one of the twelve months of the year. Female busts symbolizing the four seasons appear in the four corners immediately outside the zodiac, in the center, Helios appears with his signature Greco-Roman iconographic elements such as the fiery crown of rays adorning his head and the highly stylized quadriga or four-horse-drawn chariot. The background is decorated with a crescent shaped moon and stars, as in the “Binding of Isaac” panel, the zodiac symbols and seasonal busts are labeled with their corresponding Hebrew names. Some interpret the popularity that the zodiac maintains within synagogue floors as evidence for its Judaization and adaptation into the Jewish calendar, others see it as representing the existence of a “non-Rabbinic” or a mystical and Hellenized form of Judaism that embraced the astral religion of Greco-Roman culture
3. Braunschweigisches Landesmuseum – Braunschweigisches Landesmuseum is a history museum in Braunschweig, Germany, operated by the state of Lower Saxony. The museum is scattered on four locations, Vieweghaus, Hinter Ägidien, Kanzlei, the collection covers 500,000 years and includes objects from the history of the Braunschweig area, including culture, econonmy, technogy, folk arts, and social history. Today, the BLM hosts a collection of 600,000 to 800,000 objects, the museums history dates back to October 11,1891, when it was founded in the Duchy of Brunswick as Vaterländisches Museum für Braunschweigische Landesgeschichte. Originally it was located in a street called Hagenscharrn in the city of Braunschweig, in 1938, the museum was renamed to Braunschweigisches Landesmuseum für Geschichte und Volkstum. This name remained until December 31,1982, the neoclassicist building, the former publishing house of Vieweg Verlag, hosts the main collection, and is located in the city center at the castle square. A large part of the collection was moved there in 1986, located in the street Hinter St. Aegidien, this annex exhibits Judaica and was opened to the public in 1746. Center piece is an interior from Hamburg. This annex focuses on ancient history of the region and was established there in 1959, the building was built in the 16th century and is located in the city center. The Bortfelder Bauernhausmuseum section was opened in 1968 and is located in Bortfeld and this museum reflects on the rural life of the region. The central attraction is a farmhouse from 1639, list of museums in Germany Gerd Biegel, Herzöge, Revolution und Nierentisch. Jahrtausendrückblick einer Region, Braunschweig 2000 Official website
4. Center for Jewish Art – The Center for Jewish Art is a research institute at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, devoted to the documentation and research of Jewish visual culture. Established in 1979, it documented and researched objects of Jewish art in ca.700 museums, libraries, private collections, today, the Centers archives and collections constitute the largest and most comprehensive body of information on Jewish art in existence. The CJA’s research and documentation is included in the Bezalel Narkiss Index of Jewish Art, the Center was an outcome of Narkiss’s iconographical research of medieval Hebrew illuminated manuscripts, which he initiated with Professor Gablielle Sed-Rajna in 1974. The Index initially consisted of four sections, a Section of Hebrew Illuminated Manuscripts, of Sacred and Ritual Objects, of Ancient Jewish Art, Professor Bezalel Narkiss headed the CJA until 1991. The next director, Professor Aliza Cohen-Mushlin, established a section for Jewish Ritual Architecture. In addition, from 1994 CJA documented those synagogues in Germany which survived the Nazi regime and were not demolished in Kristallnacht. The documentation projects in Germany were done in cooperation with the Department of Architectural History at the Technical University in Braunschweig, in 1997 this cooperation was institutionalized as Bet Tfila Research Unit for Jewish Architecture in Europe. Jewish Art is a devoted to the research of Jewish art. Its editors were Bezalel Narkiss and Aliza Cohen-Mushlin, Professors Ziva Amishai-Maisels, rimonim is a Hebrew journal on Jewish art, aiming at bringing the results of academic research to a wider Israeli audience. In 1976-1994 the Center for Jewish Art published ten volumes of Jerusalem Index of Jewish Art as collections of card on Hebrew illuminated manuscripts, ritual objects, from 2007, Beit Tfila publishes a series of monographs on Jewish architecture and a series of smaller studies on individual Jewish buildings. The editors of both series are Aliza Cohen-Mushlin and Harmen Thies, and they are published by the Imhoff Verlag in English, the images are classified according to their iconographical subject, type of objects, origin, and date. The digitization of the Index is being undertaken in cooperation with the National Library of Israel, czech Republic, ritual objects and synagogues. Israel, archaeology, modern art, ritual objects and synagogues, montenegro, ancient synagogues and Jewish monuments. Russia, manuscripts, cemeteries, synagogues, cemeteries and ritual objects in Siberia, CJA official website The Bezalel Narkiss Index of Jewish Art The Center for Jewish Art collection at the National Library of Israel website Bet Tfila Research Unit website
5. Dura-Europos synagogue – The Dura-Europos synagogue is an ancient synagogue uncovered at Dura-Europos, Syria, in 1932. The last phase of construction was dated by an Aramaic inscription to 244 CE and these paintings are now displayed in the National Museum of Damascus. Dura-Europos was a garrison and trading city on the river Euphrates. It changed hands at various points but was Roman from 165 CE, before the final Persian destruction of the town in 256-257 CE, parts of the synagogue which abutted the main city wall were apparently requisitioned and filled with sand as a defensive measure. The city was abandoned after its fall and never resettled, the excavations discovered also very important wall-paintings from places of worship of Christianity, at the Dura-Europos church, and Mithraism, and fragmentary Christian texts in Hebrew. In the Syrian Civil War, the site was occupied by ISIL, mesnil also made detailed comparisons of the friezes from the Dura synagogue with those of the mithraeum, the Christian baptistery, and the temple of the Palmyrene gods. The synagogue contains a forecourt and house of assembly with painted walls depicting people and animals, the paintings cover the walls of the main Assembly Room, using three levels of pictures over a dado frieze of symbols in most places, reaching a height of about 7 metres. The scenes depicted are drawn from the Hebrew Bible and include many narrative scenes and they include the Sacrifice of Isaac and other Genesis stories, Moses receiving the Tablets of the Law, Moses leading the Hebrews out of Egypt, the visions of Ezekiel, and many others. The Hand of God motif is used to represent divine intervention or approval in several paintings, scholars cannot agree on the subjects of some scenes, because of damage, or the lack of comparative examples. Stylistically they are versions of contemporary Graeco-Roman style and technique. Technically they are not fresco but tempera over plaster, earlier parts of the building have decorative painting with no figures. Some of the paintings have figures whose eyes have been scratched out, scholars think the paintings were used as an instructional display to educate and teach the history and laws of the religion. The discovery of the synagogue helps to dispel narrow interpretations of Judaisms historical prohibition of visual images, oldest synagogues in the world Hachlili, Rachel. Ancient Jewish Art and Archaeology in the Diaspora, Part 1, BRILL,1998, ISBN 90-04-10878-5, ISBN 978-90-04-10878-3, Google books Kessler, Edward in Sawyer, John FA. Young, Penny,2014 Dura Europos A City for Everyman, Twopenny Press Synagogue frescoes at EIKON Image Database for Biblical Studies, Yale Divinity School
6. Gaza synagogue – The ancient synagogue of Gaza was built in 508 AD during the Byzantine period and was discovered in 1965. It was located in the ancient port city of Gaza, then known as Maiumas, in 1965, Egyptian archaeologists discovered the site and announced they had uncovered a church. Later a mosaic of King David wearing a crown and playing a lyre, the mosaic was dated to 508-09 CE and measured 3 meters high by 1.9 meters wide. It was originally described as depicting a female saint playing the harp, the Egyptian archaeologists stated that the mosaic was in fact a depiction of Orpheus, a Greek mythological figure who was commonly associated with David and used in Byzantine art. Shortly after the discovery, Davids face was gouged out. When Israel captured the Gaza Strip in the 1967 Six-Day War, the mosaic floor of the synagogue is on show at the Museum of the Good Samaritan, located on the Jerusalem-Jericho Road near Maale Adumim. A. Ovadiah, The Synagogue at Gaza, Qadmoniyot 1/4, 124-127, pls. c, d. A. Ovadiah, Excavations in the Area of the Ancient Synagogue at Gaza, Israel Exploration Journal 19, 193-198. A. Ovadiah, Gaza Maiumas,1976, Israel Exploration Journal 27, a. Ovadiah, The Synagogue at Gaza, pp. 129–132 in Ancient Synagogues Revealed, ed. L. I. Mosaic from the floor of the ancient synagogue at Gaza
7. Gold glass – Gold glass or gold sandwich glass is a luxury form of glass where a decorative design in gold leaf is fused between two layers of glass. About 500 pieces of glass used in this way have been recovered. Many show religious imagery from Christianity, traditional Greco-Roman religion and its various cultic developments, others show portraits of their owners, and the finest are among the most vivid portraits to survive from Early Christian times. They stare out at us with a stern and melancholy intensity. From the 1st century AD the technique was used for the gold colour in mosaics. Various different techniques may also be described as gold glass. Zwischengoldglas is very similar but the two layers of glass are cemented, not fused and it mostly comes from Germany and Bohemia from the 18th and 19th centuries. Verre églomisé properly covers a layer of glass which is gilded on the back, as used in 19th century shop signs. One process was revived by Jean-Baptise Glomy, hence the name, both of these processes were also used in ancient times, and the German and French languages often use their native terms for what is called gold glass in English. Gold ruby glass or cranberry glass is actually red, coloured by the addition of gold oxide, gold-band glass is another ancient technique covered below. The manufacturing process for gold glass was difficult and required great skill. For a Late Roman glass, first a round flat disc, typically about three to five inches across, was cut away from a blown sphere with a flattened bottom. A piece of leaf was then glued to this with gum arabic. The design was created by scraping away gold leaf, the main vessel, a cup or bowl, was formed by blowing and cutting, with a flat bottom the same size as the first disc. This was then heated again and carefully lowered onto the disc with the design, the complete vessel was then heated a final time to complete the fusing. Different accounts of different periods vary somewhat as to the sequence of stages and other details. The larger Hellenistic glass bowls are thought to have been formed using moulds rather than blown, as the bowl is doubled. Some of the finer later medallions seem to have made as such from the start
8. Golden calf – According to the Bible, the golden calf was an idol made by the Israelites during Moses absence, when he went up to Mount Sinai. In Hebrew, the incident is known as ḥēṭ’ ha‘ēggel or The Sin of the Calf and it is first mentioned in Exodus 32,4. Bull worship was common in many cultures, among the Egyptians and Hebrews neighbors in the ancient Near East and in the Aegean, the Aurochs, the wild bull, was widely worshipped, often as the Lunar Bull and as the creature of El. When Moses went up into Biblical Mount Sinai to receive the Ten Commandments, he left the Israelites for forty days, the Israelites feared that he would not return and demanded that Aaron make them gods to go before them. Aaron gathered up the Israelites golden earrings and ornaments, constructed a molten calf and they declared, These thy gods, O Israel, Aaron built an altar before the calf and proclaimed the next day to be a feast to the LORD. So they rose up early the day and offered burnt-offerings, and brought peace-offerings, and the people sat down to eat and to drink. Moses besought and pleaded that they should be spared, and God repented of the evil which He said He would do unto His people. Moses went down from the mountain, but upon seeing the calf, he became angry, Moses burnt the golden calf in a fire, ground it to powder, scattered it on water, and forced the Israelites to drink it. When Moses asked him, Aaron admitted collecting the gold, and throwing it into the fire, the Bible records that the tribe of Levi did not worship the golden calf. When Moses stood in the gate of the camp, and said, Whosoever is on the LORDs side, and all the sons of Levi gathered themselves together unto him. And the sons of Levi did according to the word of Moses, the golden calf is mentioned in Nehemiah 9, 16–21. But they, our ancestors, became arrogant and stiff-necked, and they refused to listen and failed to remember the miracles you performed among them. They became stiff-necked and in their rebellion appointed a leader in order to return to their slavery, but you are a forgiving God, gracious and compassionate, slow to anger and abounding in love. Therefore you did not desert them, even when they cast for themselves an image of a calf and said, This is your god, because of your great compassion you did not abandon them in the wilderness. By day the pillar of cloud did not fail to guide them on their path and you gave your good Spirit to instruct them. You did not withhold your manna from their mouths, and you gave them water for their thirst, for forty years you sustained them in the wilderness, they lacked nothing, their clothes did not wear out nor did their feet become swollen. The language suggests that there are inconsistencies in the other accounts of the Israelites. As the version in Exodus and 1 Kings are written by Deuteronomistic historians based in the kingdom of Judah