Prienai is a city in Lithuania situated on the Neman River,39 km south of Kaunas. In 2001 the city had 11,353 inhabitants, the name of the city is a derivative from a surname Prienas. Pociūnai Airport is associated with the city, the first documented mention of Prienai is in 1502 when the Grand Duke of Lithuania Alexander gave the land of Prienai to the noble Mykolas Glinskis. Magdeburg rights were granted to the city in 1609, beginning a period of growth continued through the 17th and 18th century. During World War II, when it was occupied by German troops, people emigrated or were expelled, while the Nazis killed the Jews. On August 27,1941,1,078 Jews from Prienai, the massacre was perpetrated by Rollkommando Hamann and local Lithuanians. 1868 beer brewery of high quality beer founded, AB „Sportinė aviacija“ for a long time was the only glider factory in Soviet Union. Here was created the first Lithuanian glassfibre glider BK-7 Lietuva, Prienai is home to BC Vytautas, a basketball team that competes in the Lithuanian Basketball League.
Prienai is a member of the Douzelage, a town twinning association of 24 towns across the European Union. This active town twinning began in 1991 and there are events, such as a produce market from each of the other countries. Discussions regarding membership are in hand with three further towns
Cross of Merit for Women and Girls
The Cross of Merit for Women and Girls was created on 22 March 1871 by Kaiser Wilhelm I, German Emperor, in his capacity as King of Prussia. The award was presented only to women, but was not a Ladies Order in the most narrow sense and girls were awarded at the request of Empress Augusta, and the award was bestowed by the Kaiser. The appearance and shape is similar to the Iron Cross. On the reverse there is the crown above the intertwined monograms A and W. The cross was worn suspended by a bow on the left chest. The ribbon is the same as that of the Iron Cross for non-combattants, maximilian Gritzner, Handbuch der Ritter- und Verdienstorden aller Kulturstaaten der Welt
In German-speaking countries the German term Herrenhaus refers to an institution similar to an upper house, one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature. More specifically, Herrenhaus can refer to the following, The Prussian House of Lords was the first chamber of the Prussian parliament from 1850 until 1918. The Herrenhaus building on Leipziger Straße in Berlin, designed by the architect Friedrich Schulze, the House of Lords was the upper chamber of the Imperial Council of the Cisleithanian half of Austria-Hungary between 1867 and 1918. The Diet of Hungary included an upper House of Magnates, Herrenhaus is used in German to mean manor house or mansion
The Prussian Partition refers to the former territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth acquired during the partitions of Poland in the late 18th century by the Kingdom of Prussia. The Prussian acquisition amounted to 141,400 km2 of land constituting formerly western territory of the Commonwealth. The first partitioning led by imperial Russia with Prussian participation took place in 1772, the one in 1793. The Kingdom of Prussia acquired Polish territories in all three military partitions, in 1793, the Kingdom of Prussia annexed Gdańsk and Toruń, part of the Crown of Poland since 1457. The incursion sparked the first Greater Poland Uprising in Kujawy under Jan Henryk Dąbrowski, the revolt ended after General Tadeusz Kościuszko was captured by the Russians. The subsequent third partitioning of 1795 marked the Prussian annexation of Podlasie region, with the remainder of Masovia, and the capital city of Warsaw. The second Greater Poland Uprising against Prussian forces broke out in Wielkopolska in 1806, the fall of Napoleon during his Russian Campaign lead to the dismantling of the Duchy at the Congress of Vienna and the return of Prussian control.
The third Greater Poland Uprising under Ludwik Mierosławski occurred in 1846, the Uprising was designed to be part of a general uprising against all three states that had partitioned Poland. Some 254 insurgents were charged with treason in Berlin. Two years later, during the Spring of Nations, the fourth Polish uprising broke out in and around Poznań in 1846, the Prussian army pacified the area and 1,500 Poles were imprisoned in Poznań Citadel. The Uprising showed to Polish insurgents that there was no possibility whatsoever to try to negotiate Polish statehood with the Germans, only sixty years later, the Greater Poland Uprising in the Prussian Partition helped Poland regain its freedom in the aftermath of World War I. Poles in the Prussian partition were subject to extensive Germanization policies, frederick the Great brought 300,000 colonists to territories he conquered to facilitate Germanization. From the economic perspective, the territories of the Prussian Partition were the most developed, the German government supported efficient farming, financial institutions and transport.
In the First Partition, Prussia received 36,000 km², in the second partition, Prussia received 58,000 km² and about 1 million people. In the third, similar to the second, Prussia gained 55,000 km² and 1 million people, Prussia gained about 20 percent of the former Commonwealth territory and about 23 percent of the population. From the geographical perspective, most of the territories annexed by Prussia formed the province of Greater Poland, PREUSSEN, The Prussian Partition in Google books preview
Friedrich Wilhelm Quirin von Forcade de Biaix
He was one of King Frederick the Greats most active and most treasured officers. Twice wounded and left for dead on the battlefield, he covered the name Forcade de Biaix in glory, together with his wife, he fathered 23 children. In 1851, his name was immortalized on the north facing commemorative plaque on the Equestrian statue of Frederick the Great in Berlin, Friedrich Wilhelm Quirin von Forcade de Biaix is referred to in some historical sources, as the Marquis de Biaix. As with his father, there is no evidence that he was ever a Marquis, Biaix was not a marquisate, but instead a noble fief. His father was a Huguenot religious exile who was among the earliest arrivals in Brandenburg-Prussia, little else is known about his early life. Forcade spent the majority of his career on the side of this regiment. The regiment included a company of Grenadiers, the 2nd Grenadier Company and it was garrisoned in Berlin from 1716 until 1806. He commanded the regiment, including the Grenadiers, for 17 years.
His father commanded the regiment during 13 years, during much of its existence, as well as more than 200 years after, it was referred to as Forcades Regiment. The Regiment is immortalized in the German military marching composition Das Regiment Forcade that was in use as late as World War II,21 September 1713, appointed as a Fähnrich, an entry-level commissioned officer with the Grenadiers of the Weiße Füsilier-Leibgarde Nr. 1, in the 1st Prussian Infantry Regiment, aka General Field Marshall Count von Wartenslebens Infantry Regiment, following Brandenburg-Prussias declaration of war against Sweden in the summer of 1715, Forcade fought in the Pomeranian Campaigns. He fought at the Siege of Stralsund, where he was wounded for the first time,11 January 1716, promoted to Second Lieutenant. Promoted on 26 May 1719 to First Lieutenant,24 January 1721, made a Captain in his fathers Regiment, the 23rd Prussian Infantry Regiment. In 1732, promoted to Major in the same regiment, promoted to Lieutenant Colonel in 1740.
He fought near Glogau, Ottmachau Palace, Graetz,30 May 1743, promoted to Colonel. In June 1743, he was appointed Amtshauptmann von Zinna, the regiment lost its Regimentschef, Major General Wolf Alexander Ernst Christoph von Blanckensee, at the Battle of Soor. Forcade himself, was shot through the calf of his right foot, badly wounded, he was left for dead on the battlefield. Another episode in 1746 demonstrates just how much King Frederick the Great treasured Forcade, during a ritual presentation at court at the Berlin Palace, Forcade had to lean on a window because of his wounded right foot
Royal Prussian Railway Administration
The title Royal Prussian Railway Administration or KPEV is often mistakenly used to describe the Prussian state railways. The initials KPEV are found on cast wagon plaques with the coat of arms, no organisation with the name Royal Prussian Railway Administration actually existed, but its German name and the abbreviation KPEV has been used widely by railway fans since about 1970. The largely independent railway divisions in Prussia reported directly to the Ministry of Public Works, the correct title for the railways in Prussia was at first the Royal Prussian State Railways. In 1896 it became the Prussian-Hessian State Railways and after the First World War, the individual divisions or royal railway divisions were abbreviated to KED and ED. These are found in official documents, unlike the abbreviation KPEV. The organisation and history of the railways of the Kingdom of Prussia are found in the article on the Prussian state railways
Order of the Red Eagle
The Order of the Red Eagle was an order of chivalry of the Kingdom of Prussia. It was awarded to military personnel and civilians, to recognize valor in combat, excellence in military leadership and faithful service to the kingdom. As with most German orders, the Order of the Red Eagle could only be awarded to commissioned officers or civilians of equivalent status. However, there was a medal of the order, which could be awarded to non-commissioned officers and enlisted men, lower ranking civil servants and other civilians. The predecessor to Order of the Red Eagle was founded on November 17,1705 and this soon fell into disuse but was revived in 1712 in Brandenburg-Bayreuth and again in 1734 in Brandenburg-Ansbach, where it first received the name Order of the Brandenburg Red Eagle. The statutes were changed in 1777 and the Order named therein as the Order of the Red Eagle, the Order was conferred in one class, limited to fifty knights. The Kingdom of Prussia absorbed both Brandenburg-Bayreuth and Brandenburg-Ansbach in January,1792, and on June 12,1792, King Frederick William II again revived the order as a Prussian royal order.
After the Order of the Black Eagle, the Red Eagle was the second highest order of the kingdom in order of precedence, in 1810, King Frederick William III revised the statutes of the Order, expanding it into three classes. In 1830, a breast star was authorized for the Second Class, the statutes were further revised in 1861, and a Grand Cross was established as the highest class of the Order. By 1918, an affiliated soldiers medal had been available to commoners. The monarchy collapsed on November 9,1918, a new German constitution was signed into law, August 11,1919, effectually putting a legal end to the monarchy. Among these were, All classes but the Medal of the Red Eagle Order could be awarded with swords for distinction in wartime, the swords passed through the arms of the cross behind the center medallion. All classes above the 4th Class could be awarded with Swords on Ring, indicating that the recipient of that class without swords had earlier received a class of the order with swords. A pair of crossed swords were worn above the cross on the ring or above the medallion on the upper arm of the breast star.
All classes could be awarded with or without crown as an added distinction, the Grand Cross, 1st and 2nd Class could be awarded with oak leaves, indicating prior receipt of the next lower class of the order, and/or with diamonds, as a special distinction. Royal family members were awarded the Grand Cross with crown, the Maltese cross badge was suspended from a miniature of the Prussian crown, which covered the usual suspension ring. The Grand Cross was awarded at least once with crossed marshals batons, the crossed batons were worn above the Maltese cross badge of the Grand Cross, on its suspension ring. The 3rd Class could be awarded with bow, indicating prior receipt of the 4th Class, prussians who were Knights of the Order of St. John of Malta
North German Confederation
The North German Confederation was a confederation of 22 previously independent states of northern Germany, with nearly 30 million inhabitants. It was the first modern German nation state and the basis for the German Empire, after several unsuccessful proposals from several sides to reform the German Confederation, the North German major power Prussia left the German Confederation with some allies. It came to war between states on one hand and southern states led by Austria on the other. After a quick decision in the Austro-Prussian War of July 1866, Prussia, at first, it was a military alliance between independent states, the so-called August Alliance, but the states already had the intention to form a federation or confederation with a constitution. The North German Confederation is historically important for the economic and judicial unification of Germany, many of its laws were taken over by the German Empire, the North German Confederation continues as the German nation state which still exists today.
On January 1,1871, the received a new constitution that gave it the name German Empire. In 1815, after the defeat of Napoleon, the German princes. The sovereignty remained with the individual German states, there were several attempts to create a modern nation state, most prominently in the Revolution of 1848. A major issue in the struggle was the rivalry between Austria, the principal power in Germany, and the ascending Prussia. The Austro-Prussian War of 1866 demonstrated the superiority of Prussia, led by its ingenious. The alliance had 15 members then, with 80 percent of the living in Prussia. A notable exclave of the North German Confederation was the Prussian territory of Hohenzollern in the south, hesse-Darmstadt was part of the new Confederation only with its northern part. A South German Confederation, as mentioned in the Peace of Prague, from the beginning the alliance was supposed to become a nation state with a federal constitution. On 15 December 1866, Bismarck presented a proposal to the representatives of the allied governments and their complaints did not seriously alter the proposal.
On 7 February 1867, the proposal of the governments was ready. It was the not to impose the new constitution but to stipulate it together with a representation of the people. To this end a parliament was elected on 12 February and this Konstituierender Reichstag accepted the constitution, with relatively minor changes, on 16 April 1867. Then, the state parliaments adopted it, the first North German Reichstag was elected, the only one during the existence of the North German Confederation
Provinces of Prussia
The Provinces of Prussia constituted the main administrative divisions of Prussia upon the Stein-Hardenberg Reforms. Following the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806 and the Congress of Vienna in 1815 and its territory covered some 60 percent of the territory that was to become the German Reich. The German Confederation was established at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the Prussian state was initially subdivided into ten provinces. The Prussian government appointed the heads of each known as Oberpräsident. The Oberpräsident represented the Prussian government in the province, and was busy with implementing and supervising central prerogatives of the Prussian government, the provinces of Prussia were further subdivided into government districts, subject to the High Commissioner. Congruent with the Kingdom of Prussia proper, its territory, like the Greater Polish territory of Posen, was not part of the German Confederation, in 1850 the Province of Hohenzollern in Southern Germany, created from the annexed principalities of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen.
The outcome of the Austro-Prussian War put an end to the aspirations of a unified state consisting of the countries in both Germany and Austria. Instead the North German Confederation was created under Prussian leadership, the German Empire was dissolved in 1918 following World War I. Prussia had to virtually all territory belonging to the provinces of Posen and West Prussia to the newly created state of Poland. Smaller areas had been ceded to Belgium, Denmark, the League of Nations mandate of the Memel Territory and the Mandatory Saar. Prussia and its provinces formally continued to exist even though political control was taken over by the National Socialist German Workers Party following their rise to power in 1933. However, Prussia did not survive the defeat and the division of Germany following the end of World War II in 1945, several of the provinces attained statehood or became a part of other post-war federal states
Friedrich Wilhelm von Forcade de Biaix
Very little is known about his military career. He followed the tradition of his family and fought in the First Silesian War, the Second Silesian War. 1761, was appointed Schwadronschef of the 2nd Grenadier Company in the 24th Prussian Infantry Regiment,3 September 1778, died at his garrison in Frankfurt/Oder. The family motto of the Prussian branch is In Virtute Pertinax, coat of Arms, An escutcheon with the field divided into four parts. A Grafenkrone as helmut on top of the escutcheon, crested with a or fleur-de-lis, two or lions supporting the escutcheon. A Counts coronet to demonstrate rank and because the family served the counts of Foix. His father was Friedrich Wilhelm Quirin von Forcade de Biaix, one of King Frederick the Greats most active, Friedrich Wilhelm von Forcade de Biaix never married. Gieraths, Günther, Die Kampfhandlungen der brandenburgisch-preussischen Armee, 1626-1807, Band 8, Berlin 1964, Ernst Heinrich, Neues allgemeines Deutsches Adels-Lexicon, Band 3, Leipzig 1861, Pages 293-294.
König, Anton Balthasar, Biographisches Lexikon aller Helden und Militairpersonen, welche sich in Preußischen Diensten berühmt gemacht haben, A - F, Band 1, Gerhild H. M. Der Wandel des Sehepuncktes. Die Geschichte Brandenburg-Preußens in der Graphik von 1648 bis 1810, Bernhard, Staat, Residenz in der preussisch-deutschen Militärgeschichte. Lange, Die Soldaten Friedrich’s des Grossen, Leipzig 1853, Leopold von, Allgemeines Archiv für die Geschichtskunde des Preußischen Staates, Band 17, Berlin 1835, Page 43. Lehmann, Die Ritter des Ordens pour le mérite, Gottlob, Sammlung ungedruckter Nachrichten, so die Geschichte der Feldzüge der Preußen von 1740. Bis 1779. (in German and French Winter, Die kriegsgeschichtliche Überlieferung über Friedrich den Grossen kritisch geprüft an dem Beispiel der Kapitulation von Maxen,1888, Gustaf, Die Ritter des Ordens pour le mérite
Berlin-Anhalt Railway Company
The Berlin-Anhalt Railway Company was a railway company in Prussia. The railway connection between Berlin and Köthen, built by the BAE, was one of the first long-distance railways in Germany, the Berlin-Anhalt Railway Company was one of the most important railway companies in Germany for about four decades in the 19th century. An initial plan to build a railway between Berlin and Riesa, which would have connected to the Leipzig–Dresden railway, failed due to the politics of the state of Prussia. The first railway constructed by the BAE was the 21-kilometer-long line between Köthen and the residency of Dessau, which opened on 1 September 1840. In mid-August 1841, this line was extended by another 37 kilometers to Wittenberg. On 1 July 1841, the railway ran from the terminus of the line, at the Anhalter Bahnhof in Berlin. The 32-kilometer-long gap between Jüterbog and Wittenberg was closed on 10 September 1841 and this meant that Köthen became the first railway node in Germany, where the new BAE line met with the Magdeburg-Leipzig Railway, which had opened for service on 9 June 1840.
It took until 1848 before the company was able to complete the plan of running a rail line from Jüterbog via Falkenberg to Riesa. On 2 July 1848 trains started to travel to Herzberg an der Elster, about 10 years the railways of the Berlin-Anhaltische Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft reached the railway nodes of Halle and Leipzig. From the 17 August 1857, a line ran initially from Dessau to Bitterfeld, from the 1 February 1859, two lines traveled from there to Halle and Leipzig. On 3 August 1859, when Wittenberg was connected to Bitterfeld, the construction of new lines, as well as the growth of competition from other railway companies, forced the constant adjustment of railway services to correspond with the needs of the day. This meant that the railway connection Berlin–Wittenberg–Dessau–Köthen faded in significance. It was not until the 1870s, before the network was further expanded, on the 1 October 1871, the BAE purchased the 13-kilometer-long Anhaltischen Leopoldsbahn, which travels from Rosslau to Zerbst, and which had originally opened on 1 November 1863.
On the 1 July 1874, the BAE completed an expansion to Magdeburg, on the 15 October 1875, the line between Wittenberg and Falkenberg was put into service, which completed the railway network of the Berlin-Anhaltische Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft. This line had opened on the 1 June 1874 and was 148 kilometers in length. The Anhalt railway was one of the most important long-distance railways in Germany at the time of its opening. Some of the first express trains traveled from Berlin via Köthen to Halle, Frankfurt am Main and Munich, as well as to Dresden, Prague, a direct result of these connections was the construction of the monumental Berlin Anhalter Bahnhof. Anhalt Leopold Railway Anhalter Bahn from bahnstrecken. de - in German Bahnstrecken im Süden Berlins - in German