Category:King of Italy
Pages in category "King of Italy"
The following 6 pages are in this category, out of 6 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 6 pages are in this category, out of 6 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Umberto I of Italy – It can also refer to Humbert I, Count of Savoy and to Humbert I of Viennois, Dauphin of the Viennois. Umberto I, nicknamed the Good, was the King of Italy from 9 January 1878 until his assassination on 29 July 1900. Umbertos reign saw Italy attempt colonial expansion into the Horn of Africa, successfully gaining Eritrea, in 1882, he approved the Triple Alliance with the German Empire and Austria-Hungary. He was deeply loathed in leftist circles because of his conservatism and he was especially hated by anarchists, who attempted an assassination on him during the first year of his reign. He was killed by another anarchist, Gaetano Bresci, two years after the Bava-Beccaris massacre. The son of Victor Emmanuel II and Archduchess Adelaide of Austria, Umberto was born in Turin and his education was entrusted to, amongst others, Massimo Taparelli, marquis dAzeglio and Pasquale Stanislao Mancini. From March 1858 he had a career in the Sardinian army. It proved difficult to find any royal bride for either of the sons of king Victor Emmanuel II and their conflict with the papacy did not help these matters. Not many eligible Catholic royal brides were easily available for young Umberto. At first, Umberto was to marry Archduchess Mathilde of Austria, on 21 April 1868 Umberto married his first cousin, Margherita Teresa Giovanna, Princess of Savoy. Their only son was Victor Emmanuel, prince of Naples, the King warded off the blow with his sabre, but Cairoli, in attempting to defend him, was severely wounded in the thigh. The would-be assassin was condemned to death, even though the law allowed the death penalty if the King was killed. The King commuted the sentence to one of penal servitude for life, passanante would later die in a psychiatric institution. In foreign policy Umberto I approved the Triple Alliance with Austria-Hungary and Germany, repeatedly visiting Vienna, many in Italy, however, viewed with hostility an alliance with their former Austrian enemies, who were still occupying areas claimed by Italy. Umberto was also favorably disposed towards the policy of colonial expansion inaugurated in 1885 by the occupation of Massawa in Eritrea, Italy expanded into Somalia in the 1880s as well. In the summer of 1900, Italian forces were part of the Eight-Nation Alliance which participated in the Boxer Rebellion in Imperial China, through the Boxer Protocol, signed after Umbertos death, the Kingdom of Italy gained a concession territory in Tientsin. Umbertos attitude towards the Holy See was uncompromising, in an 1886 telegram, he declared Rome untouchable and affirmed the permanence of the Italian possession of the Eternal City. The reign of Umberto I was a time of social upheaval, the protesters included the young Benito Mussolini, then a member of the socialist party
2. Umberto II of Italy – Umberto II or Humbert II, was the last King of Italy, reigning for slightly over a month, from 9 May 1946 to 12 June 1946. However, he was de facto head of state from 1944 to 1946 and he was nicknamed the May King. Umberto was the son of the five children of King Victor Emmanuel III. In an effort to repair the image after the fall of Benito Mussolinis regime. As a referendum was in preparation on the abolition of the monarchy in 1946, however, the referendum passed, Italy was declared a republic, and Umberto lived out the rest of his life in exile in Cascais, Portugal. Umberto was born at the Castle of Racconigi in Piedmont and he was the third child, and the only son, of King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy and Queen Elena of Montenegro. As such, he became heir apparent upon his birth as the Italian throne was limited to male-line descendants only and he was the first cousin of King Alexander I of Yugoslavia. He was accorded with the title of Prince of Piedmont, which was formalised by Royal Decree on 29 September, Umberto was married in Rome on 8 January 1930 to Marie José of Belgium, daughter of King Albert I of Belgium. They had four children, Maria Pia Vittorio Emanuele Maria Gabriella Maria Beatrice As Prince of Piedmont, Umberto visited South America, with his preceptor, Bonaldi, he went to Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina and Chile. This trip was part of the plan of Fascism to link the Italian people living outside of Italy with their mother country. The Prince of Piedmont was educated for a career and in time became the commander in chief of the Northern Armies. However, his role was merely formal, the de facto belonging to Benito Mussolini. By mutual agreement, Umberto and Mussolini always kept a distance, an attempted assassination of the prince took place in Brussels on 24 October 1929, the day of the announcement of his betrothal to Princess Marie José. The Prince was about to lay a wreath on the Tomb of the Belgian Unknown Soldier at the foot of the Colonne du Congrès, with a cry of Down with Mussolini. The culprit, Fernando de Rosa, fired a shot that missed the Prince of Piedmont. De Rosa was arrested and under interrogation claimed to be a member of the Second International and his trial became a major political event, and although he was found guilty of attempted murder, he was given a light sentence of five years in prison. This sentence caused an uproar in Italy and a brief rift in Belgian-Italian relations. Following the Savoyards tradition, he kept apart from politics until he was finally named Lieutenant General of the Realm
3. Victor Emmanuel II of Italy – The Italians gave him the epithet Father of the Fatherland. Victor Emmanuel was born the eldest son of Charles Albert, Prince of Carignano and his father succeeded a distant cousin as King of Sardinia-Piedmont in 1831. He lived for years of his youth in Florence and showed an early interest in politics, the military. In 1842, he married his cousin Adelaide of Austria and he was styled as the Duke of Savoy prior to becoming King of Sardinia-Piedmont. He took part in the First Italian War of Independence under his father King Charles Albert, fighting in the front line at the battles of Pastrengo, Santa Lucia, Goito and Custoza. He became King of Sardinia-Piedmont in 1849 when his father abdicated the throne after a military defeat by the Austrians at the Battle of Novara. Victor Emmanuel was immediately able to obtain a rather favorable armistice at Vignale by the Austrian imperial army commander Radetzky, after new elections, the peace with Austria was accepted by the new Chamber of Deputies. In 1849 Victor Emmanuel also fiercely suppressed a revolt in Genoa, defining the rebels as a vile, in 1852, he appointed Count Camillo Benso of Cavour as Prime Minister of Piedmont-Sardinia. This turned out to be a choice, since Cavour was a political mastermind. Victor Emmanuel II soon became the symbol of the Risorgimento, the Italian unification movement of the 1850s and he was especially popular in the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont because of his respect for the new constitution and his liberal reforms. Following Victor Emmanuels advice, Cavour joined Britain and France in the Crimean War against Russia, Cavour was reluctant to go to war due to the power of Russia at the time and the expense of doing so. Victor Emmanuel, however, was convinced of the rewards to be gained from the alliance created with Britain and, more importantly, the Italo-French campaign against Austria in 1859 started successfully. After several quarrels about the outcome of the war, Cavour resigned, later that same year, Victor Emmanuel II sent his forces to fight the papal army at Castelfidardo and drove the Pope into Vatican City. His success at these goals led him to be excommunicated from the Catholic Church, then, Giuseppe Garibaldi conquered Sicily and Naples, and Sardinia-Piedmont grew even larger. On 17 March 1861 the Kingdom of Italy was officially established, Victor Emmanuel supported Giuseppe Garibaldis Expedition of the Thousand, which resulted in the rapid fall of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in southern Italy. However, the king halted Garibaldi when he appeared ready to attack Rome, still under the Papal States, in 1860, through local plebiscites, Tuscany, Modena, Parma and Romagna decided to side with Sardinia-Piedmont. Victor Emmanuel then marched victoriously in the Marche and Umbria after the battle of Castelfidardo over the Papal forces. The king subsequently met with Garibaldi at Teano, receiving from him the control of southern Italy, another series of plebiscites in the occupied lands resulted in the proclamation of Victor Emmanuel as the first King of Italy by the new Parliament of unified Italy, on 17 March 1861
4. Victor Emmanuel III of Italy – Victor Emmanuel III was the King of Italy from 29 July 1900 until his abdication on 9 May 1946. In addition, he claimed the thrones of Ethiopia and Albania as Emperor of Ethiopia and King of the Albanians, during his long reign, which began after the assassination of his father Umberto I, the Kingdom of Italy became involved in two World Wars. His reign also encompassed the birth, rise, and fall of Italian Fascism, Victor Emmanuel abdicated his throne in 1946 in favour of his son Umberto II, hoping to strengthen support for the monarchy against an ultimately successful referendum to abolish it. He then went in exile to Alexandria, Egypt, where he died and was buried the following year. He was called by the Italians Il Re soldato for having led his country during both the wars, and, after Italys victory in the First World War Il Re vittorioso. He was also nicknamed Sciaboletta due to his height of 1.53 m, Victor Emmanuel was born in Naples, Italy. He was the child of Umberto I, King of Italy. Margherita was the daughter of the Duke of Genoa, from birth until his accession, Victor Emmanuel was known by the title of the Prince of Naples. On 24 October 1896, Prince Victor Emmanuel married Princess Elena of Montenegro, on 29 July 1900, at the age of 30, Victor Emmanuel acceded to the throne upon his fathers assassination. The only advice that his father Umberto ever gave his heir was Remember, to be a king, all you need to know is how to sign your name, read a newspaper, and mount a horse. His early years showed evidence that, by the standards of the Savoy monarchy, indeed, even though his father was killed by an anarchist, the new King showed a commitment to constitutional freedoms. Though parliamentary rule had been established in Italy, the Statuto Albertino, or constitution. For instance, he had the right to appoint the Prime Minister even if the individual in question did not command majority support in the Chamber of Deputies, when World War I began, Italy at first remained neutral, despite being part of the Triple Alliance. However, in 1915, Italy signed several secret treaties committing her to enter the war on the side of the Triple Entente, most of the politicians opposed war, however, and the Italian Chamber of Deputies forced Prime Minister Antonio Salandra to resign. At this juncture, Victor Emmanuel declined Salandras resignation and personally made the decision for Italy to enter the war and he was well within his rights to do so under the Statuto. Popular demonstrations in favor of the war were staged in Rome, with 200,000 gathering on 16 May 1915 and it was at this time, the period of World War I, that the King enjoyed the genuine affection of the majority of his people. Still, during the war he received about 400 threatening letters from people of social background. The economic depression which followed World War I gave rise to much extremism among Italys sorely tried working classes and this caused the country as a whole to become politically unstable