Cornelia (wife of Caesar)
Cinnas political party was called the Populares, and his union with Cornelia identified Caesar with this faction. Caesar and Cornelia married in 84 BC, when Lucius Cornelius Sulla commanded Caesar to divorce Cornelia, the young husband refused to do so and chose rather to be deprived of her fortune and to be proscribed himself. Cornelia bore him his daughter Julia, in c.76 BC, Cornelia was the matron of Caesars household in their home at the Subura in Rome for sixteen years. She died in 69 BC, during Caesars quaestorship, and left him a daughter, Caesar delivered an oration in praise of her from the Rostra. This entry incorporates public domain text originally from, William Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology,1870
Battle of Gergovia
The Battle of Gergovia took place in 52 BC in Gaul at Gergovia, the chief oppidum of the Arverni. The battle was fought between a Roman Republican army, led by proconsul Julius Caesar, and Gallic forces led by Vercingetorix, who was the Arverni chieftain. The site is identified with Merdogne, now called Gergovie, a located on a hill within the town of La Roche-Blanche, near Clermont-Ferrand. Some walls and earthworks still survive from the pre-Roman Iron Age, the battle is well known in France, as exemplified in the popular French comic Asterix, where the battle is referenced, specifically in the book Asterix and the Class Act. As with much of the history of Gaul, the knowledge of the war comes principally from Julius Caesars Commentaries on the Gallic War. Vercingetorix had earlier expelled from Gergovia. In winter 53 BC, whilst Caesar was gathering his forces for a strike against the Gauls, leaving two legions and all his baggage train behind in Agedincum, Caesar led the remaining legions to Gergovias aid.
His sieges of Vellaunodunum and Noviodunum en route caused Vercingetorix to lift his siege and march to meet Caesar in open battle at Noviodunum, Caesar besieged and captured Avaricum and resupplied there. Caesar set out in the direction of Gergovia, which Vercingetorix was probably able to once he had divined his direction. The heights of Gergovia itself stand twelve hundred feet above the plain that they overlook and it is a plateau that is a mile and a half long by a third of a mile wide. It was a place to hold, as there was only one way in. It was a reasonably easy guess to make, realizing Vercingetorixs plan, Caesar resolved to trick him and cross under his very nose. Caesar one night camped near the town of Varennes, where there had previously been a bridge before Vercingetorix had destroyed it and that night, he divided his force into two parts, one part being 2/3rds of the force, the other being 1/3rd of the force. However, the force he ordered to march in 6 corps. He ordered it to continue its march south, duped, took the bait and followed this part of the force.
Caesar, with the two legions present at Varennes, speedily rebuilt the bridge that had been present there. He sent for the force, which during that next day stole a march on Vercingetorix, and completed a junction with the original force. Realizing that he had been duped, Vercingetorix set out south, realizing its mountainous location made a frontal assault risky, he decided to rely on his superior siege tactics
Constitutional reforms of Julius Caesar
The constitutional reforms of Julius Caesar were a series of laws pertaining to the Constitution of the Roman Republic enacted between 49 and 44 BC, during Caesars dictatorship. Caesar died in 44 BC before the implications of his actions could be realized. During his early career, Caesar had seen how chaotic and dysfunctional the Roman Republic had become, between his crossing of the Rubicon River in 49 BC, and his assassination in 44 BC, Caesar established a new constitution, which was intended to accomplish three separate goals. First, he wanted to suppress all armed resistance out in the provinces, Second, he wanted to create a strong central government in Rome. And finally, he wanted to knit together the entire Republic into a cohesive unit. The first goal was accomplished when Caesar defeated Pompey and his supporters, to increase his own powers, he assumed the important magistrates, and to weaken Romes other political institutions, he instituted several additional reforms. Caesar held both the Dictatorship and the Tribunate, but alternated between the Consulship and the Proconsulship and his powers within the state seem to have rested upon these magistracies.
He was first appointed Dictator in 49 BC by the Praetor Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, possibly in order to preside over elections, but resigned his Dictatorship within eleven days. In 48 BC, he was appointed Dictator again, only time for an indefinite period. In February 44 BC, one month before his assassination, he was appointed Dictator for life. Under Caesar, a significant amount of authority had been vested in both the Master of the Horse, as well as in the Urban Prefect, which had not been the case under earlier Dictators. They held these additional powers under Caesar, because Caesar was frequently out of Italy, earlier Dictators, in contrast, were almost never allowed to leave Italy. Caesars actions, further submitted the Consuls to the Dictatorial executive, in 48 BC, Caesar was given permanent tribunician powers, which made his person sacrosanct, allowed him to veto the senate, and allowed him to dominate the Plebeian Council. The offending Tribunes in this case, C, after the impeachment of the two obstructive Tribunes, perhaps unsurprisingly, faced no further opposition from other members of the tribunician college.
In 46 BC, Caesar gave himself the title of Prefect of the Morals and he set the precedent, which his imperial successors followed, of requiring the senate to bestow various titles and honors upon him. He was, for example, given the title of Father of the Fatherland, coins bore his likeness, and he was given the right to speak first during senate meetings. Caesar increased the number of magistrates who were elected each year, which created a pool of experienced magistrates. This weakened the powers of the magistrates, and thus of the magisterial colleges
In cryptography, a Caesar cipher, known as Caesars cipher, the shift cipher, Caesars code or Caesar shift, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques. It is a type of substitution cipher in which letter in the plaintext is replaced by a letter some fixed number of positions down the alphabet. For example, with a shift of 3, D would be replaced by A, E would become B. The method is named after Julius Caesar, who used it in his private correspondence, the encryption step performed by a Caesar cipher is often incorporated as part of more complex schemes, such as the Vigenère cipher, and still has modern application in the ROT13 system. As with all single-alphabet substitution ciphers, the Caesar cipher is easily broken, the transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions. Plaintext, THE QUICK BROWN FOX JUMPS OVER THE LAZY DOG Ciphertext, QEB NRFZH YOLTK CLU GRJMP LSBO QEB IXWV ALD Deciphering is done in reverse, with a right shift of 3.
The encryption can be represented using modular arithmetic by first transforming the letters into numbers, according to the scheme, encryption of a letter x by a shift n can be described mathematically as, E n = mod 26. Decryption is performed similarly, D n = mod 26, the replacement remains the same throughout the message, so the cipher is classed as a type of monoalphabetic substitution, as opposed to polyalphabetic substitution. The Caesar cipher is named after Julius Caesar, according to Suetonius, while Caesars was the first recorded use of this scheme, other substitution ciphers are known to have been used earlier. If he had anything confidential to say, he wrote it in cipher, that is, by so changing the order of the letters of the alphabet, that not a word could be made out. If anyone wishes to decipher these, and get at their meaning, he must substitute the fourth letter of the alphabet, namely D, for A, there is no record at that time of any techniques for the solution of simple substitution ciphers.
The earliest surviving records date to the 9th century works of Al-Kindi in the Arab world with the discovery of frequency analysis, a Caesar cipher with a shift of one is used on the back of the mezuzah to encrypt the names of God. This may be a holdover from a time when Jewish people were not allowed to have mezuzot. The letters of the cryptogram themselves comprise a religiously significant divine name which Orthodox belief holds keeps the forces of evil in check, in the 19th century, the personal advertisements section in newspapers would sometimes be used to exchange messages encrypted using simple cipher schemes. Kahn describes instances of lovers engaging in secret communications enciphered using the Caesar cipher in The Times, Caesar ciphers can be found today in childrens toys such as secret decoder rings. A construction of 2 rotating disks with a Caesar cipher can be used to encrypt or decrypt the code, the Vigenère cipher uses a Caesar cipher with a different shift at each position in the text, the value of the shift is defined using a repeating keyword.
If the keyword is as long as the message, chosen random, never known to anyone else, and is never reused. The conditions are so difficult they are, in practical effect, keywords shorter than the message, introduce a cyclic pattern that might be detected with a statistically advanced version of frequency analysis
Calpurnia (wife of Caesar)
Calpurnia was the third and last wife of Julius Caesar. Born in 75 BC, she was the daughter of Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, consul in 58 BC, Calpurnia married Caesar in late 59 BC. Contemporary sources describe her as a humble, often shy woman, no children resulted from their union. Caesars daughter, was older than her stepmother. According to a tradition reported in ancient sources, Calpurnia had a premonition about her husbands murder. Unaware that praetor Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus was one of the conspirators against her husband, she asked him to send word to the Senate that Caesar was ill, Caesar rejected this plan, and Brutus escorted him into the hands of his enemies. In Shakespeares Julius Caesar, Calpurnia has a dream that a statue of Caesar was flowing with blood as many Romans wash their hands in the blood and she sees in her dream that Julius Caesar would die in her arms. Calpurnia was shown solving a murder in Mist of Prophecies - part of the Roma Sub Rosa series by Steven Saylor and she gets Gordianus the Finder to look into a threat to her husband in a book in this series, The Triumph of Caesar.
She is portrayed as a woman of intelligence and efficiency, utterly devoted to her husbands interests. Calpurnia was portrayed by Haydn Gwynne in HBOs series Rome, in the motion picture The Addams Family, there is a portrait of Calpurnia on the wall of the Addams house
Caesar's Civil War
The Great Roman Civil War, known as Caesars Civil War, was one of the last politico-military conflicts in the Roman Republic before the establishment of the Roman Empire. The changes to Roman government concomitant to the war eliminated the political traditions of the Roman Republic. The First Triumvirate, comprising Julius Caesar and Pompey, ascended to power with Caesars election as consul, the First Triumvirate was unofficial, a political alliance the substance of which was Pompeys military might, Caesars political influence, and Crassus money. The alliance was further consolidated by Pompeys marriage to Julia, daughter of Caesar, at the conclusion of Caesars first consulship, the Senate tasked him with watching over the Roman forests. This job, specially created by his Senate enemies, was meant to him without giving him command of armies, or garnering him wealth. Caesar, with the help of Pompey and Crassus, evaded the Senates decrees by legislation passed through the popular assemblies, by these acts, Caesar was promoted to Roman Governor of Illyricum and Cisalpine Gaul.
The various governorships gave Caesar command of an army of four legions, the term of his proconsulship, and thus his immunity from prosecution, was set at five years, rather than the customary one year. His term was extended by another five years. During this ten-year period, Caesar used his forces to conquer Gaul and invade Britain. In 52 BC, at the First Triumvirates end, the Roman Senate supported Pompey as sole consul, Caesar had become a military hero and champion of the people. Knowing he hoped to become consul when his governorship expired, the Senate, politically fearful of him, in December of 50 BC, Caesar wrote to the Senate agreeing to resign his military command if Pompey followed suit. Offended, the Senate demanded he immediately disband his army, or be declared an enemy of the people, a secondary reason for Caesars immediate want for another consulship was delaying the inevitable senatorial prosecutions awaiting him upon retirement as governor of Illyricum and Gaul. These potential prosecutions were based upon alleged irregularities that occurred in his consulship, Caesar loyalists, the tribunes Mark Antony and Quintus Cassius Longinus, vetoed the bill, and were quickly expelled from the Senate.
They joined Caesar, who had assembled his army, whom he asked for support against the Senate, agreeing. The proscription protected the Roman Republic from a coup détat and this act of war on the Roman Republic by Caesar led to widespread approval amongst the Roman civilians, who regarded him as a hero. The historical records differ about which decisive comment Caesar made on crossing the Rubicon, Caesars march on Rome was a triumphal progress. The Senate, not knowing that Caesar possessed only a single legion, feared the worst, Pompey declared that Rome could not be defended, he escaped to Capua with those politicians who supported him, the aristocratic Optimates and the regnant consuls. Cicero characterised Pompeys outward sign of weakness as allowing Caesars consolidation of power, as Caesar progressed southwards, Pompey retreated towards Brundisium, initially ordering Domitius to stop Caesars movement on Rome from the direction of the Adriatic seaboard
Curia of Pompey
The Curia of Pompey, sometimes referred to as the Curia Pompeia, was one of several named meeting halls from Republican Rome of historic significance. A curia was a structure for meetings of the senate as well as a tribal assembly. The Curia of Pompey was located at the entrance to the Theater of Pompey, while the main senate house was being moved from the Curia Cornelia to a new Curia Julia, the senate would meet in this smaller building. It is best known as where the Roman Senate murdered Gaius Julius Caesar and it was attached to the porticus directly behind the theatre section and was a Roman exedra, with a curved back wall and several levels of seating. In A New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome by L. Richardson, Jr. Richardson states that after Caesars murder, Richardson cited Suetonius that it was made into a latrine, as stated by Cassius Dio. In 55 BC, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus dedicated the opening of the largest theatre in the ancient world before its full completion and that would be copied by the Roman emperors when they created their own imperial forums.
While the theatre complex stood for centuries, the curia lasted for only about a decade, in 44 BC, Caesar was murdered by a conspiracy of senators. Afterward, the structure was closed and walled up and was said to have set on fire. The structure is located in an area now called Largo di Torre Argentina, the site was excavated by order of the dictator Benito Mussolini in the 1930s. For the most part, only the foundations of the structure have been excavated. In 2012, it was announced that further excavations had uncovered the precise spot of Caesars murder and it was later announced that the underground excavations of the curia would be opened to the public in 2013
Avaricum was an oppidum in ancient Gaul, near what is now the city of Bourges. Avaricum, situated in the lands of the Bituriges, was the largest and best-fortified town within their territory, the terrain favored the oppidum, as it was flanked by a river and marshland, with only a single narrow entrance. By the time of the Roman conquest in 52 BC the city according to Julius Caesar had a population of 40,000 people, aware that he had already been bested three times, decided to change tactics. Calling together a council of the tribes in rebellion against Rome, he convinced them to adopt Fabian strategy, never offering combat with Caesars forces, and denying them supplies. All the towns within range of Caesars foraging parties were destroyed, the land stripped bare, Avaricum was spared this fate since the Bituriges argued the town was impossible to take, and Vercingetorix agreed to make the town an exception. The shortage of grain was so acute that the men ate meat, Caesar personally made the rounds amongst his men, telling them that if the scarcity of food was too much, he would lift the siege and withdraw.
His soldiers protested, refusing to end a siege in disgrace when they still had to avenge the innocent Romans murdered by the Gauls, contented by this, Caesar designed and began engineering an impressive siege apparatus. Starting from high ground, he built a terrace of sorts. Two flanking walls were made, along with two towers to be advanced fully made, another wall was built between the flanking walls to connect them and open the front for the battle. As construction on Caesars siege terrace continued, Vercingetorix moved his cavalry into a closer to Caesars. Having discovered this, Caesar countered, marching in the dead of night and this drew Vercingetorix back to his main camp, rushing to its aid. After twenty-five grueling days of construction, and contending with Gallic raids and attempts to set the whole siege terrace on fire, Caesars apparatus was completed. Caesar ordered the advanced, and much to his good fortune. Taking advantage of lack of discipline, Caesar stealthily moved his soldiers into the towers and the wall.
The walls fell quickly, and the surviving Gauls retreated to the center of town, forming a wedge formation, however, no Roman legionary descended from the walls, simply stood at their ease, watching the Gauls. Panic struck the Gallic defenders, and they all fled for wherever they thought there was an avenue of escape, Caesars legions were in no mood to spare any of the forty thousand Gauls within Avaricum, especially after twenty five days of short rations and great frustration. Only eight hundred managed to escape the massacre that followed, Julius Caesar, Commentaries on the Gallic War vii
Battle of the Sabis
Julius Caesar, commanding the Roman forces, was surprised and nearly defeated. According to Caesars report, a combination of determined defence, skilled generalship, during the winter of 58-57 BC rumours came to Caesars ears that the Belgic tribes were forming a union because they feared possible Roman interference in their affairs. These reports provided Caesar with a pretext for conquering more than Gaul itself. In response, the other Belgic and Celtic tribes had attacked Bibrax, Caesar countered by defending the oppidum and winning an action at the Aisne. Caesar continued his advance and tribes surrendered one by one, four tribes, the Nervii, the Atrebates, the Aduatuci and the Viromandui refused to submit. The Ambiani told Caesar that the Nervii were the most hostile of the Belgae to Roman rule, a fierce and brave tribe, they did not allow the import of luxury items as they believed these had a corrupting effect and probably feared Roman influence. They had no intention of entering negotiations with the Romans.
Caesar would move on them next, as with all ancient battles, estimates of the forces available to both sides will always be a matter of some speculation. A Roman legion at this period had an establishment of some 4,800 fighting men with additional auxiliary forces. Eight Roman legions took part in the battle and it is not known if they were at full strength, but a reasonable estimate might be in the region of 42,000 men. Caesar claims he had received intelligence from the Remi that the various tribes of the Belgae had promised to contribute a total of 300,000 fighting men. According to Caesar the Remi estimates of the men promised by the four tribes now left to oppose Caesar were,50,000 Nervii,15,000 Atrebates,10,000 Veromandui and 19,000 Aduatuci. If these figures were reliable it would mean that Caesar was immediately faced with a maximum of 75,000 men, promises are not always kept so it is probable the actual number was smaller than this, though still high enough to outnumber the legionaries.
Caesars legions had been marching in Nervian territory for three days, following an ancient road and he learnt from prisoners that the Belgae were massing on the far side of the River Sabis, which was about 10 miles ahead. The Nervii had persuaded the Atrebates and the Veromandui to support them, the Aduatuci were marching to join them, but they did not arrive in time to take part in the battle. Their non-combatants had moved to an area screened by marshes. The Belgae had made their preparations and were now waiting for the Romans, Caesar sent forward experienced scouts to choose the next campsite. He learnt from prisoners taken that sympathisers in the ragtag of surrendered Belgae and other Gauls travelling with the army had gone to the Nervii and it was believed this would intimidate the Romans into withdrawing
Battle of Pharsalus
The Battle of Pharsalus was a decisive battle of Caesars Civil War. On 9 August 48 BC at Pharsalus in central Greece, Gaius Julius Caesar, Pompey had the backing of a majority of the senators, of whom many were optimates, and his army significantly outnumbered the veteran Caesarian legions. The two armies confronted each other several months of uncertainty, Caesar being in a much weaker position than Pompey. Pompey wanted to delay, knowing the enemy would eventually surrender from hunger, pressured by the senators present and by his officers, he reluctantly engaged in battle and suffered an overwhelming defeat, ultimately fleeing the camp and his men, disguised as an ordinary citizen. Caesar, lacking a fleet to give chase, solidified his control over the western Mediterranean – Spain specifically – before assembling ships to follow Pompey. Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus, whom Pompey had appointed to command his 600-ship fleet, set up a blockade to prevent Caesar from crossing to Greece. Caesar, defying convention, chose to cross the Adriatic during the winter and this move surprised Bibulus and the first wave of ships managed to run the blockade easily.
Now prepared, Bibulus managed to prevent any ships from crossing. Caesars only choice was to fortify his position, forage what supplies he could, Pompey by now had a massive international army, his troops were mostly untested raw recruits, while Caesars troops were hardened veterans. Realizing Caesars difficulty in keeping his troops supplied, Pompey decided to simply mirror Caesars forces, Caesar began to despair and used every channel he could think of to pursue peace with Pompey. When this was rebuffed he made an attempt to back to Italy to collect his missing troops but was turned back by a storm. Finally, Mark Antony rallied the forces in Italy, fought through the blockade and made the crossing, reinforcing Caesars forces in both men and spirit. Now at full strength Caesar felt confident to take the fight to Pompey, Pompey was camped in a strong position just south of Dyrrhachium with the sea to his back and surrounded by hills, making a direct assault impossible. Caesar ordered a wall to be built around Pompeys position in order to cut off water, Pompey built a parallel wall and in between a kind of no mans land was created, with fighting comparable to the trench warfare of World War I.
Finally the standoff was broken by a traitor in Caesars army, Pompey immediately exploited this information and forced Caesars army into a full retreat, but ordered his army not to pursue, fearing Caesars reputation for setting elaborate traps. This caused Caesar to remark, Today the victory had been the enemys, had there been any one among them to gain it, Pompey continued his strategy of mirroring Caesars forces and avoiding any direct engagements. After trapping Caesar in Thessaly, the prominent senators in Pompeys camp began to argue loudly for a decisive victory. Although Pompey was strongly against it—he wanted to surround and starve Caesars army instead—he eventually gave in, the date of the actual decisive battle is given as 9 August 48 BC according to the republican calendar
Gaius Julius Caesar, known as Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and notable author of Latin prose. He played a role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic. In 60 BC, Caesar and Pompey formed an alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate. Caesars victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC, extended Romes territory to the English Channel, Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both the Channel and the Rhine, when he built a bridge across the Rhine and crossed the Channel to invade Britain. These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, with the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused the order, and instead marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with the 13th Legion, leaving his province, Civil war resulted, and Caesars victory in the war put him in an unrivalled position of power and influence.
After assuming control of government, Caesar began a programme of social and governmental reforms and he centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed dictator in perpetuity, giving him additional authority. But the underlying political conflicts had not been resolved, and on the Ides of March 44 BC, a new series of civil wars broke out, and the constitutional government of the Republic was never fully restored. Caesars adopted heir Octavian, known as Augustus, rose to power after defeating his opponents in the civil war. Octavian set about solidifying his power, and the era of the Roman Empire began, much of Caesars life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns, and from other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. The biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are major sources, Caesar is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history. Caesar was born into a family, the gens Julia.
The cognomen Caesar originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor who was born by Caesarean section. The Historia Augusta suggests three alternative explanations, that the first Caesar had a head of hair, that he had bright grey eyes. Caesar issued coins featuring images of elephants, suggesting that he favored this interpretation of his name, despite their ancient pedigree, the Julii Caesares were not especially politically influential, although they had enjoyed some revival of their political fortunes in the early 1st century BC. Caesars father, called Gaius Julius Caesar, governed the province of Asia and his mother, Aurelia Cotta, came from an influential family. Little is recorded of Caesars childhood, in 85 BC, Caesars father died suddenly, so Caesar was the head of the family at 16