George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle
George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle, KG was an English soldier, politician and a key figure in effecting the Restoration of the Monarchy to King Charles II in 1660. Having assaulted the Under Sheriff of the county in revenge for a wrong done to his father, becoming a soldier, he served as a volunteer in the 1626 expedition to Cadiz, and the next year fought well at the siege of the Île de Ré. In 1629 Monck went to the Netherlands, a theatre of warfare and he fought bravely at the 1637 Siege of Breda, always first in the breach of his men. In 1638 he surrendered his commission in consequence of a quarrel with the authorities of Dordrecht. He was appointed to the lieutenant-colonelcy of the Earl of Newports regiment, during the operations on the Scottish border in the Bishops Wars he showed his skill and coolness in the dispositions by which he saved the English artillery at the Battle of Newburn. At the outbreak of the Irish rebellion Monck was appointed as colonel of Sidneys Regiment under the command of James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde.
All the qualities for which he was noted through life — his talent for making himself indispensable, his imperturbable temper, the governorship of Dublin stood vacant, and Lord Leicester recommended Monck. Charles I overruled the appointment in favour of Lord Cavan, the Duke of Ormonde viewed him with suspicion as one of two officers who refused to take the oath to support the Royalist cause in England and sent him under guard to Bristol. Taken prisoner by the Parliamentary Northern Association Army under Lord Fairfax at the Battle of Nantwich in January 1644, during his imprisonment he wrote Observations on Military and Political Affairs. Moncks experience in Ireland led to his release and he was made major general in the army sent by Parliament against Irish rebels. Making a distinction between fighting the Irish and taking arms against the king, he accepted the offer and swore loyalty to the Parliamentary cause. He made little headway against the Irish led by Owen Roe ONeill, the convention was a military expedient to deal with a military necessity.
Most of Moncks army went over to the Royalist cause, placing themselves under the command of Hugh Montgomery, although Parliament disavowed the terms of the truce, no blame was attached to Moncks recognition of military necessity. He next fought at Oliver Cromwells side in Scotland at the 1650 Battle of Dunbar, made commander-in-chief in Scotland by Cromwell, Monck completed the subjugation of the country. During this subjugation he lost control of his men with the resulting manslaughter, the streets of the town were reputed to run red with blood for days and Monck eventually was sickened by the barbarity when he saw the corpse of a suckling mother with her baby still feeding. In February 1652 Monck left Scotland to recover his health at Bath. On his return to shore Monck married Anne Radford, in 1653 he was nominated one of the representatives for Devon in Barebones Parliament. He returned to Scotland, methodically beating down a Royalist insurrection in the Highlands, at Cromwells request, Monck remained in Scotland as governor
Anne, Princess Royal
Anne, Princess Royal, KG KT GCVO GCStJ QSO GCL CD is the second child and only daughter of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. At the time of her birth, she was third in the line of succession, behind her mother – Princess Elizabeth – and elder brother and she rose to second after her mothers accession, but is currently 12th in line. Anne is known for her work, and is patron of over 200 organisations. Princess Anne has held the title of Princess Royal since 1987 and is its seventh holder, Anne was married to Captain Mark Phillips in 1973, they divorced in 1992. They have two children and three grandchildren, in 1992, within months of her divorce, Anne married Vice Admiral Sir Timothy Laurence, whom she had met while he served as her mothers equerry between 1986 and 1989. Anne was born at Clarence House on 15 August 1950 at 11,50 am, as the child and only daughter of Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh. She was the grandchild of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. Anne was baptised in the Music Room of Buckingham Palace on 21 October 1950, by Archbishop of York, after the death of George VI, Annes mother ascended the throne as Queen Elizabeth II.
Given her young age at the time, she did not attend the coronation, the Company was active until 1963, when Anne went to boarding school. Anne enrolled at Benenden School in 1963, in 1968 she left school with six GCE O-Levels and two A-Levels. In the next couple of years, Anne started dating, in 1970 her first boyfriend was Andrew Parker Bowles, who became the first husband of Camilla Shand. Following the wedding and her husband lived at Gatcombe Park and he was made acting captain by the start of 1974 when he was appointed a personal aide-de-camp to Queen Elizabeth II. By 1989, Princess Anne and Mark Phillips announced their intention to separate, the couple divorced on 23 April 1992. The Queen had offered Phillips an earldom on his wedding day, the couple had two children, Peter Phillips and Zara Phillips. As female-line descendants of royalty, the children have no title despite being the grandchildren of a monarch, Anne became a grandmother on 29 December 2010 when Peter and his wife Autumn had a daughter, Savannah.
On 29 March 2012, the couple had daughter, Isla. Annes third granddaughter, Mia Grace, was born on 17 January 2014 to Zara and her husband Mike Tindall. As Princess Anne and Mark Phillips were returning to Buckingham Palace on 20 March 1974, from a charity event on Pall Mall, the driver of the Escort, Ian Ball, jumped out and began firing a pistol
James Hamilton, 5th Duke of Abercorn
James Hamilton, 5th Duke of Abercorn, KG is a British nobleman and politician. He became Duke of Abercorn in the Peerage of Ireland on the death of his father in June 1979 and he was the son of James Edward Hamilton, 4th Duke of Abercorn, and Lady Mary Crichton. He is a politician and Lord Steward of the Household. Educated at Eton College and the Royal Agricultural College, in 1952 he was commissioned into the Grenadier Guards, in 1964 he became Ulster Unionist MP for Fermanagh and South Tyrone, succeeding his brother-in-law, Lord Robert Grosvenor. He held his seat in the 1966 election but lost it to Frank McManus in 1970 by 1,423 votes, in 1970 he served as High Sheriff of Tyrone, and from 1986 to 2009 as Lord Lieutenant of County Tyrone. In 1999, he was appointed a Knight of the Order of the Garter and he was colonel of the Irish Guards from 2000 to 2008. Additionally, he was appointed Lord Steward of the Household in 2001 and he owns more than 15,000 acres. His seat is Baronscourt, near Newtownstewart, County Tyrone, Northern Ireland and he was appointed Chancellor of the Order of the Garter on 17 October 2012.
In 1966 he married Alexandra Anastasia Sacha Phillips, eldest daughter of Lt. -Col, Harold Pedro Joseph Phillips and Georgina Wernher, elder daughter and co-heiress of Sir Harold Wernher, 3rd Baronet, of Luton Hoo, Bedfordshire. She is the sister of Natalia, widow of the 6th Duke of Westminster. And his wife Barbara Bobbie Anne Brookes and they have two children, James Alfred Nicholas Hamilton, Viscount Strabane and Lord Claud Douglas Harold Hamilton. Lady Sophia Alexandra Hamilton, who was a model before 1996 and she married British war journalist Anthony Loyd in 2002, but their marriage was dissolved, without children, in 2005. Lady Sophia subsequently became engaged to Hashem Arouzi in 2013 and she is now co-designer for the fashion label Hamilton-Paris. Lord Nicholas Edward Claud Hamilton married 30 August 2009 Tatiana, daughter of Evgeni Kronberg, they have a daughter, Valentina and he is a relative of Diana, Princess of Wales as he is the first cousin of Dianas father, the 8th Earl Spencer.
The current dukes father, the 4th Duke of Abercorn was the brother of Dianas grandmother, Cynthia Spencer and their Royal Highnesses The Duke of Cambridge, Prince Harry, Prince George of Cambridge and Princess Charlotte of Cambridge are his distant cousins. Hansard 1803–2005, contributions in Parliament by the Duke of Abercorn
Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel
When he died he possessed 700 paintings, along with large collections of sculpture, prints and antique jewellery. Most of his collection of marble carvings, known as the Arundel marbles, was left to the University of Oxford. He is sometimes referred as the 2nd Earl of Arundel, it depends on whether one views the earldom obtained by his father as a new creation or not and he was 2nd or 4th Earl of Surrey, and later, he was created 1st Earl of Norfolk. Also known as the Collector Earl, Arundel was born in relative penury, at Finchingfield in Essex on 7 July 1585. His aristocratic family had fallen into disgrace during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I owing to their religious conservatism and he was the son of Philip Howard, 20th Earl of Arundel and Anne Dacre, daughter and co-heiress of Thomas Dacre, 4th Baron Dacre of Gilsland. He never knew his father, who was imprisoned before Arundel was born, Arundels great-uncles returned the family to favour after James I ascended the throne, and Arundel was restored to his titles and some of his estates in 1604.
Other parts of the lands ended up with his great-uncles. The next year he married Lady Alatheia Talbot, a daughter of Gilbert Talbot, 7th Earl of Shrewsbury, and she would inherit a vast estate in Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire, including Sheffield, which has been the principal part of the family fortune ever since. Even with this income, Arundels collecting and building activities would lead him heavily into debt. During the reign of Charles I, Arundel served several times as special envoy to some of the courts of Europe. These trips encouraged his interest in art collecting, in 1642 he accompanied Princess Mary for her marriage to William II of Orange. With the troubles that would lead to the Civil War brewing, he decided not to return to England and his youngest son William Howard, 1st Viscount Stafford-the ancestor of what was first the Earl of Stafford and Baron Stafford. Arundel had petitioned the king for restoration of the ancestral Dukedom of Norfolk, while the restoration was not to occur until the time of his grandson, he was created Earl of Norfolk in 1644, which at least ensured the title would stay with his family.
Arundel got Parliament to entail his earldoms to the descendants of the 4th Duke of Norfolk, Arundel was a patron and collector of works of art. He was described by Walpole as the father of virtu in England and was a member of the Whitehall group of associated with Charles I. He commissioned portraits of himself or his family by contemporary masters such as Daniel Mytens, Peter Paul Rubens, Jan Lievens and he acquired other paintings by Hans Holbein, Adam Elsheimer, Mytens and Honthorst. He collected drawings by Leonardo da Vinci, the two Holbeins, Parmigianino, Wenceslaus Hollar, and Dürer, many of these are now at the Royal Library at Windsor Castle or at Chatsworth. It is now in the Ashmolean Museum, the architect Inigo Jones accompanied Arundel on one of his trips to Italy 1613–14, a journey which took both men as far as Naples
John Hamilton, 1st Marquess of Abercorn
John James Hamilton, 1st Marquess of Abercorn KG, PC was an Irish peer and politician. He was the son of Captain Hon. John Hamilton and grandson of James Hamilton and he was educated at Harrow and Pembroke College, Cambridge. There he became the friend of William Pitt the Younger, a connection that would serve him well in years and he was a Tory Member of Parliament for two boroughs in Cornwall from 1783 to 1789, when he succeeded to the Earldom. He was a supporter of his friend Pitts first ministry, and he was created 1st Marquess of Abercorn on 15 October 1790, doubtless due to his political connections. He was sworn of the Privy Council of Ireland on 7 February 1794 and he was invested as a Knight of the Garter on 17 January 1805. He married, Catherine Copley, daughter of Sir Joseph Copley, 1st Baronet and they had five children, Lady Harriet Margaret Hamilton, died unmarried. Lady Catherine Elizabeth Hamilton, married George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen and had issue, James Hamilton, Viscount Hamilton, married Harriet Douglas, granddaughter of James Douglas, 14th Earl of Morton and had issue.
He married, his first cousin, Cecil Hamilton, daughter of Reverend The Hon. George Hamilton, on 4 March 1792 and they had one child, The Lady Cecil Frances Hamilton, married William Howard, 4th Earl of Wicklow and had issue. He married, Lady Anne Jane Gore, daughter of Arthur Gore, 2nd Earl of Arran, lord Abercorn died 27 January 1818, at Bentley Priory and his titles passed to his grandson, James Hamilton. Hansard 1803–2005, contributions in Parliament by the Marquess of Abercorn Abercorn papers
James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Abercorn
Born at Seymour Place, Abercorn was the son of James Hamilton, Viscount Hamilton, himself the eldest son of John Hamilton, 1st Marquess of Abercorn. His mother, was the daughter of the Hon. John Douglas, himself the son of James Douglas. His father died when Abercorn was only three, in 1818, aged seven, he succeeded his grandfather in his titles and estates. He was educated at Harrow School and Christ Church, Oxford, in 1856, he received an Honorary Doctorate of Civil Laws from the University of Oxford. On 12 December 1844, Lord Abercorn was made a Knight of the Garter at the young age of 33, becoming on 13 November of same year Lord Lieutenant of Donegal. On 25 February 1846 he was appointed a Privy Counsellor and Groom of the Stole to Prince Albert, and remained a prominent figure in the royal court for the next two decades. In 1866, he was appointed Viceroy of Ireland, and two was created Marquess of Hamilton and Duke of Abercorn, resigning shortly after Gladstone won the 1868 general election.
He was reappointed to the post in 1874, and the Duke served as Viceroy until his resignation in 1876, in 1874, he was chosen Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Ireland, a post he held until his death. Abercorn was Envoy-Extraordinary for the investiture of King Umberto I of Italy with the Order of the Garter on 2 March 1878 and he was elected Chancellor of the University of Ireland in 1881, and died four years at his home of Baronscourt, County Tyrone. He is buried in the cemetery at Baronscourt Parish Church, the burial place of the Dukes of Abercorn. Abercorn married Lady Louisa, second daughter of John Russell, 6th Duke of Bedford and they had fourteen children, thirteen of whom survived infancy, Lady Harriet Georgiana Louisa Hamilton, married in 1855 to Thomas George Anson, 2nd Earl of Lichfield. They had eight sons and five daughters, the marriage was annulled in 1883. The Duchess of Abercorn died in March 1905, aged 92, through his son, the 2nd Duke, Abercorn is a great-great-great grandfather of Diana, Princess of Wales.
Through his daughter, Lady Louisa, Abercorn is a great-grandfather of HRH Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester, dictionary of National Biography Cooper, Thompson. The Official Baronage of England 1066-1885, Longmans, and Co.1886. Hansard 1803–2005, contributions in Parliament by the Duke of Abercorn Portraits of James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Abercorn at the National Portrait Gallery, London
Abdülmecid I, known as Abdulmejid and similar spellings, was the 31st Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and succeeded his father Mahmud II on 2 July 1839. His reign was notable for the rise of nationalist movements within the empires territories and he tried to forge alliances with the major powers of Western Europe, namely the United Kingdom and France, who fought alongside the Ottoman Empire in the Crimean War against Russia. In the following Congress of Paris on 30 March 1856, the Ottoman Empire was officially included among the European family of nations. Abdulmejids biggest achievement was the announcement and application of the Tanzimat reforms which were prepared by his father, for this achievement, one of the Imperial anthems of the Ottoman Empire, the March of Abdulmejid, was named after him. Abdulmejid was born at the Beşiktaş Sahil Palace or at the Topkapı Palace and his mother was his fathers first wife in 1839, Valide Sultan Bezmiâlem, originally named Suzi, either a Circassian or Georgian slave.
Abdulmejid received a European education and spoke fluent French, the first sultan to do so, like Abdulaziz who succeeded him, he was interested in literature and classical music. Like his father Mahmud II, he was an advocate of reforms and was enough to have the support of progressive viziers such as Mustafa Reşit Pasha, Mehmet Emin Ali Paşa. Throughout his reign he had to struggle against conservatives who opposed his reforms, Abdulmejid was the first sultan to directly listen to the publics complaints on special reception days, which were usually held every Friday without any middlemen. Abdulmejid toured the territories to see in person how the Tanzimat reforms were being applied. He travelled to İzmit, Bursa, Gallipoli, Çanakkale, Lemnos and Chios in 1844, when Abdulmejid succeeded to the throne, the affairs of the Ottoman Empire were in a critical state. At the time his father died, the news reached Istanbul that the army had been defeated at Nizip by the army of the rebel Egyptian viceroy.
The terms were finalised at the Convention of London, in compliance with his fathers express instructions, Abdulmejid immediately carried out the reforms to which Mahmud II had devoted himself. In November 1839 an edict known as the Hatt-ı Şerif of Gülhane, known as Tanzimat Fermanı was proclaimed, the edict was supplemented at the close of the Crimean War by a similar statute issued in February 1856, named the Hatt-ı Hümayun. The scheme met with opposition from the Muslim governing classes and the ulema, or religious authorities. More than one conspiracy was formed against the life on account of it. European fashions were adopted by the Court, samuel Morse received his first ever patent for the telegraph in 1847, at the old Beylerbeyi Palace in Istanbul, which was issued by Sultan Abulmejid who personally tested the new invention. When Kossuth and others sought refuge in Turkey after the failure of the Hungarian uprising in 1849, the sultan was called on by Austria and Russia to surrender them and he would not allow the conspirators against his own life to be put to death.
The 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica says of him, He bore the character of being a kind and honourable man, if somewhat weak, against this, must be set down his excessive extravagance, especially towards the end of his life
Henry Bennet, 1st Earl of Arlington
Henry Bennet, 1st Earl of Arlington, KG, PC was an English statesman. He was the son of Sir John Bennet of Dawley, Middlesex, by Dorothy, daughter of Sir John Crofts of Little Saxham and he was the younger brother of John Bennet, 1st Baron Ossulston, his sister was Elizabeth Bennet who married Sir Robert Carr. He was baptized at Little Saxham, Suffolk, in 1618 and he gained some distinction as a scholar and a poet, and was originally destined for holy orders. In 1643, he was secretary to Lord Digby at Oxford, subsequently, he took up arms for the king, and received a wound on the bridge of his nose in the skirmish at Andover in 1644. The scar resulting from this wound was prominent because Arlington took to covering it with black plaster and he was said by some to have been the father of an illegitimate child by Lucy Walter. In March 1657, he was knighted, and the year was sent as Charless agent to Madrid. On his return to England in 1661 he was keeper of the privy purse. One of his duties was the procuring and management of the royal mistresses and he represented Callington from 1661 till 1665, but appears never to have taken part in debate.
He served subsequently on the committees for explaining the Irish Act of Settlement, in 1665 he obtained a peerage as Baron Arlington, and in 1667 was appointed one of the postmasters-general. Elisabeth was the daughter of Louis of Nassau, Lord of De Lek and Beverweerd, in 1665 he advised Charles to grant liberty of conscience, but this was merely a concession to gain money during the war, and he showed great activity in oppressing the nonconformists. He advised Charles in March 1673 to submit the legality of the declaration of indulgence to the House of Lords, and supported the Test Act of the same year, which compelled Clifford to resign. He joined the Dutch party, and in order to make his peace with his new allies, disclosed the secret treaty of Dover to the staunch Protestants Ormonde and Shaftesbury. Arlington had, lost the confidence of all parties, but the motion for his removal, owing chiefly to the bad influence of his brother-in-law, the popular Lord Ossory, was rejected by 166 votes to 127.
His escape could not, prevent his fall, and he resigned the secretaryship on 11 September 1674, in November he went on a Mission to The Hague, with the popular objects of effecting a peace and of concluding an alliance with William and Jamess daughter Mary. In this he failed, and he returned home completely discredited. He had again been disappointed of the treasurership when Danby succeeded Clifford and his intrigues with discontented persons in parliament to stir up an opposition to his successful rival came to nothing. From this time, though lingering on at court, he possessed no influence, in 1681 he was made lord lieutenant of Suffolk. He died on 28 July 1685, and was buried at Euston and his residence in London was Arlington House, built when Goring House burned down, on the site of which was eventually built Buckingham Palace
William Nevill, 1st Marquess of Abergavenny
William Nevill, 1st Marquess of Abergavenny KG MVO, styled Viscount Neville between 1845 and 1868 and known as The Earl of Abergavenny between 1868 and 1876, was a British peer. Neville was the eldest son of William Nevill, 4th Earl of Abergavenny, by Caroline Leeke, daughter of Ralph Leeke, of Longford Hall and he became known by the courtesy title Viscount Neville when his father succeeded to the earldom in 1845. Lord Abergavenny gained the rank of Lieutenant in 1849 in the service of the 2nd Life Guards and was honorary Colonel of the West Kent Yeomanry and, from September 1901 and he was a Justice of the Peace for Kent and Monmouthshire. He succeeded his father in the earldom in 1868, on 14 January 1876 he was created Earl of Lewes, in the County of Sussex, and Marquess of Abergavenny, in the County of Monmouth. He was further honoured when he was made a Knight of the Garter in 1886 and they had ten children, Lady Cicely Louisa Nevill, married Colonel Charles Gathorne-Hardy, son of Gathorne Gathorne-Hardy, 1st Earl of Cranbrook.
Lady Alice Maud Nevill, married Colonel Henry Morland, lord William Beauchamp Nevill, married Luisa del Campo Mello. Lord Richard Plantagenet Nevill, died unmarried, Lady Idina Mary Nevill, married Thomas Brassey, 2nd Earl Brassey. Lady Rose Nevill, married Kenelm Pepys, 4th Earl of Cottenham and had issue, Lady Violet Nevill, married Henry Wellesley, 3rd Earl Cowley and had issue. The Marchioness of Abergavenny died at Eridge Castle, Eridge Green, Sussex, in September 1892, lord Abergavenny died in December 1915 at Eridge Castle, aged 89, and was buried there. He was succeeded in the marquessate by his eldest son, hansard 1803–2005, contributions in Parliament by William Neville, 1st Marquess of Abergavenny Portraits of William Neville, 1st Marquess of Abergavenny at the National Portrait Gallery, London
Order of the Garter
The Most Noble Order of the Garter, founded in 1348, is the highest order of chivalry and the third most prestigious honour in England and the United Kingdom. It is dedicated to the image and arms of Saint George and it is awarded at the Sovereigns pleasure as a personal gift on recipients from the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms. Membership of the Order is limited to the Sovereign, the Prince of Wales, the order includes supernumerary knights and ladies. New appointments to the Order of the Garter are always announced on St Georges Day, the orders emblem is a garter with the motto Honi soit qui mal y pense in gold lettering. Members of the wear it on ceremonial occasions. King Edward III founded the Order of the Garter around the time of his claim to the French throne, the list includes Sir Sanchet DAbrichecourt, who died on 20 October 1345. Other dates from 1344 to 1351 have been proposed, the Kings wardrobe account shows Garter habits first issued in the autumn of 1348. Also, its original statutes required that member of the Order already be a knight.
The earliest written mention of the Order is found in Tirant lo Blanch and it was first published in 1490. This book devotes a chapter to the description of the origin of the Order of the Garter, at the time of its foundation, the Order consisted of King Edward III, together with 25 Founder Knights, listed in ascending order of stall number in St.1431. Various legends account for the origin of the Order, the most popular legend involves the Countess of Salisbury, whose garter is said to have slipped from her leg while she was dancing at a court ball at Calais. When the surrounding courtiers sniggered, the king picked it up and returned it to her, Honi soit qui mal y pense, King Edward supposedly recalled the event in the 14th century when he founded the Order. This story is recounted in a letter to the Annual Register in 1774, The motto in fact refers to Edwards claim to the French throne, the use of the garter as an emblem may have derived from straps used to fasten armour. Medieval scholars have pointed to a connection between the Order of the Garter and the Middle English poem, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, in Gawain, a girdle, very similar in its erotic undertones to the garter, plays a prominent role.
A rough version of the Orders motto appears in the text and it translates from Old French as Accursed be a cowardly and covetous heart. While the author of that poem remains disputed, there seems to be a connection between two of the top candidates and the Order of the Garter. Scholar J. P. Oakden has suggested that it is related to John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, more importantly. Another competing theory is that the work was written for Enguerrand de Coucy, the Sire de Coucy was married to King Edward IIIs daughter and was given admittance to the Order of the Garter on their wedding day