Category:Landforms of Kaliningrad Oblast
This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total.
This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total.
1. Amber Coast – The Amber Coast is the name given to a coastal strip of the Baltic Sea in the northwest of Kaliningrad. In this area amber has been excavated since the mid-19th century, two deposits – Palmnikenskoe and Primorskoe, containing 80% of world amber reserves, were found near Yantarny on the Western coast of Sambia Peninsula in 1948-1951’s. Scientists believe that amber was deposited during the Upper Eocene and Lower Oligocene in a delta of a prehistoric river, in addition to the coast near Kaliningrad, amber is also found elsewhere in the Baltic Sea region. The deposits are mostly in the blue earth glauconite, a layer 1 to 17.5 meters thick found 25 to 40 meters from the surface. In addition to the Sambia region, amber is gathered in noticeable amounts at German, Polish and Lithuanian Baltic beaches, the western coast of Denmark and the Frisian Islands. Small amounts of Baltic amber can even be found outside the Baltic region, however, about 90% to 98% of all output of amber has been produced in the Sambia region. The Sambian amber-producing region is a square of about 30–40 km, a potential nearby source of amber is the Courish Lagoon. Amber excavation is overseen by the Russian Amber Company, the Amber Coast is mentioned as early as by Tacitus in his work Germania. Another coastal strip referred to as “amber coast” is the Costa de Ambar in the west of Puerto Plata, in this area there are a number of small shaft mines, from which is excavated the so-called “Dominican amber”. The Dominican amber production site is the second largest, although compared to the Baltic region it is a distant second. The Economic History of Amber Baltic Amber
2. Curonian Spit – The Curonian Spit is a 98 km long, thin, curved sand-dune spit that separates the Curonian Lagoon from the Baltic Sea coast. Its southern portion lies within Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia and its northern within southwestern Lithuania and it is a UNESCO World Heritage Site shared by the two countries. The Curonian Spit stretches from the Sambian Peninsula on the south to its northern tip next to a narrow strait, the northern 52 km long stretch of the Curonian Spit peninsula belongs to Lithuania, while the rest is part of the Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia. The width of the spit varies from a minimum of 400 m in Russia to a maximum of 3,800 m in Lithuania, the Curonian Spit was formed about 3rd millennium BC. A glacial moraine served as its foundation, winds and sea currents later contributed enough sand to raise, the existence of this narrow shoal is inherently threatened by the natural processes that govern shoreline features. It depends on a balance between sand transport and deposition. If the source area to the south-west were cut off, say, by a large port construction with a pier and it is thus a geologically speaking ephemeral coast element. The most likely development, however, is that the bay inside the Curonian Spit will eventually fill up with sediment. According to Baltic mythology, the Curonian Spit was formed by a giantess, Neringa and this child also appears in other myths. From ca.800 to 1016, the Spit was the location of Kaup, the Teutonic Knights occupied the area in the 13th century, building their castles at Memel, Neuhausen, and at Rossitten. The Spit may have been the home of the last living speaker of a now-extinct Baltic language, significant human impacts on the area began in the 16th century. Deforestation of the due to overgrazing, timber harvesting, and building of boats for the Battle of Gross-Jägersdorf in 1757 led to the dunes taking over the spit. Alarmed by these problems, the Prussian government sponsored large-scale revegetation and reforestation efforts, other sources credit George David Kuwert, the owner of a post station in Nida in the late 19th century with beginning the spit’s reforestation. Owing to these efforts, much of the spit is now covered with forests, in the 19th century the Curonian Spit was inhabited primarily by Curonians with a significant German minority in the south and a Lithuanian minority in the north. The population of Curonians eventually dwindled due to assimilation and other reasons, it is close to non-existent these days and even before 1945, from the late 19th century, the dune landscape around Nidden became popular with landscape and animal painters from the Kunstakademie Königsberg arts school. The local inn of Herman Blode was the nucleus of the expressionist artists colony, lovis Corinth stayed here in 1890, followed by artists such as Max Pechstein, Alfred Lichtwark, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, and Alfred Partikel. Painters from Königsberg such as Julius Freymuth and Eduard Bischoff visited the area, as did poets like Ernst Wiechert, other guests included Ernst Kirchner, Ernst Mollenhauer, Franz Domscheit, and Herrmann Wirth. The painters usually took accommodations at Blodes hotel, and left some of their works with him, some also built their own residences in the vicinity
3. Sambia Peninsula – Sambia or Samland or Kaliningrad Peninsula is a peninsula in the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia, on the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea. The peninsula is bounded by the Curonian Lagoon, the Vistula Lagoon, the Pregel River, as Samland is surrounded on all sides by water, it is technically an island. Prior to 1945 it formed an important part of East Prussia, Sambia is named after the Sambians, an extinct tribe of Old Prussians. Samland is the name for peninsula in the Germanic languages, polish and Latin speakers call the area Sambia, while the Lithuanian name is Semba. Sambia was originally populated by the Sambians. Settlers from the Holy Roman Empire began colonizing the region, the peninsula was the last area in which the Old Prussian language was spoken before becoming extinct at the beginning of the 18th century. The peninsula became part of the Duchy of Prussia when Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach, the Margraviate of Brandenburg inherited the duchy in 1618, and its Hohenzollern ruler proclaimed the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701. Sambia became part of the Province of East Prussia in 1773, after World War I Sambia formed part of the East Prussian province of Weimar Germany. In 1945 after World War II, the Soviet Union annexed northern East Prussia, including Sambia, Sambia became part of the Soviet Kaliningrad Oblast, named after the nearby city of Kaliningrad, and the new authorities expelled its German inhabitants. The Soviet Union gradually repopulated the Kaliningrad Oblast, including Sambia, until the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, much of the district was a closed military area. The Kuršininkai were eventually assimilated by the Germans, except along the Curonian Spit where some still live, the Kuršininkai were considered Latvians until after World War I when Latvia gained independence from the Russian Empire, a consideration based on linguistic arguments. This was the rationale for Latvian claims over the Curonian Spit, Memel, baedeker describes Samland as a fertile and partly-wooded district, with several lakes, lying to the north of Königsberg. The highest point,360 feet, is twelve miles north of Pereslavskoe at the ski resort then called the Galtgarben. There also used to be a Samland railway station, as of 2010 the Pereslavskoe railway station serves the Blue Arrow railway line from Kaliningrad to Svetlogorsk. Sambia includes two famous seaside resorts, Zelenogradsk and Svetlogorsk, Amber has been found in the area for over two thousand years, especially on the coast near Kaliningrad. History and legends tell of the ancient trade routes known as the Amber Road leading from the Old Prussian settlements of Kaup and Truso southwards to the Black and Adriatic seas. In Imperial Germany, the right to collect amber was restricted to the Hohenzollern dynasty, beginning in the 19th century, amber was mined on an industrial scale by the Germans before 1945 and by the Soviets / Russians thereafter at Yantarny. Amber Coast Curonian Lagoon Curonian Spit Vistula Lagoon
4. Zelenogradsk – In its heyday, Zelenogradsk was a popular seaside resort on Germanys eastern Baltic coast, comparable to Bognor Regis in England. Since the end of World War II and the Soviet takeover, much of its tourist traffic has been diverted to nearby Svetlogorsk, formerly called Rauschen. The site of todays Zelenogradsk was originally an Old Prussian fishing village, in the proximity of Kaup, the area became controlled by the Teutonic Order and settled with Germans. The German name Cranz, originally Cranzkuhren, derives from the Old Prussian word krantas, for most of its history it remained a small village in East Prussia. From 1816 to 1895, it was known as das königliche Bad, despite the increasing numbers of tourists, the fishing industry remained strong, smoked flounder was a regional delicacy. Although Cranz had over 6,000 inhabitants by the start of World War II, the area was overrun by the Soviet Red Army during World War II and annexed to the Russian SFSR, although it suffered minimally through warfare. The German population fled during the evacuation of East Prussia or was expelled by force. Cranz was renamed Zelenogradsk in 1946 and was granted town status in the subsequent years, within the framework of administrative divisions, Zelenogradsk serves as the administrative center of Zelenogradsky District. As an administrative division, it is incorporated within Zelenogradsky District as the town of significance of Zelenogradsk. Before that, the town of significance was incorporated within Zelenogradsky Municipal District as Zelenogradskoye Urban Settlement. The tourism industry was neglected during the Cold War and Zelenogradsks tourism primacy was relinquished to nearby Svetlogorsk and this policy changed in recent years. Zelenogradsk is becoming popular with Russian vacationers, and many rich Russians own private houses in the area. Zelenogradsk is twinned with, Braniewo, Poland Łeba, Poland Borgholm, Закон №463 от27 мая2010 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Калининградской области», в ред, Закона №281 от6 декабря2013 г. Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования, Опубликован, Калининградская правда, №112,26 июня2010 г. Постановление №640 от30 августа2011 г, «Об утверждении реестра объектов административно-территориального деления Калининградской области», в ред. Постановления №877 от21 ноября2011 г «О внесении изменения в Постановление Правительства Калининградской области от30 августа2011 г. №640», Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован, Калининградская правда, №170,15 сентября2011 г, Закон №420 от27 апреля2015 г