Afonso, Duke of Porto
Infante D. Afonso, Duke of Porto was a Portuguese Infante of the House of Braganza, the son of King Dom Luis I of Portugal and his wife, Dona Maria Pia of Savoy. Dom Afonso had a military career, in fact, he was a general of some considerable competence in the Portuguese Army, previously, he had been the inspector-general of artillery. His exemplary military background allowed him to be chosen to command military forces at Goa, at the end of the nineteenth century and his performance in India motivated his nomination to be Constable of Portugal. He urged his nephew, the Prince Royal, Luís Filipe, Dom Afonso was a ladys man, known for his kindness and bon-vivant lifestyle. For instance, he liked to act as a fireman with the Ajuda Fire Corps near the Palace of Ajuda and he lived at the Palace of Ajuda with the Queen Mother, Maria Pia of Savoy, after King Luiss death. Dom Afonso was a lover of automobile races, and he was responsible for the first motor races in Portugal and he lived with her at Turin, after her death, he moved to Rome, finally, to Naples.
As of 1917, the Portuguese pretender, Manuel II, was living in England with his wife of four years, the Princess Augusta Victoria of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, in Portugal, morganatic marriage was not recognized. Any legitimate child of Afonso and Nevada could become the heir to the Portuguese throne. Nearly as disturbing was the prospect that both Manuel and Afonso would fail to produce an heir, Dom Afonso was the fourth husband of Nevada Stoody Hayes. They were unable to marry religiously in Italy, where the king of Italy, Victor Emmanuel III, like the Pope, chose not to recognize the validity of a previous trial marriage in Rome. She convinced Afonso to marry her again at a Madrid hotel, a religious marriage ceremony was performed in Madrid on 23 November 1917. The Prince had previously tried to get the approval for his marriage, but he found that his nephew. After his marriage, his pension was cut by Manuel II and he finally died alone, in Naples, on 21 February 1920. Only one Portuguese servant remained with him until the end, in his will, Dom Afonso left his entire estate to Nevada Stoody Hayes.
After he and Manuel II had both died, his widow demanded that the Portuguese government recognize her rights to a part of the House of Braganzas patrimony. Her husband had named her his legal heir in his last will. As the marriage, and the will, was disputed in Lisbon. Eventually, she proved a substantial portion of her claim, insofar as titles are concerned, Afonso was and foremost, Infante of Portugal
Adolph of Cleves, Lord of Ravenstein
Adolph of Cleves, Lord of Ravenstein was the youngest son of Adolph I, Duke of Cleves, and of his wife Marie of Burgundy, a sister of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy. Beatrice had taken refuge in Burgundy, under her aunt’s protection and Beatrice were married on 13 May 1453 and they subsequently had two children, Philip of Cleves, Lord of Ravenstein, and Louise of Cleves. Following Beatrices death, Adolph married his cousin Anne of Burgundy, in 1463, Adolph inherited Wijnendale Castle, where in 1482 Mary of Burgundy would fall from her horse suffering fatal injuries. This accident would have implications for the history of the Low Countries. Adolph participated in all the battles involved the Dukes of Burgundy. He was knighted after the Battle of Gavere, which ended the Revolt of Ghent, in 1454, he participated in the Feast of the Pheasant and became a knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece in 1456. In 1467, he played an important role in the Battle of Brustem during the Liège Wars, genealogy of Adolph of Cleves, Lord of Ravenstein
Albert, 8th Prince of Thurn and Taxis
Albert was born at Regensburg, the younger son of Maximilian Anton Lamoral, Hereditary Prince of Thurn and Taxis and Duchess Helene in Bavaria. His father died when he was less than two months old, and he was raised by his mother, in 1871 Alberts grandfather Maximilian Karl died, and his older brother Maximilian Maria succeeded as Fürst. Maxmilian died 2 June 1885 and Albert succeeded as Fürst, his served as regent until his 21st birthday in 1888. On 8 May 1889 he was named Duke of Wörth and Donaustauf by Luitpold, on 30 November 1889 he was made a knight of the Austrian Order of the Golden Fleece. On 15 July 1890 in Budapest, Albert married Archduchess Margarethe Klementine of Austria, daughter of Archduke Joseph Karl of Austria
Archduke Albrecht, Duke of Teschen
Archduke Albrecht Friedrich Rudolf Dominik of Austria, Duke of Teschen was an Austrian Habsburg general. Inspector General for 36 years, he was honored with the rank of Field Marshal in the armies of Austria-Hungary and Germany. A grandson of the Emperor Leopold II, he was the eldest son of Archduke Charles of Austria, who defeated French Emperor Napoleon I at Aspern, and Princess Henrietta of Nassau-Weilburg. He was the nephew of the Emperor Francis II, and cousin to Emperor Franz Josephs father Archduke Franz Karl of Austria, born in Vienna, from an early age he had a military disposition, which his father encouraged. Albrecht was subject to a form of epilepsy, according to report. He entered the Austrian army in 1837 with Feldmarshal Joseph Radetzky as his military governor, having received a thorough military education, Albrecht was named a Generalmajor in 1840 and promoted to Feldmarschall-Leutnant in 1843. Promoted to General der Kavallerie in 1845, Albert was given command of Upper Austria, Lower Austria, upon the death of his father in 1847, he inherited the Palais Weilburg in Baden bei Wien, which became the familys summer home.
In the winter the family lived in Vienna in the Palais Erzherzog Albrecht, as the commandant of Vienna, Albrecht was wounded in the street fighting on 13 March 1848 at the start of the revolutionary disturbances. He issued live ammunition to his soldiers and secured the inner city, with the fall of Metternich and the formation of a city guard led by students, Albrecht pulled his troops into barracks. Radicals resented his attempt to quell the revolution while some fellow officers thought he showed a lack of resolve, unsatisfactory to both factions and under pressure from city authorities, Albrecht was replaced by Count Auersperg. Albrecht was sent south to command a division under Radetzky, who faced a coalition of states of the Italian peninsula led by King Charles Albert of Sardinia. Albrecht personally supervised the crossing of the Ticino and by the handling of his division ensuring victory at Novara on 23 March 1849 and he became civil and military governor of Hungary in 1851, serving until his recall in 1860.
When Archduchess Hildegard went to Munich in March 1864 for the funeral of her brother, King Maximilian II, she became ill with a lung inflammation and she died in Vienna on 2 April 1864, two months short of her 38th birthday. At the outbreak of the Seven Weeks War in June 1866, Albrecht was decisively victorious in the battle of Custoza, but failed to exploit his victory when he neglected to pursue the beaten Italian Army of the Mincio. Albrecht was named Oberkommandeur on 10 July 1866, benedeks defeat made any further action against Prussia impossible and peace was shortly concluded with both Prussia and Italy. Besides the loss of Holstein to Prussia and Venetia to Italy in 1866, Albrecht remained Oberkommandeur until 1869, when Kaiser Franz Josef I assumed the title that year, Albrecht became Generalinspekteur, the post he occupied until his death. In 1869 he published Über die Verantwortlichkeit im Kriege, in public affairs, he was leader of the conservative Court Party, and opposed the ministry of Ferdinand Graf Beust at every point, expressing the most inexorably reactionary views.
As such he was an absolutist and opposed any liberal ideas and he was somewhat more courteous to Beusts successors, though he remained given to bombastic pronouncements that may not have reflected his actual sentiments
Albert Casimir, Duke of Teschen
Prince Albert Casimir August of Saxony, Duke of Teschen was a German prince from the House of Wettin who married into the Habsburg imperial family. He was noted as an art collector and founded the Albertina in Vienna, one of the largest and finest collections of old master prints and drawings in the world. He was a son of king Augustus III of Poland and Maria Josepha of Austria. Prince Albert of Saxony, Duke of Teschen, was one of the godparents to his namesake Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg. Young Albert was specifically chosen by Archduchess Maria Christina of Austria to be her husband and this was a special favour granted by her mother, the great empress Maria Theresa of Austria because marriages of imperial children were usually used for diplomatic purposes. From his father-in-laws estate, Albert received the territory of Teschen in Austrian Silesia and was given the title of Duke of Teschen. Since he became a member of the Habsburg-Lorraine family, the title Archduke was given to him, Archduchess Maria Christina the daughter of Francis of Lorraine received the duchy among her dowry.
Prince Albert of Saxony thus became the Duke of Teschen, the only non-Habsburg to become such after the title passed into Habsburg control, Albert was royal governor of Hungary from 1765 to 1781, with his seat at Bratislava Castle and his summer residence in Halbturn Castle at Neusiedl. He was governor of the Austrian Netherlands, with his seat at Brussels where he built Laeken palace as his seat. In Vienna a palace adjoining the Hofburg originally designed by Emanuel Teles Silva-Tarouca was enlarged for them by architect Louis Montoyer and that palace is today called the Albertina, after Albert, and houses the collection he started. Only two-thirds of his survives, because one of the cargo ships bringing it from Brussels sank en route. After his return to Vienna, he used as an advisor Adam von Bartsch, the Curator of the Imperial prints collection and the greatest prints scholar of his age. After the early death of his wife in 1798 of typhus, he lived only for his art collection, next door to his palace, in the Augustinerkirche Albert had a famous memorial to his wife carved by Antonio Canova.
Media related to Prince Albert of Saxony, Duke of Teschen at Wikimedia Commons Albertina Museum
Albert, Prince Consort
Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was the husband of Queen Victoria. He was born in the Saxon duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld to a family connected to many of Europes ruling monarchs, at the age of 20, he married his first cousin, Queen Victoria, they had nine children. He was heavily involved with the organisation of the Great Exhibition of 1851, the Queen came to depend more and more on his support and guidance. Albert died at the young age of 42, plunging the Queen into deep mourning for the rest of her life. Upon Queen Victorias death in 1901, their eldest son succeeded as Edward VII, Albert was born at Schloss Rosenau, near Coburg, the second son of Ernest III, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, and his first wife, Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. Alberts future wife, was earlier in the same year with the assistance of the same midwife. Albert was baptised into the Lutheran Evangelical Church on 19 September 1819 in the Marble Hall at Schloss Rosenau with water taken from the local river, in 1825, Alberts great-uncle, Frederick IV, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, died.
His death led to a realignment of Saxon duchies the following year and Alberts father became the first reigning duke of Saxe-Coburg and his elder brother, spent their youth in a close companionship marred by their parents turbulent marriage and eventual separation and divorce. After their mother was exiled from court in 1824, she married her lover, Alexander von Hanstein, Count of Polzig and she presumably never saw her children again, and died of cancer at the age of 30 in 1831. The brothers were educated privately at home by Christoph Florschütz and studied in Brussels, like many other German princes, Albert attended the University of Bonn, where he studied law, political economics and the history of art. He played music and excelled at sport, especially fencing and riding and his tutors at Bonn included the philosopher Fichte and the poet Schlegel. By 1836, the idea of marriage between Albert and his cousin, had arisen in the mind of their ambitious uncle Leopold, at this time, Victoria was the heiress presumptive to the British throne.
Her father, Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent, the son of King George III, had died when she was a baby. Her mother the Duchess of Kent, was the sister of both Alberts father—the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha—and King Leopold. Leopold arranged for his sister, Victorias mother, to invite the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, William IV, disapproved of any match with the Coburgs, and instead favoured the suit of Prince Alexander, second son of the Prince of Orange. Victoria was well aware of the matrimonial plans and critically appraised a parade of eligible princes. Alexander, on the hand, she described as very plain. Victoria wrote to her uncle Leopold to thank him for the prospect of great happiness you have contributed to give me and he possesses every quality that could be desired to render me perfectly happy
Alfonso XIII of Spain
Alfonso XIII was King of Spain from 1886 until the proclamation of the Second Republic in 1931. Alfonso was monarch from birth as his father, Alfonso XII, had died the previous year, Alfonsos mother, Maria Christina of Austria, served as regent until he assumed full powers on his sixteenth birthday in 1902. With the political failure of the dictatorship, Alfonso impelled a return to the democratic normality with the intention of regenerating the regime, nevertheless, it was abandoned by all political classes, as they felt betrayed by the kings support of the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera. He left Spain voluntarily after the elections of April 1931. In exile, he retained his claim to the throne until 1941. Buried in Rome, his remains were not transferred until 1980 to the Pantheon of the Kings in the monastery of El Escorial, Alfonso was born in Madrid on 17 May 1886. He was the son of Alfonso XII of Spain, who had died in November 1885. The French newspaper Le Figaro described the king in 1889 as the happiest.
His mother, Maria Christina of Austria, served as his regent until his 16th birthday, during the regency, in 1898, Spain lost its colonial rule over Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines to the United States as a result of the Spanish–American War. When he came of age in May 1902, the week of his majority was marked by festivities, balls, by 1905, Alfonso was looking for a suitable consort. On a state visit to the United Kingdom, he stayed at Buckingham Palace with King Edward VII, there he met Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg, the Scottish-born daughter of Edwards youngest sister Princess Beatrice, and a granddaughter of Queen Victoria. He found her attractive, and she returned his interest, there were obstacles to the marriage. Victoria was a Protestant, and would have to become a Catholic, Victorias brother Leopold was a haemophiliac, so there was a 50 percent chance that Victoria was a carrier of the trait. Victoria was willing to change her religion, and her being a carrier was only a possibility.
Maria Christina was eventually persuaded to drop her opposition, in January 1906 she wrote an official letter to Princess Beatrice proposing the match. Victoria met Maria Christina and Alfonso in Biarritz, that month, in May, diplomats of both kingdoms officially executed the agreement of marriage. Alfonso and Victoria were married at the Royal Monastery of San Jerónimo in Madrid on 31 May 1906, with British royalty in attendance, including Victorias cousins the Prince, the wedding was marred by an assassination attempt on Alfonso and Victoria by Catalan anarchist Mateu Morral. As the wedding procession returned to the palace, he threw a bomb from a window which killed or injured several bystanders and members of the procession, on 10 May 1907, the couples first child, Prince of Asturias, was born
Anthony, bastard of Burgundy
Anthony, known to his contemporaries as the Bastard of Burgundy or Le grand bâtard, was the natural son of Philip III, Duke of Burgundy, and one of his mistresses, Jeanne de Presle. He was comte de La Roche, de Grandpré, de Sainte-Menehould et de Guînes, seigneur de Crèvecoeur, Beveren et Tournehem, together with his older illegitimate half-brother Corneille, bastard of Burgundy, he was the favourite amongst the many natural children of Philip the Good. In 1459, he married Marie de la Viesville by whom he had five children and he fought for his father on several campaigns, from at least 1451 onwards, and in 1464 left for a crusade against the Moors when he helped raise the siege of Ceuta. In 1456 he was awarded the prestigious Order of the Golden Fleece and he took part in the Battle of Montlhéry, when he is said to have saved the life of the Count of Charolais after he was separated from his men and wounded in the neck. During this visit, which extended into the summer of 1467, Anthonys father, Philip the Good, died, in 1468, Charles appointed him first Chamberlain, head of 99 other chamberlains and thirteen chaplains, all of whom served the duke.
This loyalty was never called into question even when in 1473 he was accused by Charles of accepting a gift of 20,000 gold écus from Charles sworn enemy. Charles the Bold won the Brussels contest every year between 1466 and 1471, at the disastrous siege of Beauvais in 1472, Antoine reportedly lost his best jewels. In the middle of these travels, he managed to find time to call in at the siege of Neuss, but Antoine had no interest in making trouble, and he offered Louis his services to help stabilize the precarious political situation. He was instrumental in arranging the marriage of Duchess Mary, his niece and only child and successor of Charles the Bold and he was a significant collector of illuminated manuscripts, mostly newly commissioned from the best Flemish illuminators and scribes. He had at least forty-five volumes, of which it is estimated that thirty were contemporary illuminated volumes. Many volumes with his inscription of ownership survive in various libraries, the young King Charles VIII of France legitimized Anthony in 1485 and awarded him the Order of Saint Michael.
He died at Tournehem near Calais in 1504, Charles the Bold, The Last Valois Duke of Burgundy. Philip the Good, The Apogee of Burgundy, ed. H. Beaune & J. dArbaumont, Paris 1888
Alfonso XII of Spain
Alfonso XII was King of Spain, reigning from 1874 to 1885, after a coup détat restored the monarchy and ended the ephemeral First Spanish Republic. Having been forced into exile after the Glorious Revolution deposed his mother Isabella II from the throne in 1868, Alfonso studied in Austria and his mother abdicated in his favour in 1870, and he returned to Spain as king in 1874 following a military coup. Alfonso died aged 27 in 1885, and was succeeded by his unborn son, Alfonso was born in Madrid as the eldest son of Queen Isabella II. Officially, his father was her husband, King Francis, alfonsos biological paternity is uncertain, there is speculation that his biological father may have been Enrique Puigmoltó y Mayans. These rumours were used as propaganda against Alfonso by the Carlists. His mothers accession created the second cause of instability, which was the Carlist Wars, the supporters of the Count of Molina as king of Spain rose to have him enthroned. This led to the cause of instability of note, the Independence of the American Kingdoms.
When Queen Isabella and her husband were forced to leave Spain by the Revolution of 1868, from there, he was sent to the Theresianum at Vienna to continue his studies. On 25 June 1870, he was recalled to Paris, where his mother abdicated in his favour, after Amadeos abandonment in 1873, Parliament declared the Federal Republic, the first act of President Estanislao Figueras was to extend the Abolition Act to Puerto Rico. Cuban slaves would have to wait until 1889, but the republicans were not in agreement either, and they had to contend with the War in Cuba, and Muslim uprisings in Spanish Morocco. By 1872, the Third Carlist War erupted and this unrest led to the creation of a group in favor of the Bourbon restoration, made by some sectors of the conservatives led by Canovas del Castillo. The Prince of Asturias, was the chosen to develop the new road map proposed by Canovas. The new road map, which indeed ended the eternal crisis begun in 1810 was called Alfonsismo, as having Alfonso in Spain would be a problem, Cánovas became responsible for his education.
He sent Alfonso to the Sandhurst Military Academy in England, where the training Alfonso received was severe but more cosmopolitan than in Spain, on 1 December 1874, Alfonso issued the Sandhurst Manifesto, where he set the ideological basis of the Bourbon Restoration. It was drafted in reply to a greeting from his followers. Thereupon the President resigned, and his power was transferred to the kings plenipotentiary and adviser, the 29 December 1874 military coup of Gen. Martinez Campos in Sagunto ended the failed republic and meant the rise of the young Prince Alfonso. In 1876, a campaign against the Carlists, in which the young king took part, resulted in the defeat of Don Carlos. Cánovas was the architect of the new regime of the Restoration
Abdullah of Saudi Arabia
Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud was King of Saudi Arabia and Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques from 2005 to his death in 2015. He ascended to the throne on 1 August 2005 upon the death of his half-brother, like Fahd, was one of the many sons of Ibn Saud, the founder of modern Saudi Arabia. Abdullah held important political posts throughout most of his adult life, in 1961 he became mayor of Mecca, his first public office. The following year, he was appointed commander of the Saudi Arabian National Guard and he served as deputy defense minister and was named crown prince when Fahd took the throne in 1982. After King Fahd suffered a stroke in 1995, Abdullah became the de facto ruler of Saudi Arabia until ascending the throne a decade later. During his reign he maintained relations with United States and United Kingdom. He gave women the right to vote for municipal councils, Abdullah maintained the status quo when there were waves of protest in the kingdom during the Arab Spring. In November 2013, a BBC report claimed that, due to the relations it had with Pakistan.
The King outlived two of his crown princes, conservative Interior Minister Nayef bin Abdul-Aziz Al Saud was named heir to the throne on the death of Sultan bin Abdulaziz in October 2011, but Nayef himself died in June 2012. Abdullah named 76-year-old defense minister, Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, according to various reports, Abdullah married up to 30 times, and had more than 35 children. The king had a fortune estimated at US$18 billion, making him the third wealthiest head of state in the world. He died on 23 January 2015, at the age of 90, Abdullah is said to have been born on 1 August 1924 in Riyadh. However, some state that this date is incorrect. He was the son of King Abdulaziz. His mother, Fahda bint Asi Al Shuraim, was a member of the Al Rashid dynasty and she was descended from the powerful Shammar tribe – and was the daughter of former tribe chief, Asi Shuraim. She died when Abdullah was six years old, madawi Al-Rasheed argues that his maternal roots and his earlier experience of a speech impediment led to delay in his rise to higher status among the other sons of King Abdulaziz.
In 1963, Abdullah was made commander of Saudi National Guard and this post allowed him to secure his position in the House of Saud. SANG, which had based on the Ikhwan, became a modern armed force under his command
Alexander I of Russia
Alexander I reigned as Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801 to 1 December 1825. He was the son of Paul I and Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg, Alexander was the first Russian King of Poland, reigning from 1815 to 1825, as well as the first Russian Grand Duke of Finland. He was sometimes called Alexander the Blessed and he was born in Saint Petersburg to Grand Duke Paul Petrovich, Emperor Paul I, and succeeded to the throne after his father was murdered. He ruled Russia during the period of the Napoleonic Wars. As prince and emperor, Alexander often used liberal rhetoric, in the first years of his reign, he initiated some minor social reforms and major, liberal educational reforms, such as building more universities. He promised constitutional reforms and a desperately needed reform of serfdom in Russia, Alexander appointed Mikhail Speransky, the son of a village priest, as one of his closest advisors. The Collegia was abolished and replaced by the The State Council, plans were made to set up a parliament and sign a constitution.
In foreign policy, he changed Russias position relative to France four times between 1804 and 1812 among neutrality and alliance and he fought a small-scale naval war against Britain between 1807 and 1812. He and Napoleon could never agree, especially about Poland, the tsars greatest triumph came in 1812 as Napoleons invasion of Russia proved a total disaster for the French. As part of the coalition against Napoleon he gained some spoils in Finland and Poland. He formed the Holy Alliance to suppress revolutionary movements in Europe that he saw as threats to legitimate Christian monarchs. He helped Austrias Klemens von Metternich in suppressing all national and liberal movements, in the second half of his reign he was increasingly arbitrary and fearful of plots against him, he ended many earlier reforms. He purged schools of teachers, as education became more religiously oriented as well as politically conservative. Speransky was replaced as advisor with the artillery inspector Aleksey Arakcheyev.
Alexander died of typhus in December 1825 while on a trip to southern Russia and he left no children as heirs and both of his brothers wanted the other to become emperor. After a period of confusion that included the failed Decembrist revolt of liberal army officers, he was succeeded by his younger brother. Alexander and his younger brother Constantine were raised by their grandmother, some sources allege that she planned to remove her son Paul I from the succession altogether. From the free-thinking atmosphere of the court of Catherine and his Swiss tutor, Frédéric-César de La Harpe, but from his military governor, Nikolay Saltykov, he imbibed the traditions of Russian autocracy
Amadeo I of Spain
Amadeo I was the only King of Spain from the House of Savoy. He was the son of King Vittorio Emanuele II of Italy and was known for most of his life as the Duke of Aosta. He was elected by the Cortes as Spains monarch in 1870, following the deposition of Isabella II, amadeos reign was fraught with growing republicanism, Carlist rebellions in the north, and the Cuban independence movement. He abdicated and returned to Italy in 1873, and the First Spanish Republic was declared as a result, Prince Amedeo of Savoy was born in Turin. He was the son of King Vittorio Emanuele II and of Archduchess Adelaide of Austria. He was styled the Duke of Aosta from birth, in 1867 his father yielded to the entreaties of parliamentary deputy Francisco Cassins, and on 30 May of that year, Amedeo was married to Donna Maria Vittoria dal Pozzo. The King initially opposed the match on the grounds that her family was of insufficient rank, despite her princely title, Donna Maria Vittoria was not of royal birth, belonging rather to the Piedmontese nobility.
In March 1870, the Duchess appealed to the King to remonstrate with his son for marital infidelities that caused her hurt and embarrassment. But the King wrote in reply that, while understanding her feelings, he considered that she had no right to dictate her husbands behaviour and that her jealousy was unbecoming. The wedding day of Prince Amedeo and Donna Maria Vittoria was marred by the death of a stationmaster who was crushed under the wheels of the honeymoon train, after the Spanish revolution deposed Isabella II, the new Cortes decided to reinstate the monarchy under a new dynasty. The Duke of Aosta was elected King as Amadeus on 16 November 1870 and he swore to uphold the constitution in Madrid on 2 January 1871. The election of the new King coincided with the assassination of General Marqués de los Castillejos and he could count on the support of only the progressive party, whose leaders were trading off in the government thanks to parliamentary majority and electoral fraud. The progressives divided into monarchists and constitutionalists, which made the instability worse, there was a Carlist uprising in the Basque and Catalan regions, and after that, republican uprisings happened in cities across the country.
The artillery corps of the went on strike, and the government instructed the King to discipline them. With the possibility of reigning without popular support, Amadeus issued an order against the artillery corps, at ten oclock that same night, Spain was proclaimed a republic, at which time Amadeo made an appearance before the Cortes, proclaiming the Spanish people ungovernable. Completely disgusted, the ex-monarch left Spain and returned to Italy and they had one child, who died of the flu during the First World War. Amadeo remained in Turin, Italy until his death on 18 January 1890 and his friend Puccini composed the famous elegy for string quartet Crisantemi in his memory. Lake Amadeus in central Australia is named after him, as is the Philippine municipality of Amadeo, by Maria Vittoria dal Pozzo, Prince Emanuele Filiberto, Duke of Aosta Marshal of Italy married to Princess Hélène of Orléans and had issue