This category has the following 5 subcategories, out of 5 total.
Pages in category "Joinery"
The following 38 pages are in this category, out of 38 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
This category has the following 5 subcategories, out of 5 total.
The following 38 pages are in this category, out of 38 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Woodworking joints – Joinery is a part of woodworking that involves joining together pieces of timber or lumber, to produce more complex items. Some wood joints employ fasteners, bindings, or adhesives, while others use only wood elements, the characteristics of wooden joints - strength, flexibility, toughness, appearance, etc. - derive from the properties of the materials involved and the purpose of the joint. Therefore, different joinery techniques are used to meet differing requirements, for example, the joinery used to construct a house can be different from that used to make puzzle toys, although some concepts overlap. Dowel, A small rod is used internal to a joint both to align and to strengthen the joint. Traditional joints are used with natural timbers as they do not need any other materials other than the timber itself, dowel joints are also useful for pegging together weaker, cheaper composite materials such as laminate-faced chipboard, and where limited woodworking tools are available. Biscuit joints, A small biscuit is used to align an edge or butt joint when gluing. Domino joiner, A trademarked tool similar to a joiner, where a piece larger than a biscuit has some of the advantages of dowels. Many wood joinery techniques either depend upon or compensate for the fact that wood is anisotropic and this must be taken into account when joining wood parts together, otherwise the joint is destined to fail. Gluing boards with the grain running perpendicular to other is often the reason for split boards. Furniture from the 18th century, while made by master craftsmen, the result is this masterful work suffers from broken bracket feet, which was often attached with a glue block which ran perpendicular to the base pieces. The glue blocks were fastened with glue and nails, resulting in unequal expansion and contraction between the pieces. This was also the cause of splitting of wide boards, which were used during that period. In modern woodworking it is more critical, as heating. All woodworking joints must take these changes into account, and allow for the resulting movement, Wood is stronger when stressed along the grain than it is when stressed across the grain. Wood is a composite material, parallel strands of cellulose fibers are held together by a lignin binder. These long chains of fibers make the wood exceptionally strong by resisting stress, furthermore, cellulose is tougher than lignin, a fact demonstrated by the relative ease with which wood can be split along the grain compared to across it. Different species of wood have different strength levels, and the exact strength may vary from sample to sample, Timber expands and contracts in response to humidity, usually much less so longitudinally than in the radial and tangential directions. As tracheophytes, trees have lignified tissues which transport resources such as water, minerals and photosynthetic products up, while lumber from a harvested tree is no longer alive, these tissues still absorb and expel water causing swelling and shrinkage of the wood in kind with change in humidity
2. Biscuit joiner – A biscuit joiner is a woodworking tool used to join two pieces of wood together. A biscuit joiner uses a circular saw blade to cut a crescent-shaped hole in the opposite edges of two pieces of wood or wood composite panels. An oval-shaped, highly dried and compressed wooden biscuit is covered with glue, the biscuit is immediately placed in the slot, and the two boards are clamped together. The wet glue expands the biscuit, further improving the bond, the biscuit joining system was invented in 1956 in Liestal, Switzerland by Hermann Steiner. In 1969 the family operation was incorporated by the name of Lamello AG, Lamello continues to manufacture very high-end biscuit joiners such as the Lamello Top 20. Biscuits are predominantly used in joining sheet goods such as plywood, particle board and they are sometimes used with solid wood, replacing mortise and tenon joints as they are easier to make and almost as strong. They are also used to align pieces of wood when joined edge-to-edge in making wider panels and it is important to use the same face when cutting the slots, so the boards are perfectly flush. Biscuits are also used to align edges of workpieces, such as forming a 90 degree angle between workpieces. The biscuit provides a means of getting a perfectly flush joint. Typically, the machine will have a fence, so it can be set on an angle for joining mitered pieces. Also, there are types of specialty biscuits available, from metal connectors, used for removable panels, to hinges. The workpieces are brought together and the marks the location for the biscuits. Precise measurement is not required, as the biscuits are hidden when the pieces are assembled, the parts are separated and the machine is used to cut the slots in each piece. The machine has reference marks on the line of the blade for easy alignment to the marks on the materials being joined. The body of the machine with the blade is spring-loaded and in the position the blade is retracted. The operator aligns the machine and uses a pressure to push the body forward against the base plate to make the cut. The waste material is blown out of the slot on the right of the base plate, because the slots are slightly longer than the biscuits, it is still possible to slide the panels sideways after the joint is assembled. This fact makes the biscuit joiner easy to use, because it not require extreme accuracy or jigs to achieve perfect joints
3. Bridle joint – A bridle joint is a woodworking joint, similar to a mortise and tenon, in that a tenon is cut on the end of one member and a mortise is cut into the other to accept it. The distinguishing feature is that the tenon and the mortise are cut to the width of the tenon member. The corner bridle joint joins two members at their ends, forming a corner. This form of the joint is used to house a rail in uprights. It provides good strength in compression and is resistant to Stacking. The bridle joint is very popular in workbench construction, corner bridles are often used to join frame components when the frame is to be shaped. Material can be removed from the members after assembly without sacrificing joint integrity. A variation of the joint is the T-bridle, which joins the end of one member to the middle of another. The tee bridle joint is strong and good for joining 2 pieces together. In traditional timber framing the bridle joint is used to join the tops of principal rafters
4. Butterfly joint – They may also be used to stabilize the core of a knothole, preventing it from dropping out over time. They are also used as decorative inlays for non structural aesthetic purposes. A Dovetail Key resembles two dovetails connected at the narrow part, a negative of the hole is cut out of the board the butterfly will be placed in and the butterfly is then fitted, keeping the joint together. The wood used for the butterfly is usually a contrasting wood, Dovetail keys or Butterfly joints have been used both in decorative and structural joints since ancient times. They were prominently used in construction of the Cairo Dahshur Boats and they were also historically used in repairing cracks in dutch tabletops in the 18th century. This is where the term Dutchman joint originates, the dovetail key was installed across the crack to stabilize and inhibit further movement of the crack. Contemporary decorative dovetail keys are commonly seen in and associated with the work of George Nakashima, a simple illustration of a butterfly joint page 60
5. Coping (joinery) – Coping or scribing is the woodworking technique of shaping the end of a moulding or frame component to neatly fit the contours of an abutting member. Joining tubular members in metalworking is also referred to as a cope, most English speaking countries outside the United States use the terms scribe and scribing. Coping is commonly used in the fitting of skirting and other mouldings in a room and it allows for clean joints between intersecting members when walls are not square to each other. The other method of fitting these mouldings that is used is the mitre joint. Coping is only used for internal corners. The main reason that scribed joints are used is that timber shrinks in width far more than it does in length, by using a scribed joint rather than an internal mitre joint the effect of shrinkage is minimised. Also it is possible to arrange the scribed joints pointing away from the most common viewpoint, Coping is also commonly used in cabinet making for mouldings and frame components. The rails in frame and panel construction are commonly cope cut to fit the profile of the stiles, the technique is also common in the construction of doors and windows. Scribe joinery is also used in the building of log homes. The shape of the log underneath is scribed into the bottom of a log to be placed on top and this provides a tight seal between the two adjacent logs. It is also used in the building of boats since there is rarely a straight edge. Traditionally, coping would be performed using a coping saw, there are also mechanical means of producing coped joints, including matching rail and stile cutters for the router as used in frame and panel construction. Cope and stick Tube Coping Calculator
6. Dado (joinery) – A dado, housing or trench is a slot or trench cut into the surface of a piece of machinable material, usually wood. When viewed in cross-section, a dado has three sides, a dado is cut across, or perpendicular to, the grain and is thus differentiated from a groove which is cut with, or parallel to, the grain. A through dado involves cuts which run between both edges of the surface, leaving both ends open, a stopped or blind dado ends before one or both of the cuts meets the edge of the surface Dados are often used to affix shelves to a bookcase carcase. Combined with a rabbet on a piece, they are used to make the rabbet and dado joint
7. Domino joiner – The Domino is a loose mortise and tenon joining tool manufactured by the German company Festool. This tool, first on sale in 2007, cuts mortises in the manner of a biscuit joiner, a drill-like rotating cutter cuts a round-ended mortise. Each plunge creates a mortise that is sized to accept a Domino loose tenon, there are five cutter sizes for six different Domino tenon sizes. Self-referencing pins allow the cutting of rows of evenly spaced mortises with no need to measure, mortise width is adjustable in three increments with the turn of a knob, and cuts can be overlapped for long mortises. Fence tilts from 0-90°, with positions at 0°,22. 5°, 45°,67. 5°. The Domino XL is, as the name implies, the Dominos larger cousin and it uses the same cutter design as the original Domino, yet uses much larger tenons. Allows very quick joinery, useful in a commercial carpentry setting, stronger than a biscuit joiner. festool. net — Manufacturers official international website festoolusa. com — the Domino page at the Festool USA site
8. Dovetail joint – A dovetail joint or simply dovetail is a joinery technique most commonly used in woodworking joinery including furniture, cabinets, carcase construction, log buildings and traditional timber framing. Noted for its resistance to being pulled apart, the joint is commonly used to join the sides of a drawer to the front. A series of cut to extend from the end of one board interlock with a series of tails cut into the end of another board. The pins and tails have a trapezoidal shape, once glued, a wooden dovetail joint requires no mechanical fasteners. The dovetail joint probably pre-dates written history, some of the earliest known examples of the dovetail joint are in furniture entombed with mummies dating from First Dynasty of ancient Egypt, as well the tombs of Chinese emperors. The dovetail design is an important method of distinguishing various periods of furniture, in Europe the dovetail joint is also called a swallow-tail joint or a fantail joint. The dovetail joint is strong because of the way the ‘tails’ and ‘pins’ are shaped. This makes it difficult to pull the joint apart and virtually impossible when glue is added and this type of joint is used in box constructions such as drawers, jewellery boxes, cabinets and other pieces of furniture where strength is required. It is a joint to make manually, requiring skilled workmanship. There are different types of joints and when cut accurately they are very impressive and attractive. The joint is strong especially when used with a good quality glue such as PVA or cascamite, the marking out and cutting procedure is outlined below. The angle of slope varies according to the wood used, typically the slope is 1,6 for softwoods and a shallower 1,8 slope for hardwoods. Often a slope of 1,7 is used as a compromise, the photograph at the top of this page shows a through dovetail joint, where the end grain of both boards is visible when the joint is assembled. Through dovetails are common in carcass and box construction, traditionally, the dovetails would have often been covered by a veneer. However, dovetails have become a signature of craftsmanship and are considered a feature. When used in construction, a through dovetail joint is sometimes referred to as an English dovetail. Use for, Carcass and box construction A half-blind dovetail is used when the craftsman does not wish end grain to be visible from the front of the item. The tails are housed in sockets in the ends of the board that is to be the front of the item so that their ends cannot be seen, half-blind dovetails are commonly used to fasten drawer fronts to drawer sides
9. Dowel – A dowel is a solid cylindrical rod, usually made from wood, plastic, or metal. In its original manufactured form, a dowel is called a dowel rod, dowel rods are often cut into short lengths called dowel pins. Dowels are employed in numerous, diverse applications including axles in toys, detents, structural reinforcements in cabinet making, to make a dowel, a piece of wood is split or whittled to a size slightly bigger than desired and then driven through the hole in the dowel plate. The sharp edges of the hole shear off the excess wood, a second approach to cutting dowels is to rotate a piece of oversized stock past a fixed knife, or alternatively, to rotate the knife around the stock. Machines based on this principle emerged in the 19th century, frequently, these are small bench-mounted tools. For modest manufacturing volumes, wood dowels are typically manufactured on industrial dowel machines based on the principles as the rotary cutters described above. Such machines may employ interchangeable cutting heads of varying diameters, thus enabling the machines to be changed to manufacture different dowel diameters. Typically, the mechanism is open-ended, with material guides at the machines entry, since the 19th century, some of these dowel machines have had power feed mechanisms to move the stock past the cutting mechanism. High-volume dowel manufacturing is done on a shaper, which simultaneously forms multiple dowels from a single piece of rectangular stock. These machines employ two wide, rotating cutting heads, one above the stock and one below it, the heads have nearly identical cutting profiles so that each will form an array of adjoined, side-by-side half dowels. The wooden dowel rod used in woodworking applications is commonly cut into dowel pins, some woodworkers make their own dowel pins, while others purchase dowel pins precut to the required length and diameter. When dowels are glued into blind holes, a common case in dowel-based joinery, there must be a path for air. If no provision is made to relieve the pressure of air and glue. An old solution to this problem is to plane a flat on the side of the dowel, some dowel pins are Fluted with multiple parallel grooves along their length to serve the same purpose. When two pieces of wood are to be joined by dowels embedded in holes, there are numerous methods for aligning the holes. Dowel centers are simple and inexpensive tools for aligning opposing blind holes, various commercial systems, such as Dowelmax, have been devised to solve this problem. Alternative joinery methods may be used in place of conventional dowel pins, such as Miller dowels, biscuit joiners, spline joints, and proprietary tools such as the Domino jointer. The word dowel was used in Middle English, it appears in Wycliffes Bible translation in a list of the parts of a wheel. and the spokis, cognates with other Germanic languages suggest that the word is much older
10. Dowelmax – The Dowelmax is a loose tenon dowelling jig manufactured by the O. M. S. The manufacturer claims that the small manufacturing tolerances of 0.026 millimetres for the aluminium, brass and steel components of the jig ensure accuracy, the precision manufacturing adds to the units cost, which is higher than other dowelling jigs. The tool allows the placement of five dowels in one pass, a distance gauge bar provided with the jig allows accurate spacing between sets of dowels. Tests by both the manufacturer, and Wood magazine, are claimed to show that dowel joints made with the Dowelmax are stronger than most other woodworking joints tested, the review classifies Dowelmax as the best dowelling jig ever made. Biscuit joiner — another loose tenon joinery method Domino jointer — another loose tenon joinery method Online Tool Reviews — Review of tool
11. Face frame – A face frame in cabinet making is the frame fixed to the front of a cabinet carcass which obscures the edges of the carcass and provides the fixing point for doors and other external hardware. A face frame provides strength to the front of a cabinet and is considered a visual feature of particular styles of furniture. Face frames are a feature of traditional cabinetry which have replaced in many instances today by frameless cabinets which make use of edge banding to conceal the edge of the carcass. This is most commonly seen in European modular-style kitchens, face frames are composed of a set of intersecting frame members that are joined to one another using one of a selection of woodworking joints. The most common joints used are the joint or mortise. The frames consist of vertical stiles and horizontal rails, individual compartments within the cabinet are divided by mid-stiles and mid-rails. Individual drawers are usually separated by mid-rails and mid-stiles occur between doors and wherever vertical partitions exist within the cabinet, the frame members are generally made from plain rectangular stock but are often visually enhanced through the application of cock beading or applied mouldings. Typically a frame member will be between 25mm to 50mm in width, depending upon the application and the appearance of the cabinet. For built in cabinets, it is common for stiles that are to abut a wall to be cut wider than the size so that these may be scribed to the shape of the wall. This compensates for out of plumb or uneven walls, which are common in many houses, cabinet making Frame and panel Frameless construction
12. Finger joint – A finger joint, also known as a comb or box joint, is a woodworking joint made by cutting a set of complementary rectangular cuts in two pieces of wood, which are then glued. To visualize a finger joint simply interlock the fingers of hands at a ninety degree angle. It is stronger than a joint or lap joint. Alternate names include box-pin joint or box joint, a tapered or scarfed finger joint is the most common joint used to form long pieces of lumber from solid boards, the result is finger-jointed lumber. The finger joint can also be invaluable when fixing tables and chairs and also can be used in things as floor boards, timber roof. This is also used in technology for students. Finger joints can be hard to make without the right tools
13. Halved joint – A halved joint is a woodworking joint in which the two members are joined by removing material from each at the point of intersection so that they overlap. The halved joint is differentiated from the lap joint in that the members are joined on edge, the simple halved joint is created by cutting a slot in opposite edges of the members to be joined so that they slip together. Most commonly, the amount of material removed is equal to half the width of the members being joined and this joint is relatively weak and prone to splitting, due to the lack of shoulders which would otherwise prevent twisting. When extra strength is required, a version of the joint is called for. This involves a more cut out which incorporates shoulders to prevent twisting of the joint
14. Lap joint – Halving lap joints are used extensively in transition and cabinetry for framing. They are quick and easy to make and provide reasonable strength through good long grain to long grain gluing surface, the shoulders provide some resistance to racking. They may be reinforced with dowels or mechanical fasteners to resist twisting of the wood, when the joint forms a corner, as in a rectangular frame, the joint is often called a corner lap. This is the most common form of end lap and is used most in framing, for a half lap in which the members are parallel, the joint may be known as a half lap splice. This is a joint and is an alternative to scarfing when joining shorter members end to end. Both members in an end lap have one shoulder and one cheek each, use for, Internal cabinet frames Visible frames when the frame members are to be shaped. The main difference between this and the half lap is that the joint occurs in the middle of one or both members, rather than at the end. The two members are at angles to each other and one member may terminate at the joint. When one of the members terminates at the shin, it is referred to as a tee lap or middle lap. In a cross lap where both members continue beyond the joint, each member has two shoulders and one cheek. Use for, Internal cabinet frames Simple framing and bracing This is a lap in which the housing has been cut at an angle which resists withdrawal of the stem from the cross-piece. Use for, Framing applications where tension forces could pull the joint apart The mitred half lap is the weakest version of the joint because of the gluing surface
15. Miter joint – A miter joint, sometimes shortened to miter, is a joint made by beveling each of two parts to be joined, usually at a 45° angle, to form a corner, usually a 90° angle. For woodworking, a disadvantage of a joint is its weakness. There are two variations of a splined miter joint, one where the spline is long and runs the length of the mating surfaces. Common applications include picture frames, pipes, and molding, for miter joints occurring at angles other than 90°, for materials of the same cross-section the proper cut angle must be determined so that the two pieces to be joined meet flush. To find the cut angle divide the angle at which the two meet by two. When a piece is beveled at both ends, such that the two attached pieces do not lie in the plane, a three-dimensional structure is obtained. In that case, it is necessary to either rotate the piece in its longitudinal axis or to tilt the saw blade before beveling the second end. It is always possible to close a structure constructed with pieces having non-circular cross section into a loop through properly matched miter joints, however, a three-dimensional loop from pieces with non-circular cross section need not close properly when attempting to miter it all the way round. In general, a twist occurs, causing the edges at the last joint to be misaligned
16. Mortise and tenon – The mortise and tenon joint has been used for thousands of years by woodworkers around the world to join pieces of wood, mainly when the adjoining pieces connect at an angle of 90°. In its basic form it is simple and strong. Although there are many joint variations, the mortise and tenon comprises two components, the mortise hole and the tenon tongue. The tenon, formed on the end of a member generally referred to as a rail, is inserted into a square or rectangular hole cut into the corresponding member. The tenon is cut to fit the hole exactly and usually has shoulders that seat when the joint fully enters the mortise hole. The joint may be glued, pinned, or wedged to lock it in place and this joint is also used with other materials. For example, it is a method for stonemasons and blacksmiths. A mortise is a cavity cut into a timber to receive a tenon, there are several kinds of mortise, Open mortise a mortise that has only three sides. Stub mortise a mortise, the depth of which depends on the size of the timber. Through mortise a mortise that passes entirely through a piece, wedged half-dovetail a mortise in which the back is wider, or taller, than the front, or opening. The space for the wedge initially allows room for the tenon to be inserted and it is sometimes called a suicide joint, since it is a one-way trip. Through-wedged half-dovetail a wedged half-dovetail mortise that passes entirely through the piece, a tenon is a projection on the end of a timber for insertion into a mortise. Usually the tenon is taller than it is wide. There are several kinds of tenon, Stub tenon short, the depth of which depends on the size of the timber, through tenon a tenon that passes entirely through the piece of wood it is inserted into, being clearly visible on the back side. Loose tenon a tenon that is a part of the joint. Teasel tenon a term used for the tenon on top of a jowled or gunstock post, a common element of the English tying joint. Top tenon the tenon that occurs on top of a post, hammer-headed tenon a method of forming a tenon joint when the shoulders cannot be tightened with a clamp. Half shoulder tenon An asymmetric tenon with a shoulder on one side only, a common use is in framed, ledged and braced doors
17. Scarf joint – A scarf joint is a method of joining two members end to end in woodworking or metalworking. The scarf joint is used when the material being joined is not available in the length required and it is an alternative to other joints such as the butt joint and the splice joint and is often favored over these in joinery because it yields a barely visible glue line. In woodworking, there are two different categories of scarf, based on whether the joint has interlocking faces or not. A plain scarf is simply two flat planes meeting on a relative to the axis of the stock being joined. The plain scarf is not preferred when strength is required, so it is used in decorative situations. The use of modern high-strength adhesives can greatly increase the performance of a plain scarf. The keyed hook scarf is common in ship and boat-building, as well as timber framing, in large timbers such as these the scarf is virtually always secured with through bolts, and is frequently reinforced externally with iron or steel fishplates, and/or strapping. A scarf joint may also be used to fix problems caused when a board is cut too short for the application, the board can be cut in half with a tapered cut yielding a scarf joint. When the joint is glued together, the tapers are slid against each other so that the two sections are no longer in line with each other and this has the effect of making the board longer. Once the glue has set, the board can be planed down to an even thickness, in traditional timber framing there are many types of scarf joints used to join timbers. The joint is formed by cutting opposing tapered ends on each member which are fitted together. When working with wood, this gives better long grain to long grain gluing surface, the tapers are generally cut at an angle between 1,8 to 1,10. Where scarfed joints are used in the restoration of aircraft most developed countries will only issue an airworthyness certificate if all such joints have used an angle no less than 1,8. Shear strength is assumed to be equal to σ/2, the following equations need to be adjusted if the shear strength is greater than σ/2. The two equations that give a maximum axial force are F=σ/sin^2 and F=σ/sin, where α is the angle from the horizontal to the joint, both should be evaluated for a given problem, and the smaller F of the two is the magnitude of the maximum allowable axial force. The first equation accounts for failure in tension, the second equation accounts for failure in shear. Some special angles should be noted or the graphs of two equations should be compared on the same plot, the joint is weakest at α=90° due to tension limits and 45° due to shear limits. However, α=45° will be stronger than α=90° if shear strength is greater than σ/2, the joint is strongest between these two angles at 63. 4°
18. Slab hut – A slab hut is a kind of dwelling or shed made from slabs of split or sawn timber. It was a form of construction used by settlers in Australia. From the very beginning of European settlement in Australia, improvised methods of building construction were in use, the First Fleet, arriving in 1788, brought with it few carpenters and a meagre supply of poor-quality tools. Nails and other ironmongery were scarce, the colonists were forced to build shelters using whatever skills they possessed, from whatever natural materials they could find. Wattle and daub walls were destroyed by the drenching rains of Australias severe summer storms. These were soon replaced by structures, the Sydney Cove landscape was almost denuded of useful timber. When settlement moved beyond Sydney Cove, an abundance of suitable forest timber became available, Huts and humpies made entirely from timber poles and large sheets of bark were easily erected, but these were often only temporary structures. Local timbers presented a challenge to the European settler. Australian hardwoods were difficult to work, and tools were scarce or inadequate, Australias colonists were forced to improvise again, and become their own craftsmen. In time, buildings of timber became a familiar feature of rural Australia. Some were public and long-lasting structures, shops, schools and churches, others were no more than hovels. New Zealands European settlers also had to adapt to circumstances, building with whatever materials were available. Settlers tended to use the Maori word whare, instead of hut, in Australia The usual slab hut was built entirely from timber and bark. Australian settlers found that the most fissile timbers were the Eucalypts, blackbutt, bluegum, stringybark, ironbark, some of these species are also termite resistant. The chimney, too, was made of wood, although sometimes sods were used. The fireplace may have given a lining of stones, sometimes covered with a plaster of mud or clay. A slab hut is actually a slab-walled structure and its walls were, strictly speaking, built from flitches. Slabs are sawn from a trunk, flitches are split from it, hut-builders felled selected trees, and sawed the trunks into suitable lengths
19. Splice joint – A splice joint is a method of joining two members end to end in woodworking. The splice joint is used when the material being joined is not available in the length required and it is an alternative to other joints such as the butt joint and the scarf joint. Splice joints are stronger than unenforced butt joints and have the potential to be stronger than a scarf joint, splices are therefore most often used when structural elements are required in longer lengths than the available material. The most common form of the joint is the half lap splice, which is common in building construction. Joining structural members end to end There are four types of splice joints, Half lap, Bevel lap, Tabled. The joint is cut as for a half lap and this helps to prevent the members from being pulled apart. The tabled splice joint is another variation of the half lap, the cheeks are cut with interlocking surfaces so that when brought together the joint resists being pulled apart. The tapered finger splice joint requires a series of matching fingers or interlocking prominences to be cut on the ends of opposing members, the joint is brought together and glued, with the fingers providing substantial glue surface. This joint is used in the production of building materials from smaller offcuts of timber. It is commonly found in skirting, architrave, and fascia, the joint is usually made by machine
20. Stitch and glue – Stitch and glue is a simple boat building method which uses plywood panels stitched together, usually with copper wire, and glued together with epoxy resin. This type of construction can eliminate much of the need for frames or ribs, plywood panels are cut to shape and stitched together to form an accurate hull shape without the need for forms or special tools. This technique is called tack and tape, or stitch. Seams are reinforced with fiberglass tape and thickened epoxy, the technique was then popularised by the first TV DIY expert, Barry Bucknell, in about 1964. The method was adopted, substituting copper wire ties rather than fishing line as in the early Littledyke examples, the Mirror is so named because the design was sponsored by The Daily Mirror newspaper, a fact reflected by the historically red sails. The Daily Mirror apparently wanted to bring cheap sailing to the masses, as such, unlike other construction techniques of the day, which required specialist skills and tools, Stitch and Glue was supposed to put boat-building within the reach of the average public. These boats were constructed of plywood with seams filleted with fiberglass tape and could be built by DIY amateurs of modest skill, the technique consists of stitching together plywood panels with some sort of wire or other suitable device, such as cable ties or duct tape and staples. Once the epoxy sets solid in most cases the stitches or other clamping structures are removed leaving only the fused plywood panels behind, to join, the cut panels are drilled with small holes along the joining edges and stitched. Once together, the joint is glued, usually with thickened epoxy, on the outside of the hull, the wire is snipped and the joints filled and sanded over. The outside of the joint, or entire hull, may be fiberglassed and glued as well, with the wires removed, a fillet of thickened epoxy is applied over the entire length of the joint. True stitch and glue designs generally have few bulkheads, relying instead on the geometry of the panels to provide shape, Stitch and glue has become one of the dominant techniques in amateur boatbuilding. While the use of relatively few plywood panels limits the shapes possible, Stitch and glue is not inherently limited to small designs though, as demonstrated by the boats made by Sam Devlin, who has applied the technique to making boats as long as 65 feet. The Instant Boats developed by Phil Bolger use simplified framing and stitch-and-glue style plywood sheet joining, step-by-step building books about the boats and plans for many were sold by Harold Payson of Thomaston, Maine. They range from small dinghies to power and sailboats 25 to 30 feet long. They are not necessarily designed for weight, but like the original Mirror Dinghy. The plans predate CAD panel development software so the shapes are simple in some cases. The one sheet boat, or OSB, is an outgrowth of the stitch, the OSB is a boat that can be built using a single sheet of 4 foot by 8 foot plywood. Some additional wood is used, for supports, chines, or as a transom
21. Tongue and groove – Tongue and groove is a method of fitting similar objects together, edge to edge, used mainly with wood, in flooring, parquetry, panelling, and similar constructions. Tongue and groove joints allow two flat pieces to be joined together to make a single flat surface. Before plywood became common, tongue and groove boards were used for sheathing buildings. A strong joint, the tongue and groove joint is used for re-entrant angles. The effect of shrinkage is concealed when the joint is beaded or otherwise moulded. In expensive cabinet work, glued dovetail and multiple tongue and groove are used, each piece has a slot cut all along one edge, and a thin, deep ridge on the opposite edge. The tongue projects a little less than the depth of the groove, two or more pieces thus fit together closely. The joint is not normally glued, as shrinkage would then pull the tongue off, in another assembly method, the pieces are end-matched. This method eliminates the need for joints, face nailing. For many uses, tongue and groove boards have been rendered obsolete by the introduction of plywood and later composite wood boards, but the method is still used in higher-quality boards. Plywood may also be tongued all round to fit it flush into a framed structure, when joining thicker materials, several tongue and groove joints may be used one above the other. The tongue may or may not be of the material as the grooved pieces joined by the tongue. For example, plywood flooring is commonly grooved at the edges, and plastic tongues are used to form the joint