Category:Languages of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol
Languages of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.
This category has only the following subcategory.
- ► Ladin language (10 P)
Languages of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.
This category has only the following subcategory.
1. Bavarian language – Bavarian, is a major group of Upper German varieties spoken in the southeast of the German language area, largely covered by Bavaria and Austria. It forms a continuum of more or less mutually intelligible local and regional variants, the Bavarians as a group formed in the early medieval period, as the population of the Duchy of Bavaria, forming the south-eastern part of the kingdom of Germany. The Old High German documents from the area of Bavaria are identified as Altbairisch, the dialectal separation of Upper German into East Upper German and West Upper German becomes more tangible in the Middle High German period, from about the 12th century. Three main dialect groups in Bavarian are, Northern Bavarian, mainly spoken in Upper Palatinate, southern Bavarian in Tyrol, South Tyrol, Carinthia, Styria, and the southern parts of Salzburg and Burgenland. Differences are clearly noticeable within those three subgroups, which in Austria often coincide with the borders of the particular states, for example, each of the accents of Carinthia, Styria, and Tyrol can be easily recognised. Also, there is a difference between eastern and western central Bavarian, roughly coinciding with the border between Austria and Bavaria. In addition, the Viennese dialect has some characteristics distinguishing it from all other dialects, in Vienna, minor, but recognizable, variations are characteristic for distinct districts of the city. In contrast to other varieties of German, Bavarian differs sufficiently from Standard German to make it difficult for native speakers to adopt standard pronunciation. All educated Bavarians and Austrians, however, can read, write and understand Standard German, in those regions, Standard German is restricted to use as the language of writing and the media. It is therefore referred to as Schriftdeutsch rather than the usual term Hochdeutsch. Bavaria and Austria officially use Standard German as the medium of education. This accent usually only exists in families where Bavarian is spoken regularly, families that do not use Bavarian at home usually use Standard German instead. In Austria, some parts of grammar and spelling are taught in Standard German lessons, as reading and writing in Bavarian is generally not taught at schools, almost all literate speakers of the language prefer to use Standard German for writing. Regional authors and literature may play a role in education as well, although there exist grammars, vocabularies, and a translation of the Bible in Bavarian, there is no common orthographic standard. Poetry is written in various Bavarian dialects, and many pop songs use the language as well, although Bavarian as a spoken language is in daily use in its region, Standard German, often with strong regional influence, is preferred in the mass media. On the use of Bavarian and standard German in Austria see Austrian German, ludwig Thoma is a noted author who wrote works such as Lausbubengeschichten in Bavarian. There is a Bavarian Wikipedia, completely in Bavarian, notes, The phoneme /h/ is frequently realised as or word-internally, while it is realised as word-initially. Intervocalic /s/ can be voiced to, Bavarian has an extensive vowel inventory, as is common for Germanic languages
2. Cimbrian language – Cimbrian refers to any of several local Upper German varieties spoken in northeastern Italy. The speakers of the language are known as Zimbern, Cimbrian is a Germanic language related to Bavarian most probably deriving from a Southern Bavarian dialect. It is also related to the Mócheno language and its many essential differences in grammar as well as in vocabulary and pronunciation make it practically unintelligible for people speaking Standard German or Bavarian. The use of Italian throughout the country and the influence of nearby Venetian have both had large effects on the number of speakers of Cimbrian throughout past centuries and this effect has been large enough to cause Cimbrian to be deemed by some as an endangered language. The earliest record of the movement of Bavarians to Verona dates to ca, the settlement continued during the 11th and 12th centuries. A theory of Lombardic origin of the Zimbern was proposed in 1948 by Bruno Schweizer, the debate was again revived in 2004 by Cimbrian linguist Ermenegildo Bidese. The majority of linguists remains committed to the hypothesis of medieval immigration and this is the likely origin of the current endonym. An alternative hypothesis derives the name from a term for carpenter and it is estimated that about 2,220 people speak Cimbrian. In Trentino, according to the census of 2001, the first in which data on native languages were recorded, in other municipalities of Trentino 615 persons declared themselves members of the Cimbrian linguistic group, a total of 882 in Trentino. Cimbrian is officially recognised in Trentino by provincial and national law, beginning in the 1990s, various laws and regulations have been passed by the Italian parliament and provincial assembly that put the Cimbrian language and culture under protection. School curricula were adapted in order to teach in Cimbrian, a cultural institute was founded by decree in 1987, whose purpose is to. The cultural institute hosts literature competitions for children as well as summer camps. The following description of Cimbrian grammar refers predominantly to the dialect of Lusern, a star represents sounds that are used by those who speak the Lusern dialect outside of Lusern in strictly Italian areas. Diacritics and graphemes common in German and other languages are mostly utilized for sounds that do not exist in Italian, diphthongs are written as in Italian whereby, for example, drai three is written in contrast to the German Drei but is pronounced the same. Is rendered as in standard German as k while the grapheme ch is reserved for the sound, is rendered differently according to dialect, In the Thirteen and Seven communities, is rendered as in Italian - g. If is to be kept before a vowel, the writing must change to gh, in Lusern, is rendered mostly as g, perhaps due to more familiarity with German in Lusern. Though, seeing ghe and ghi is not uncommon, nouns in Cimbrian, as in German and other German dialects, have three genders - masculine, feminine, as well as neuter. Cimbrian makes use of the nominative, dative, and accusative cases, the genitive case was formerly used but has now been replaced with the use of the dative + vo, a similar case which can also be seen in modern German
3. German language – German is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol, the German-speaking Community of Belgium and it is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg. Major languages which are most similar to German include other members of the West Germanic language branch, such as Afrikaans, Dutch, English, Luxembourgish and it is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English. One of the languages of the world, German is the first language of about 95 million people worldwide. The German speaking countries are ranked fifth in terms of publication of new books. German derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family, a portion of German words are derived from Latin and Greek, and fewer are borrowed from French and English. With slightly different standardized variants, German is a pluricentric language, like English, German is also notable for its broad spectrum of dialects, with many unique varieties existing in Europe and also other parts of the world. The history of the German language begins with the High German consonant shift during the migration period, when Martin Luther translated the Bible, he based his translation primarily on the standard bureaucratic language used in Saxony, also known as Meißner Deutsch. Copies of Luthers Bible featured a long list of glosses for each region that translated words which were unknown in the region into the regional dialect. Roman Catholics initially rejected Luthers translation, and tried to create their own Catholic standard of the German language – the difference in relation to Protestant German was minimal. It was not until the middle of the 18th century that a widely accepted standard was created, until about 1800, standard German was mainly a written language, in urban northern Germany, the local Low German dialects were spoken. Standard German, which was different, was often learned as a foreign language with uncertain pronunciation. Northern German pronunciation was considered the standard in prescriptive pronunciation guides though, however, German was the language of commerce and government in the Habsburg Empire, which encompassed a large area of Central and Eastern Europe. Until the mid-19th century, it was essentially the language of townspeople throughout most of the Empire and its use indicated that the speaker was a merchant or someone from an urban area, regardless of nationality. Some cities, such as Prague and Budapest, were gradually Germanized in the years after their incorporation into the Habsburg domain, others, such as Pozsony, were originally settled during the Habsburg period, and were primarily German at that time. Prague, Budapest and Bratislava as well as cities like Zagreb, the most comprehensive guide to the vocabulary of the German language is found within the Deutsches Wörterbuch. This dictionary was created by the Brothers Grimm and is composed of 16 parts which were issued between 1852 and 1860, in 1872, grammatical and orthographic rules first appeared in the Duden Handbook. In 1901, the 2nd Orthographical Conference ended with a standardization of the German language in its written form